End Of Coastal Unit Exam Practice

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End Of Coastal Unit Exam Practice - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Choose the most complete answer to this statement.  Geologists like Dr. Pilkey define a beach as:

    • A.

      A beach is any area of shoreline affected by winds or water.

    • B.

      A beach is any area of shoreline affected by ordinary waves that includes the nearshore sand bar and berm.

    • C.

      A beach is an area of the shoreline that includes the berm and is affected by ordinary waves.

    • D.

      A beach is only the large area near the berm of the shoreline affected by ordinary waves.

    Correct Answer
    B. A beach is any area of shoreline affected by ordinary waves that includes the nearshore sand bar and berm.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A beach is any area of shoreline affected by ordinary waves that includes the nearshore sand bar and berm." This answer is the most complete because it includes all the necessary elements to define a beach - the shoreline, ordinary waves, and the nearshore sand bar and berm. It covers the entire beach area and specifies the factors that contribute to its formation and characteristics.

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  • 2. 

    How does water level affect organisms in the subtidal zone?

    • A.

      Organisms need to be able to breathe water or hold their breath for long periods of time.

    • B.

      Organisms need to adapt to alternating between being exposed or submerged.

    • C.

      Organisms need to adapt to alternating between breathing or being submerged.

    • D.

      Organisms need to adapt to alternating between being submerged or holding their breath for long periods of time.

    Correct Answer
    A. Organisms need to be able to breathe water or hold their breath for long periods of time.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that organisms in the subtidal zone need to be able to breathe water or hold their breath for long periods of time. This is because the water level in the subtidal zone fluctuates, with organisms being submerged at high tide and exposed to air at low tide. Therefore, they must have adaptations that allow them to survive in both submerged and exposed conditions, such as the ability to extract oxygen from water or hold their breath until the tide returns.

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  • 3. 

    IDENTIFY: The two major currents that affect North Carolina's climate.

    • A.

      Laborador/Virginia and the Gulf Stream currents

    • B.

      Gulf of Mexico and Laborador/Virginia currents

    • C.

      Canadian and Gulf of Mexico currents

    • D.

      Coast of Greenland and Gulf Stream currents

    • E.

      Between the swash zone (shoreface where waves break) and the dune

    Correct Answer
    A. Laborador/Virginia and the Gulf Stream currents
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Laborador/Virginia and the Gulf Stream currents. These two major currents have a significant impact on North Carolina's climate. The Laborador/Virginia current is a cold current that flows southward along the coast, bringing cooler temperatures to the region. On the other hand, the Gulf Stream current is a warm current that flows northward offshore, bringing warmer temperatures to the area. The interaction between these two currents influences the temperature and weather patterns in North Carolina.

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  • 4. 

    Choose the best definition of a barrier island.

    • A.

      A Barrier Island is a long, narrow body of sand separated from the mainland by a sound and from other islands by inlets at both ends.

    • B.

      A Barrier Island is a short, wide body of sand separated from the mainland by a sound and from other islands by inlets at both ends.

    • C.

      A Barrier Island is a long, narrow body of sand separated from other islands by a sound.

    • D.

      A Barrier Island is a body of sand separated from the mainland by an inlet.

    Correct Answer
    A. A Barrier Island is a long, narrow body of sand separated from the mainland by a sound and from other islands by inlets at both ends.
    Explanation
    A barrier island is a long, narrow body of sand that is separated from the mainland by a sound and from other islands by inlets at both ends. This definition accurately describes the characteristics of a barrier island, including its shape, composition, and geographical location. The mention of a sound and inlets emphasizes the isolation of the island from the mainland and other islands, further highlighting its unique features.

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  • 5. 

    Why are estuaries considered brackish?

    • A.

      Estuary waters are a mixture of tidewater and longshore current.

    • B.

      Estuary waters are a mixture of soundwater and ocean water.

    • C.

      Estuary waters are a mixture of soundwater and littoral drift.

    • D.

      Estuary waters are a mixture of fresh and salt water.

    Correct Answer
    D. Estuary waters are a mixture of fresh and salt water.
    Explanation
    Estuaries are considered brackish because they are a mixture of fresh and saltwater. This occurs when rivers or streams flow into the ocean, creating a transition zone where the freshwater mixes with the saltwater. The varying levels of salinity in estuaries create a unique environment that supports a diverse range of plant and animal species adapted to these conditions.

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  • 6. 

    The kind of sediment deposited in shoreline habitats depends on:

    • A.

      Estuary deposits

    • B.

      Tidal amplitude

    • C.

      Water turbulence

    • D.

      Coastal plain migration

    Correct Answer
    C. Water turbulence
    Explanation
    Water turbulence refers to the movement and agitation of water caused by various factors such as waves, currents, and wind. In shoreline habitats, water turbulence plays a significant role in determining the type of sediment that gets deposited. High levels of turbulence result in the deposition of coarser sediments such as sand and gravel, while low levels of turbulence lead to the deposition of finer sediments like silt and clay. Therefore, the kind of sediment deposited in shoreline habitats is directly influenced by the level of water turbulence present in the area.

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  • 7. 

    What is a berm and where is it found?

    • A.

      The back dune end of the supratidal zone

    • B.

      The movement of sand offshore during a storm

    • C.

      The supratidal ledge of sand at the high tide line

    • D.

      The edge of the swash (shoreface where waves break) zone

    Correct Answer
    C. The supratidal ledge of sand at the high tide line
    Explanation
    A berm is a supratidal ledge of sand that is found at the high tide line. It is a natural feature that is formed by the deposition of sand and other sediments by wave action. The berm acts as a barrier, helping to protect the land behind it from erosion and flooding caused by high tides and storms. It is an important part of the coastal ecosystem and provides habitat for various plants and animals.

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  • 8. 

    What is the average salinity of the ocean?

    • A.

      35 ppt

    • B.

      55 ppt

    • C.

      15 ppt

    • D.

      25 ppt

    Correct Answer
    A. 35 ppt
    Explanation
    The average salinity of the ocean is 35 ppt. Salinity refers to the concentration of salt in water, and ppt stands for parts per thousand. This means that for every 1000 parts of water, there are 35 parts of salt. Salinity in the ocean can vary depending on factors such as evaporation, precipitation, and freshwater input from rivers. However, on average, the salinity is approximately 35 ppt.

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  • 9. 

    What kind of sediment settle in the sound?

    • A.

      Fine silt

    • B.

      Loam

    • C.

      Coarse sand

    • D.

      Clay

    Correct Answer
    A. Fine silt
    Explanation
    Fine silt is the type of sediment that settles in the sound. Silt particles are smaller than sand particles but larger than clay particles. They have a smooth texture and can be easily transported by water. In a sound, where water movement is relatively calm, fine silt particles have the opportunity to settle and accumulate over time. This sediment type is commonly found in estuaries and coastal areas where rivers meet the ocean.

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  • 10. 

    What kind of sediments settle on the ocean beach?

    • A.

      Silt

    • B.

      Gravel

    • C.

      Coarse sand

    • D.

      Clay

    Correct Answer
    C. Coarse sand
    Explanation
    Coarse sand is the correct answer because it is the type of sediment that commonly settles on the ocean beach. Coarse sand particles are larger in size compared to silt and clay, and they are often found in abundance on beaches due to the action of waves and currents. Gravel, although also found on some beaches, is less common than coarse sand.

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  • 11. 

    Ocean beach habitats have three distinct zones:

    • A.

      The subtidal zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the intertidal zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy supratidal zone extending to the base of the sand dunes.

    • B.

      The ocean zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the salt marsh zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy sand dune zone extending to the base of the sand dunes.

    • C.

      The shoreface zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the intertidal zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy subtidal zone extending to the base of the sand dunes.

    • D.

      The supratidal zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the intertidal zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy subtidal zone extending to the base of the sand dunes.

    Correct Answer
    A. The subtidal zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the intertidal zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy supratidal zone extending to the base of the sand dunes.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the subtidal zone of crashing breakers with swirling sand and shallow water; the intertidal zone, alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters; and the dry, sandy supratidal zone extending to the base of the sand dunes. This answer accurately describes the three distinct zones found in ocean beach habitats. The subtidal zone refers to the area below the low tide mark where the waves crash and the water is shallow. The intertidal zone is the area between the high and low tide marks that is alternately covered and exposed by tidal waters. The supratidal zone is the area above the high tide mark and extends to the base of the sand dunes.

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  • 12. 

    Oxygen is plentiful in the ocean beach habitat because of which three factors:

    • A.

      Wind coming off the ocean, the presence of water coming in with the tides and in the space between the sand sediment.

    • B.

      The presence of water coming in with the tides, salt spray and plants.

    • C.

      The wind coming off the ocean, salt spray and plants.

    • D.

      The wind coming off the ocean, the presence of water coming in with the tides and plants.

    Correct Answer
    A. Wind coming off the ocean, the presence of water coming in with the tides and in the space between the sand sediment.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the wind coming off the ocean, the presence of water coming in with the tides, and in the space between the sand sediment. This is because the wind brings oxygen from the atmosphere, the water coming in with the tides contains dissolved oxygen, and the space between the sand sediment allows for oxygen diffusion from the water into the sediment.

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  • 13. 

    Debris and detritus are deposited ___________________

    • A.

      At the high tide line.

    • B.

      At the shoreline.

    • C.

      Along the shoreface.

    • D.

      In the intertidal zone.

    Correct Answer
    A. At the high tide line.
    Explanation
    Debris and detritus are deposited at the high tide line because this is the area where the highest point of the tide reaches on the shoreline. As the tide rises, it carries along with it various materials such as seaweed, shells, and other organic matter which get deposited at the high tide line. This area is easily distinguishable as it marks the highest point reached by the tide before it recedes again.

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  • 14. 

    Phytoplankton are_______________________

    • A.

      Free floating microscopic plants that are the basis of the marine food chain.

    • B.

      Free floating microscopic animals that are the basis of the marine food chain.

    • C.

      Free floating microscopic scavengers that support the marine food chain.

    • D.

      Diatoms that cause red tide and are toxic to the marine food chain.

    Correct Answer
    A. Free floating microscopic plants that are the basis of the marine food chain.
    Explanation
    Phytoplankton are free floating microscopic plants that are the basis of the marine food chain. They are responsible for producing most of the oxygen in the atmosphere through photosynthesis and serve as a primary food source for many marine organisms. They play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of marine ecosystems and are essential for the survival of other organisms in the food chain.

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  • 15. 

    Most supratidal animals are ____________ that feed on debris and detritus along the strand line.

    • A.

      Scavengers

    • B.

      Decomposers

    • C.

      Producers

    • D.

      Herbivores

    Correct Answer
    A. Scavengers
    Explanation
    Supratidal animals are those that live above the high tide line, where they have access to debris and detritus. Scavengers are organisms that feed on dead or decaying organic matter, making them well-suited to this environment. They play an important role in breaking down and recycling organic material, helping to maintain the ecosystem's balance. Decomposers, producers, and herbivores are not specifically mentioned in the context of supratidal animals and their feeding habits.

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  • 16. 

    What is a gastropod?

    • A.

      A gastropod is a mollusk that has one shell. It is a marine snail.

    • B.

      A gastropod is a mollusk that has two shells it is a bivalve or pelecypod with a strong muscular foot.

    • C.

      A gastropod is a mollusk that attaches itself to hard substrate to survive.

    • D.

      A gastropod is a mollusk that has an internal shell like a squid.

    Correct Answer
    A. A gastropod is a mollusk that has one shell. It is a marine snail.
    Explanation
    A gastropod is a type of mollusk that has one shell. It is specifically referred to as a marine snail.

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  • 17. 

    Identify a key adaptation of the mole crab and coquina clam for living in the in the ocean beach intertidal zone:

    • A.

      Both organisms burrow rapidly into the sand. The coquina clam burrows as a wave recedes. The mole card burrows backward each time a wave advances.

    • B.

      Both organisms ride the surf to avoid the receding or advancing waves.

    • C.

      Both organisms hibernate to avoid the receding or advancing waves.

    • D.

      Though born on the ocean side of the barrier island, both organisms move to the sound to avoid the receding or advancing waves.

    Correct Answer
    A. Both organisms burrow rapidly into the sand. The coquina clam burrows as a wave recedes. The mole card burrows backward each time a wave advances.
    Explanation
    Both the mole crab and coquina clam have adapted to living in the ocean beach intertidal zone by burrowing rapidly into the sand. The coquina clam burrows as a wave recedes, while the mole crab burrows backward each time a wave advances. This adaptation allows them to avoid being washed away by the waves and provides them with protection from predators. By burrowing into the sand, they can also maintain a stable environment and access food sources that are found within the sand.

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  • 18. 

    Strong winds effect the ocean beach habitat. Strong winds (of at least 10 mph) cause fine sand particles to bounce and mound into piles this is called:

    • A.

      Saltation.

    • B.

      Transpiration.

    • C.

      Ocean waves.

    • D.

      Mineralization.

    Correct Answer
    A. Saltation.
    Explanation
    Strong winds can cause the fine sand particles on an ocean beach to bounce and mound into piles. This process is known as saltation. Transpiration refers to the process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere. Ocean waves are the result of the wind's interaction with the surface of the ocean. Mineralization refers to the process of converting organic matter into minerals.

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  • 19. 

    Tides- the twice daily high and low flow of water onto and into a low lying shore area caused by the:

    • A.

      Moon and sun’s gravitational pull on Earth.

    • B.

      Moon's gravitational pull on Earth.

    • C.

      Sun’s gravitational pull on Earth.

    • D.

      The oceans wave energy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Moon and sun’s gravitational pull on Earth.
    Explanation
    The tides are caused by the gravitational pull of both the moon and the sun on Earth. The moon's gravitational force is stronger than the sun's, which leads to the dominant influence of the moon on tides. As the moon orbits around the Earth, it creates a gravitational force that causes the water on the side of the Earth facing the moon to be pulled towards it, creating a high tide. At the same time, there is a high tide on the opposite side of the Earth due to the centrifugal force created by the Earth-moon system. The sun also exerts a gravitational force on Earth, although it is weaker than the moon's. The combined gravitational pull of the moon and the sun causes the twice-daily high and low flow of water, resulting in tides.

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  • 20. 

    Ghost crabs are unique organisms that live in deep tunnels with front and back entrances. They rarely leave their burrow during the day. Though they live in the dunes, the female deposits eggs in the ocean and the young develop there. How do ghost crabs breathe?

    • A.

      Ghost crabs breathe through gills which must be wet with ocean water daily.

    • B.

      Once ghost crabs come on land, they breathe air.

    • C.

      Ghost crabs breathe both air and water because they were born in the ocean and as adults live in the supratidal zone.

    • D.

      Ghost crabs breathe air only. As young in the ocean they came to the surface for air and continued to do so when moving to the supratidal zone.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ghost crabs breathe through gills which must be wet with ocean water daily.
    Explanation
    Ghost crabs have gills that need to be moistened with ocean water on a daily basis in order for them to breathe. This suggests that they primarily rely on extracting oxygen from the water through their gills. However, once they come onto land, they switch to breathing air. This adaptation allows them to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments.

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  • 21. 

    The action of ____________________ sweeps larger shell particles and sand across the substrate surface, sometimes causing abrasions or burying plants and animals.

    • A.

      Waves

    • B.

      Tides

    • C.

      Longshore current

    • D.

      Winds

    Correct Answer
    A. Waves
    Explanation
    Waves have the ability to move larger shell particles and sand across the substrate surface due to their strong force. This movement can sometimes lead to abrasions or burying of plants and animals. Waves can be powerful and their constant motion can cause significant changes in the coastal environment.

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  • 22. 

    Identify the event shown in the image.

    • A.

      Birth of an inlet

    • B.

      Nor'easter wind tide

    • C.

      Formation of a tidal delta

    • D.

      Spring tide

    Correct Answer
    A. Birth of an inlet
    Explanation
    The event shown in the image is the "Birth of an inlet." This term refers to the formation of a new waterway or channel that connects a body of water, such as a river or ocean, to a previously landlocked area. It typically occurs due to natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation, or changes in water flow. In the image, we can see the creation of a new inlet where the land is being eroded and water is flowing into the previously dry area.

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  • 23. 

    Identify the season beach change shown in the diagram below:

    • A.

      Spring

    • B.

      Summer

    • C.

      Winter

    • D.

      Fall

    Correct Answer
    B. Summer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Summer because the diagram likely shows a beach scene with sunny weather, people swimming in the water, and trees with full foliage. These are all typical characteristics of the summer season.

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  • 24. 

    How deep/thick are Barrier Islands?

    • A.

      30 - 60 feet

    • B.

      10 - 20 feet

    • C.

      20 - 40 feet

    • D.

      40 - 70 feet

    Correct Answer
    A. 30 - 60 feet
    Explanation
    Barrier islands are typically formed by the accumulation of sand and sediment over time. They are long, narrow strips of land that run parallel to the mainland coast. The depth or thickness of barrier islands can vary, but on average, they are known to be around 30 to 60 feet deep. This depth is a result of the deposition of sand and sediment by waves and currents, as well as the natural processes of erosion and accretion. The specific depth can also be influenced by factors such as tides, storms, and the overall geology of the area.

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  • 25. 

    Identify this hard stabilization image and what occurs as a result of its presence:

    • A.

      It is a seawall. As as result of its presence, wave energy is redirected which enhances the erosion of both the front and sides of the wall.

    • B.

      It is a groin. As as result of its presence, wave energy is redirected which enhances the erosion of the front of the wall.

    • C.

      It is a jetty. As as result of its presence, wave energy is redirected which enhances the erosion of the front of the wall.

    • D.

      It is a breakwater.

    • E.

      Littoral current.

    Correct Answer
    A. It is a seawall. As as result of its presence, wave energy is redirected which enhances the erosion of both the front and sides of the wall.
    Explanation
    A seawall is a hard stabilization structure that is built parallel to the coastline to protect land from erosion by redirecting wave energy. However, the presence of a seawall can also lead to increased erosion of both the front and sides of the wall. This occurs because the redirected wave energy causes increased turbulence and scouring, which can undermine the stability of the wall and lead to erosion.

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  • 26. 

    Identify the kind of hard stabilization shown in this photo:

    • A.

      This kind of hard stabilization is a groin.

    • B.

      This kind of hard stabilization is a jetty.

    • C.

      This kind of hard stabilization is a seawall.

    • D.

      This kind of hard stabilization is a breakwater.

    • E.

      Littoral current.

    Correct Answer
    A. This kind of hard stabilization is a groin.
  • 27. 

    Identify this structure:

    • A.

      Seawall

    • B.

      Jetty

    • C.

      Groin

    • D.

      Breakers

    Correct Answer
    A. Seawall
    Explanation
    A seawall is a structure built along the shoreline to protect land from erosion caused by waves and tides. It is typically made of concrete or stone and is designed to withstand the force of the water. Seawalls are usually built parallel to the coastline and act as a barrier, preventing the waves from reaching the land. They are commonly found in areas where there is a high risk of coastal erosion and are used to protect coastal communities, infrastructure, and beaches.

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  • 28. 

    What is littoral drift?

    • A.

      The movement of sand by the long shore current along the shoreline.

    • B.

      The tidal accumulation of sand parallel to the island.

    • C.

      The tidal flow of sand into the sound accumulating in a flood tidal delta.

    • D.

      The tidal movement of sand along the sound side of the island.

    Correct Answer
    A. The movement of sand by the long shore current along the shoreline.
    Explanation
    Littoral drift refers to the movement of sand along the shoreline caused by the long shore current. This current runs parallel to the shore and carries sand and sediment in a zigzag pattern. As the waves approach the shore at an angle, they create a current that moves sediment along the coast. This process is responsible for shaping and reshaping beaches and coastal landforms over time.

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  • 29. 

    Maritime forest is critical to the stabilization of an island because it is efficient at retaining two key growth elements.

    • A.

      Detritus and Rainfall

    • B.

      Rainfall and Nutrients

    • C.

      Nutrients and Salt

    • D.

      Detritus and Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    B. Rainfall and Nutrients
    Explanation
    Maritime forests play a crucial role in stabilizing islands due to their ability to retain rainfall and nutrients. Rainfall is important as it helps to provide moisture for the plants and trees in the forest, supporting their growth and survival. Nutrients, on the other hand, are essential for the plants to obtain the necessary minerals and elements for their development. The combination of rainfall and nutrients ensures that the maritime forest can thrive and contribute to the stability of the island ecosystem.

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  • 30. 

    On which side of the maritime forest is there evidence of the effects of salt spray on trees and shrubs?

    • A.

      The seaward side.

    • B.

      The leeward side.

    • C.

      The sand shadow side.

    • D.

      The sound side.

    Correct Answer
    A. The seaward side.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the seaward side. The effects of salt spray on trees and shrubs can be observed on the side facing the sea. The salt spray carried by the wind from the ocean can cause damage to vegetation, resulting in stunted growth, leaf discoloration, and even death of plants. This is because salt can accumulate in the soil and interfere with the plant's ability to take up water and nutrients. Therefore, the seaward side of the maritime forest is where evidence of the effects of salt spray on trees and shrubs can be found.

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  • 31. 

    What does the presence of a maritime forest indicate about a barrier island?

    • A.

      The island is wide.

    • B.

      It has a high dune.

    • C.

      It is migrating landward.

    • D.

      The island has been overwashed many times.

    Correct Answer
    A. The island is wide.
    Explanation
    The presence of a maritime forest indicates that the barrier island is wide. Maritime forests are typically found on wide barrier islands where there is enough space for vegetation to grow and thrive. These forests are characterized by trees and shrubs that can withstand the harsh coastal conditions, such as salt spray and high winds. Therefore, the presence of a maritime forest suggests that the island has enough width to support the growth of vegetation and provide a suitable habitat for a diverse range of plant species.

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  • 32. 

    Identify the two forces that caused the barrier spits to become islands:

    • A.

      Storm events that separated the spits from their sand supply and gradual sea level rise in the high latitudes that flooded the coastal lowlands behind the sand spit dune ridges.

    • B.

      Gradual sea level rise in the high latitudes that flooded the coastal lowlands behind the sand spit dune ridges and wave erosion caused the beach front to erode, the island to migrate quicker than the mainland retreated.

    • C.

      Wave erosion caused the beach front to erode, the island to migrate quicker than the mainland retreated and the longshore current added sand to the inlets, creating tidal deltas that added to the backside of the islands.

    • D.

      The longshore current added sand to the inlets, creating tidal deltas that added to the backside of the islands and storm events that separated the spits from their sand supply

    Correct Answer
    A. Storm events that separated the spits from their sand supply and gradual sea level rise in the high latitudes that flooded the coastal lowlands behind the sand spit dune ridges.
    Explanation
    Storm events that separated the spits from their sand supply and gradual sea level rise in the high latitudes that flooded the coastal lowlands behind the sand spit dune ridges are the two forces that caused the barrier spits to become islands. The storm events caused the spits to be separated from their source of sand, while the gradual sea level rise flooded the coastal lowlands behind the spits, turning them into islands.

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  • 33. 

    The deep root system of American Beach grass and Sea Oats help these plants avoid _________________ & _________________.

    • A.

      Predators and Evaporation

    • B.

      Transpiration and Predators

    • C.

      Dehydration and Evaporation

    • D.

      Transpiration and Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    C. Dehydration and Evaporation
    Explanation
    The deep root system of American Beach grass and Sea Oats help these plants avoid dehydration and evaporation. The deep roots allow the plants to access water from deeper soil layers, reducing the risk of dehydration. Additionally, the deep roots also help in absorbing water from the soil, minimizing the loss of water through evaporation from the surface. This adaptation enables the plants to survive in coastal environments with high temperatures and exposure to saltwater.

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  • 34. 

    What is the effect of salt spray on back dune trees and shrubs?

    • A.

      Salt spray from wind kills back the tips of the tree and shrub branches causing them to look sheard and grow stunted and twisted.

    • B.

      Salt spray from wind nourishes the trees and shrubs causing their leaves to grow long and wide.

    • C.

      Salt spray from wind prevents trees and shrubs from growing on the back dune.

    • D.

      Dune plants: are evergreen plants with thin, needle like leaves tSalt spray from wind protects the trees and shrubs with a layer of salt covering.hat can tolerate wind, water and salt.

    Correct Answer
    A. Salt spray from wind kills back the tips of the tree and shrub branches causing them to look sheard and grow stunted and twisted.
    Explanation
    Salt spray from wind kills back the tips of the tree and shrub branches causing them to look sheared and grow stunted and twisted. This is because salt spray contains high levels of salt, which is detrimental to the growth and health of plants. The salt damages the tissues of the branches, leading to their death and causing the plants to appear sheared and distorted. Additionally, the salt can also hinder the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants, further stunting their growth.

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  • 35. 

    Identify the three major forces that effects the row of dunes nearest the ocean:

    • A.

      Strong winds, whipping sands, glaring sun.

    • B.

      Strong winds, waves, and whipping sand.

    • C.

      Strong waves, glaring sun and whipping sands.

    Correct Answer
    A. Strong winds, whipping sands, glaring sun.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Strong winds, whipping sands, glaring sun." These three forces are the major factors that affect the row of dunes nearest the ocean. Strong winds can shape and move the sand, while whipping sands can erode and reshape the dunes. The glaring sun can also contribute to the drying and shifting of the sand, further affecting the formation and stability of the dunes.

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  • 36. 

    Nitrogen is scarce on the dunes because:

    • A.

      There is little or no decaying plant and animal material to enrich the dunes.

    • B.

      There is too much Oxygen.

    • C.

      There is too much Hydrogen and Oxygen.

    • D.

      The organisms in a dune habitat consume more Nitrogen then they produce.

    Correct Answer
    A. There is little or no decaying plant and animal material to enrich the dunes.
    Explanation
    The reason why nitrogen is scarce on the dunes is because there is little or no decaying plant and animal material to enrich the dunes. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and it is typically obtained from the decomposition of organic matter. In the absence of decaying material, there is a lack of nitrogen available for plants to take up and use for their growth and development.

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  • 37. 

    Why is Oxygen plentiful in the dune habitat?

    • A.

      Ocean breezes provide steady in flow of wind.

    • B.

      Dune plants provide Oxygen to the dune.

    • C.

      Ocean spray provides Oxygen in the water that mists the dunes.

    • D.

      All of these.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ocean breezes provide steady in flow of wind.
    Explanation
    Ocean breezes provide a steady inflow of wind to the dune habitat. This wind carries oxygen molecules from the ocean and disperses them throughout the dune area. As a result, oxygen becomes plentiful in the dune habitat.

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  • 38. 

    Why are dunes made of finer sand than the beaches?

    • A.

      Waves deposit the fine sand on to the dune.

    • B.

      Saltation carries only the finest of beach sand.

    • C.

      Saltation mixes salt with sand making it more fine.

    • D.

      Fine sand is more porous

    Correct Answer
    B. Saltation carries only the finest of beach sand.
    Explanation
    Saltation is the process by which sand grains are transported by wind in a bouncing or hopping motion. This process tends to carry only the finest sand grains, as larger grains are too heavy to be lifted and transported effectively. Therefore, dunes, which are formed by the accumulation of wind-blown sand, are made up of finer sand particles compared to the beaches where larger grains can be found.

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  • 39. 

    What is surface creep?

    • A.

      Surface creep occurs when saltating grains of sand strike heavier grains larger than one millimeter in diameter causing the heavier grains a slight forward movement along the surface.

    • B.

      Surface creep occurs when saltating grains of sand strike finer grains smaller than one millimeter in diameter causing the finer grains a slight forward movement along the surface.

    • C.

      Surface creep occurs when saltating grains of sand strike heavier grains larger than one millimeter in diameter causing the finer grains a slight forward movement along the surface.

    • D.

      Surface creep occurs when saltating grains of sand strike heavier grains larger than one millimeter in diameter causing the heavier grains to suspend in the air from their movement along the surface.

    Correct Answer
    A. Surface creep occurs when saltating grains of sand strike heavier grains larger than one millimeter in diameter causing the heavier grains a slight forward movement along the surface.
    Explanation
    Surface creep refers to the phenomenon where saltating grains of sand, which are grains that are bouncing or hopping along the surface due to wind or water movement, collide with heavier grains that are larger than one millimeter in diameter. This collision causes the heavier grains to experience a slight forward movement along the surface.

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  • 40. 

    What is the "fluid threshold" of saltation?

    • A.

      Fluid threshold is the wind speed necessary for sand to start saltating under the direct pressure of the wind.

    • B.

      Fluid threshold is the wind speed necessary to maintain saltation once it has begun

    • C.

      Fluid threshold is how all the surfaces respond to each other as they move.

    • D.

      Fluid threshold is wind speeds above 20 mph that occur above the windy side of a dune.

    Correct Answer
    A. Fluid threshold is the wind speed necessary for sand to start saltating under the direct pressure of the wind.
    Explanation
    The fluid threshold of saltation refers to the wind speed required for sand to begin saltating, which means to be lifted and moved by the wind under direct pressure. This is the point at which the sand particles become airborne and start to bounce and skip along the ground. The fluid threshold is not about maintaining saltation once it has started, how surfaces respond to each other, or wind speeds above 20 mph on the windy side of a dune.

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  • 41. 

    What makes sand accumulate into piles rather than spread out evenly over an area?

    • A.

      Sand tends to accumulate any place where there is a sufficient reduction of wind energy in the direction that sand drifts in and any obstacle, such as a rock outcrop or a stand of vegetation, forces sand accumulation by lowering the wind speed.

    • B.

      Sand tends to accumulate any place where there is a abundant wind velocity in the direction that sand drifts in and any obstacle, such as a rock outcrop or a stand of vegetation, forces sand accumulation by lowering the wind speed.

    • C.

      Sand tends to accumulate any place where there is a sufficient reduction of sand in the sand drifts in and any obstacle, such as a rock outcrop or a stand of vegetation, forces sand accumulation by sustaining the wind speed.

    • D.

      Sand tends to accumulate any place where there is a sufficient reduction of sand in the sand drifts in and any obstacle, such as a rock outcrop or a stand of vegetation, forces sand accumulation by lowering the wind speed.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sand tends to accumulate any place where there is a sufficient reduction of wind energy in the direction that sand drifts in and any obstacle, such as a rock outcrop or a stand of vegetation, forces sand accumulation by lowering the wind speed.
    Explanation
    Sand tends to accumulate into piles rather than spread out evenly over an area because when there is a sufficient reduction of wind energy in the direction that sand drifts in, and there are obstacles such as rock outcrops or stands of vegetation, the wind speed is lowered. This reduction in wind speed allows the sand particles to settle and accumulate in these areas, forming piles. The obstacles act as barriers, disrupting the flow of wind and causing the sand to accumulate in their vicinity.

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  • 42. 

    Identify the sides of a dune.  #1 ____________  and  #2 _____________

    • A.

      #1 Leeward and # 2 Windward

    • B.

      #1 Windward and # 2 Leeward

    • C.

      #1 Windward and # 2 Saltation

    • D.

      #1 Sand Shadow and # 2 Leeward

    Correct Answer
    A. #1 Leeward and # 2 Windward
    Explanation
    The sides of a dune are commonly referred to as the leeward side and the windward side. The leeward side is the side of the dune that is sheltered from the wind and is typically less steep. The windward side, on the other hand, is the side that faces the oncoming wind and is usually steeper and more exposed to erosion.

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  • 43. 

    What is a  ‘sand shadow’ and how is it formed? 

    • A.

      A sand shadow is formed on the leeward side of the dune as that side is starved of sand and its steep shear cliff that creates a shadow.

    • B.

      A sand shadow is formed on the windward side of the dune as that side is starved of sand and its steep shear cliff that creates a shadow.

    • C.

      A sand shadow is formed on the leeward side of the dune as that side has a steep shear cliff that creates a shadow.

    • D.

      A sand shadow is formed on the ocean side of the dune during saltation when the scarp creates a shadow.

    Correct Answer
    A. A sand shadow is formed on the leeward side of the dune as that side is starved of sand and its steep shear cliff that creates a shadow.
    Explanation
    A sand shadow is formed on the leeward side of the dune because this side is deprived of sand, resulting in a steep shear cliff that creates a shadow.

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  • 44. 

    Spartina alterniflora (marsh cordgrass) is the most abundant and ecologically most important large plant of the marsh. What makes it so important?

    • A.

      Salt tolerant

    • B.

      Grows quickly

    • C.

      Predator tolerant

    • D.

      Wind and wave tolerant

    Correct Answer
    A. Salt tolerant
    Explanation
    Spartina alterniflora, also known as marsh cordgrass, is considered the most abundant and ecologically important large plant of the marsh due to its salt tolerance. This means that it can thrive in environments with high salt content, such as coastal areas or marshes. This ability allows it to outcompete other plant species and establish itself as a dominant species in these habitats. Its salt tolerance also enables it to provide important ecosystem services, such as stabilizing and protecting coastal areas from erosion.

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  • 45. 

    Why do marshes have that characteristically rotten egg odor?

    • A.

      Decomposition uses much oxygen while releasing hydrogen sulfide. The reduced oxygen level combined with the release of hydrogen sulfide gives the marsh a rotten egg odor.

    • B.

      Decomposition uses much carbon dioxide while releasing hydrogen sulfide. The reduced carbon dioxide level combined with the release of hydrogen sulfide gives the marsh a rotten egg odor.

    • C.

      Decomposition uses much hydrogen while releasing carbon dioxide. The reduced hydrogen level combined with the release of carbon dioxide gives the marsh a rotten egg odor.

    • D.

      Decomposition uses much hydrogen while releasing sulfur. The reduced hydrogen level combined with the release of sulfur gives the marsh a rotten egg odor.

    Correct Answer
    A. Decomposition uses much oxygen while releasing hydrogen sulfide. The reduced oxygen level combined with the release of hydrogen sulfide gives the marsh a rotten egg odor.
    Explanation
    The marshes have a characteristically rotten egg odor because decomposition in the marshes uses up a lot of oxygen and releases hydrogen sulfide. The reduced oxygen level in combination with the release of hydrogen sulfide creates the unpleasant smell.

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  • 46. 

    Which statement describes what this diagram shows is happening with barrier island migration from images A-1 through A-3 ?

    • A.

      The diagram shows how sea level rise causes barrier islands to migration upslope toward the mainland on the continental shelf.

    • B.

      The diagram shows the formation of a barrier island on the continental slope.

    • C.

      The diagram rising sea level erosion of a barrier islands on the continental slope.

    • D.

      The diagram shows the migration of a barrier island.

    Correct Answer
    A. The diagram shows how sea level rise causes barrier islands to migration upslope toward the mainland on the continental shelf.
    Explanation
    The diagram shows the process of barrier island migration caused by sea level rise. It demonstrates how the islands move upslope towards the mainland on the continental shelf.

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  • 47. 

    Substrate is:

    • A.

      Bottom material ocean organisms live in or on.

    • B.

      Bottom material found in the ocean.

    • C.

      Bottom material organisms live in or on.

    • D.

      Subtidal nutrients.

    Correct Answer
    C. Bottom material organisms live in or on.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Bottom material organisms live in or on." This answer accurately defines substrate as the material at the bottom of the ocean where organisms live or attach themselves to. It implies that substrate provides a habitat or support for the organisms, indicating a symbiotic relationship between the organisms and the bottom material.

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  • 48. 

    Match the location where the intertidal zone is found.

    • A.

      The intertidal zone is between the high and low tide lines.

    • B.

      The intertidal zone is above the high tide line.

    • C.

      The intertidal zone is below the high tide line.

    • D.

      The intertidal zone is between the sand bar and the berm.

    • E.

      The intertidal zone is between the swash zone (shoreface where waves break) and the dune.

    Correct Answer
    A. The intertidal zone is between the high and low tide lines.
    Explanation
    The intertidal zone is the area that is exposed to air at low tide and covered by water at high tide. It is the region between the high and low tide lines, where organisms are adapted to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial conditions. This zone experiences regular fluctuations in temperature, salinity, and moisture levels, creating a challenging environment for organisms to inhabit.

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  • 49. 

    Match the location where the subtidal zone is found.

    • A.

      The subtidal zone is between the high and low tide lines.

    • B.

      The subtidal zone is above the high tide line.

    • C.

      The subtidal zone is always covered by water, below the low tide water line.

    • D.

      The subtidal zone is between the sand bar and the berm.

    • E.

      The subtidal zone is between the swash zone (shoreface where waves break) and the dune.

    Correct Answer
    C. The subtidal zone is always covered by water, below the low tide water line.
    Explanation
    The subtidal zone is always covered by water, below the low tide water line. This means that even at low tide, the subtidal zone remains submerged. It is located below the low tide water line, which is the point where the water recedes to during low tide. This distinguishes the subtidal zone from the intertidal zone, which is the area between the high and low tide lines and is exposed to air during low tide. The subtidal zone is characterized by a constant presence of water, making it an important habitat for marine organisms.

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  • 50. 

    Match the location where the supratidal zone is found.

    • A.

      The supratidal zone is between the high and low tide lines

    • B.

      The supratidal zone is above the high tide line.

    • C.

      The supratidal zone is below the high tide line.

    • D.

      The supratidal zone is between the sand bar and the berm.

    • E.

      The supratidal zone is between the swash zone (shoreface where waves break) and the dune.

    Correct Answer
    B. The supratidal zone is above the high tide line.
    Explanation
    The supratidal zone is the area above the high tide line. This means that it is located above the point where the highest tide reaches during a tidal cycle. It is the highest part of the intertidal zone and is only exposed to air during low tide. The supratidal zone is characterized by its dry conditions and is often influenced by wind and wave action. It is home to organisms that are adapted to survive in this harsh environment, such as specialized plants and insects.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 27, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Rhaveno
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