Earth Science Quiz On Weathering And Erosion! Trivia

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Earth Science Quiz On Weathering And Erosion! Trivia - Quiz


Curious about Earth Science? What do you think about taking this quiz on weathering and erosion for earth science? Weathering is the breakdown of rocks, soil, minerals, wood, and artificial items through contact with water, atmospheric gases, and biological organisms. Erosion entails the transport of rocks and minerals such as water, ice, snow, wind, and waves. This quiz will teach you more about weathering and erosion. You can do it.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the four agents of erosion?

    • A.

      Gravity, soil, landslides, water

    • B.

      Wind, water, landslides, air

    • C.

      Gravity, glaciers, wind, water

    • D.

      Glaciers, gravity, air, soil

    Correct Answer
    C. Gravity, glaciers, wind, water
    Explanation
    The correct answer is gravity, glaciers, wind, water. These four agents of erosion play significant roles in shaping the Earth's surface. Gravity causes materials to move downhill, leading to erosion and the formation of landforms. Glaciers erode the land as they move, carving out valleys and creating features like moraines and cirques. Wind erosion occurs when wind picks up and transports loose particles, wearing away rocks and shaping desert landscapes. Water erosion, through processes like rivers and waves, carves out canyons, valleys, and coastlines. Together, these agents of erosion contribute to the continuous reshaping of the Earth's surface.

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  • 2. 

    How do some farming and ranching practices increase soil erosion?

    • A.

      By clearing plants.

    • B.

      By allowing water to go on the land.

    • C.

      By letting the land die and buring the crops.

    • D.

      By clearing plants or allowing animals to overgraze destroys this groundcover.

    • E.

      By removing all the horizons in the soil and letting bedrocks form.

    Correct Answer
    D. By clearing plants or allowing animals to overgraze destroys this groundcover.
    Explanation
    Some farming and ranching practices increase soil erosion by clearing plants or allowing animals to overgraze, which destroys the groundcover. The groundcover, consisting of plants and vegetation, plays a crucial role in preventing soil erosion. It helps to stabilize the soil, reducing the impact of raindrops and wind on the surface. When plants are cleared or overgrazed, the protective groundcover is removed, leaving the soil exposed to erosion by water and wind. This can lead to the loss of topsoil, nutrient depletion, and degradation of agricultural land.

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  • 3. 

    Running water is the most effective agent of erosion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Running water is the most effective agent of erosion. Water flowing over the Earth's surface can wear away rocks, soil, and other materials, shaping the landscape over time. The force of running water can carry sediment and rocks downstream, causing erosion in riverbeds, valleys, and canyons. It can also create features like waterfalls and gorges. Therefore, it is correct to say that running water is the most effective agent of erosion.

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  • 4. 

    What are five examples of mass movements?

    • A.

      Creeps, talus's, avalanche, streams, mudflow.

    • B.

      Avalanche, mudflow, landslide, dune.

    • C.

      Gullying, creep, talus, landslide, earthquake.

    • D.

      Avalanche, mudflow, creep, landslide, slump.

    Correct Answer
    D. Avalanche, mudflow, creep, landslide, slump.
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes five examples of mass movements: avalanche, mudflow, creep, landslide, and slump. These are all different types of mass movements that occur in various geological settings. An avalanche is a rapid flow of snow down a slope, while a mudflow is a fast-moving flow of mud or debris. Creep refers to the slow, gradual movement of soil or rock downhill. A landslide is the sudden movement of a mass of rock, soil, or debris down a slope. Lastly, a slump is a rotational movement of a mass of rock or soil along a curved surface.

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  • 5. 

    Definition of creep.

    • A.

      Very, very slow down slope movement of rocks. (no water needed)

    • B.

      Very, very slow down slope movement of soil. (water in soil adds to it)

    • C.

      Very, very slow down hill movement of rocks. (no water needed)

    • D.

      Very, very slow dow hill movement of soil. (water in soil adds to it)

    Correct Answer
    B. Very, very slow down slope movement of soil. (water in soil adds to it)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "very, very slow down slope movement of soil. (water in soil adds to it)". This is because creep refers to the gradual movement of soil down a slope, and the presence of water in the soil enhances this movement. It is important to note that creep specifically refers to the movement of soil, not rocks, and it occurs slowly over time.

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  • 6. 

    Three examples of wind erosion.

    • A.

      Sand storms, deflaton, abrasion

    • B.

      Abrasion, erosion, dunes

    • C.

      Dunes, deflation, abrasion

    Correct Answer
    C. Dunes, deflation, abrasion
    Explanation
    Wind erosion refers to the process of wearing away or eroding the Earth's surface by the action of wind. Dunes are formed when wind transports and deposits sand particles, creating mounds or hills. Deflation occurs when wind removes loose surface material, such as soil or sediment, from an area. Abrasion is the process by which windblown particles, such as sand, scrape and wear away rocks and other surfaces. Therefore, the correct answer includes examples that illustrate different aspects of wind erosion: dunes represent deposition, deflation represents removal, and abrasion represents the wearing away of surfaces.

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  • 7. 

    What are the factors that determine soil makeup?

    • A.

      Climate, parent rock, topography, time and vegetation.

    • B.

      Parent rock, climate, topography, time and humus.

    • C.

      Vegetation, parent rock, time, age of soil, pedocals.

    Correct Answer
    A. Climate, parent rock, topography, time and vegetation.
    Explanation
    The factors that determine soil makeup include climate, parent rock, topography, time, and vegetation. Climate influences the weathering and erosion processes that shape the soil. Parent rock determines the mineral composition of the soil. Topography affects the drainage and erosion patterns of the soil. Time allows for the accumulation of organic matter and the development of soil horizons. Vegetation contributes to the input of organic matter and the release of nutrients through decomposition.

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  • 8. 

    Soil made from local bedrock.

    • A.

      Tropical soil.

    • B.

      Arctic soil.

    • C.

      Residual soil.

    Correct Answer
    C. Residual soil.
    Explanation
    Residual soil refers to the soil that forms directly from the weathering of the underlying bedrock. In this case, the given correct answer suggests that the soil is made from local bedrock, indicating that it is residual soil. This type of soil is typically found in areas where the weathering process has been ongoing for a long time, allowing the bedrock to break down and form soil. This explanation aligns with the concept that residual soil is formed in situ, without being transported from another location, unlike other options such as tropical or arctic soil.

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  • 9. 

    Found in the eastern half of the U.S. where amount of rainfall exceeds 25 inches a year, a lot of vegetation and acidic soil.

    • A.

      Pedocal

    • B.

      Desert areas

    • C.

      Pedalfers

    • D.

      Weathered soil

    Correct Answer
    C. Pedalfers
    Explanation
    Pedalfers are a type of soil found in the eastern half of the U.S. where the amount of rainfall exceeds 25 inches a year. These soils are characterized by a lot of vegetation and acidic soil.

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  • 10. 

    Soil that was moved by wind or glacier.

    • A.

      Residual soil

    • B.

      Tropical soil

    • C.

      Transport soil

    Correct Answer
    C. Transport soil
    Explanation
    Transport soil refers to soil that has been moved or transported from its original location by natural forces such as wind or glaciers. This process can result in the deposition of soil in new areas, leading to the formation of transport soil. Unlike residual soil, which remains in its place of origin, transport soil is characterized by its movement and relocation. Tropical soil, on the other hand, refers to soil found in tropical regions and is not directly related to the process of soil transport.

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  • 11. 

    Rock is split or broken into smaller material without changing its composition.

    • A.

      Oxidation

    • B.

      Surface area

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Mechanical weathering

    • E.

      Chemical weathering

    Correct Answer
    D. Mechanical weathering
    Explanation
    Mechanical weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without altering their chemical composition. This process occurs through various mechanisms such as frost wedging, root wedging, and abrasion. In the given explanation, it is stated that rocks are split or broken into smaller material without changing their composition, which aligns with the concept of mechanical weathering. Oxidation, surface area, and chemical weathering involve chemical changes in rocks, while weathering is a general term that encompasses both mechanical and chemical processes.

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  • 12. 

    The breakdown of rock due to exposure to the atmosphere, weather, plants, and animals.

    • A.

      Mechanical weathering

    • B.

      Chemical weathering

    • C.

      Expansion/contraction

    • D.

      Oxidation

    • E.

      Weathering

    Correct Answer
    E. Weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering refers to the process of breaking down rocks and minerals on the Earth's surface. This breakdown is caused by various factors such as exposure to the atmosphere, weather conditions, plants, and animals. Mechanical weathering involves physical forces like wind, water, and ice that break rocks into smaller pieces. Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are chemically altered by substances like water, acids, or gases. Expansion/contraction refers to the process where rocks expand and contract due to temperature changes, causing them to weaken and break. Oxidation is a type of chemical weathering where rocks react with oxygen, leading to the formation of rust. Overall, weathering encompasses all these processes that contribute to the breakdown of rocks.

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  • 13. 

    Topsoil, gray or black, has humus.

    • A.

      "A (horizon)"

    • B.

      "B (horizon)"

    • C.

      "C (horizon)"

    Correct Answer
    A. "A (horizon)"
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that topsoil, which can be either gray or black, contains humus. The term "A (horizon)" refers to the top layer of soil, also known as the topsoil. This layer is rich in organic matter, including humus, which is formed from the decomposition of plant and animal material. Therefore, it can be inferred that the correct answer is "A (horizon)" because it is the layer of soil that contains humus.

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  • 14. 

    Found in western half of U.S. where rainfall is less than 25 inches a year, basic soil.

    • A.

      Pedocal

    • B.

      Pedalfers

    • C.

      Mature soil

    Correct Answer
    A. Pedocal
    Explanation
    Pedocal is the correct answer because it is a type of soil commonly found in the western half of the U.S. where the annual rainfall is less than 25 inches. This type of soil is characterized by its basic nature and is typically formed in arid or semi-arid regions. It is often associated with grasslands and is known for its high calcium carbonate content, which gives it a light color.

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  • 15. 

    Rock fragments and slightly weathered bedrock..you keep digging here, you'll eventually hit soil rock.

    • A.

      "A (horizon)"

    • B.

      "B (horizon)"

    • C.

      "C (horizon)"

    Correct Answer
    C. "C (horizon)"
    Explanation
    The given answer "C (horizon)" is the correct choice because it refers to the layer of soil that is closest to the bedrock. In the given statement, it is mentioned that if you keep digging in this area, you will eventually hit soil rock. This indicates that the upper layers of rock fragments and slightly weathered bedrock are part of the underlying horizons, while the C horizon represents the transition zone between the bedrock and the soil.

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  • 16. 

    Once the plants die that are on top of the horizon, the nutrients make

    • A.

      "A (horizon)"

    • B.

      "B (horizon)"

    • C.

      "C (horizon)

    Correct Answer
    A. "A (horizon)"
    Explanation
    Once the plants on top of the horizon die, their decomposition leads to the release of nutrients. These nutrients then percolate down through the soil layers, including the A horizon. The A horizon is the topmost layer of soil, commonly known as topsoil, which is rich in organic matter and nutrients. Therefore, it is the most suitable option for the nutrients to make their way down after the plants die.

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  • 17. 

    This horizon is formed from the leaching of horizon A.

    • A.

      No horizon is made

    • B.

      "B (horizon)"

    • C.

      "C (horizon)"

    Correct Answer
    B. "B (horizon)"
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the horizon B is formed from the leaching of horizon A. Leaching refers to the process of removal of minerals and nutrients from the soil due to the downward movement of water. This leaching process can lead to the formation of distinct soil layers or horizons. In this case, horizon B is formed as a result of the leaching of horizon A, indicating that the minerals and nutrients have been washed down from horizon A and accumulated in horizon B. Therefore, the correct answer is "B (horizon)".

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  • 18. 

    Zone of soil are called

    • A.

      Horizons

    • B.

      Profiles

    • C.

      Young soil

    Correct Answer
    A. Horizons
    Explanation
    The correct answer is horizons. Zones of soil are referred to as horizons. Horizons are distinct layers of soil that are formed over time due to various processes such as weathering, organic matter accumulation, and leaching. Each horizon has its own characteristics, such as color, texture, and composition, which are influenced by factors like climate, vegetation, and parent material. The different horizons play important roles in soil fertility, water movement, and nutrient availability, making them significant in understanding and managing soil systems.

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  • 19. 

    The entire arrangement of horizons are called

    • A.

      Dunes

    • B.

      Young soil

    • C.

      Profiles

    Correct Answer
    C. Profiles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "profiles." In geology, the term "profiles" refers to the arrangement of horizons or layers of soil or rock that can be observed in a particular area. It involves the study and analysis of the different characteristics and properties of these layers, such as their composition, color, texture, and structure. By examining these profiles, geologists can gain insights into the formation, history, and composition of the soil or rock layers, which can be useful in various fields, including agriculture, construction, and environmental science.

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  • 20. 

    Subsoil, more clay is washed down.

    • A.

      "A (horizon)"

    • B.

      "B (horizon)"

    • C.

      "C (horizon)"

    Correct Answer
    B. "B (horizon)"
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "B (horizon)". In soil science, horizons are layers of soil that are distinguishable from one another based on their characteristics. The B horizon, also known as the subsoil, is typically located beneath the A horizon (topsoil) and above the C horizon (parent material). In this context, the statement suggests that more clay is washed down into the B horizon. This is because clay particles are smaller and denser, making them more likely to be transported downward through the soil profile by water movement.

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  • 21. 

    Most important factor affecting soil is

    • A.

      Climate

    • B.

      Topography

    • C.

      Time

    Correct Answer
    A. Climate
    Explanation
    Climate is the most important factor affecting soil because it determines the amount and distribution of rainfall, temperature, and sunlight in an area. These climatic conditions directly influence the rate of weathering, erosion, and decomposition, which in turn affect the formation and composition of soil. For example, in regions with high rainfall, leaching may occur, leading to the removal of nutrients from the soil. Similarly, extreme temperatures can impact the physical properties of soil, such as its structure and moisture content. Therefore, climate plays a crucial role in shaping the characteristics and fertility of soil.

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  • 22. 

    High elevation and latitude, very few layers, shallow..permafrost.

    • A.

      Tropical soil

    • B.

      Temperate soil

    • C.

      Arctic soil

    Correct Answer
    C. Arctic soil
    Explanation
    The given answer, arctic soil, is the most suitable option based on the information provided. The description mentions high elevation and latitude, which are characteristics of arctic regions. Additionally, the mention of very few layers and shallow soil aligns with the frozen ground known as permafrost, which is commonly found in arctic areas. Therefore, arctic soil is the correct answer based on the given information.

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  • 23. 

    Removal of loose particles by wind--most important effect by wind.

    • A.

      Abrasion

    • B.

      Deflation

    • C.

      Dunes

    Correct Answer
    B. Deflation
    Explanation
    Deflation is the correct answer because it refers to the process of removing loose particles by wind. This process involves the lifting and carrying away of smaller particles, leaving behind larger particles or bare surfaces. It is considered the most important effect of wind in terms of particle removal and erosion. Abrasion, on the other hand, refers to the wearing away of surfaces by particles carried by wind, and dunes are formed by the accumulation of wind-blown sand.

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  • 24. 

    Wearing down of particles.

    • A.

      Abrasion

    • B.

      Delfation

    • C.

      Dunes

    Correct Answer
    A. Abrasion
    Explanation
    Abrasion refers to the process of wearing down particles through friction and rubbing against each other. This can occur in various natural environments, such as rivers, where the movement of water and sediment causes particles to collide and erode. It can also happen in man-made settings, like when sandpaper is used to smooth surfaces. Therefore, abrasion is the most suitable term to describe the wearing down of particles.

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  • 25. 

    Warm and wet, speed up chemical weathering.

    • A.

      Arctic soil

    • B.

      Tropical soil

    • C.

      Temperate soil

    Correct Answer
    B. Tropical soil
    Explanation
    Tropical soil is the correct answer because warm and wet conditions accelerate chemical weathering. In tropical regions, high temperatures and abundant rainfall increase the rate of chemical reactions, leading to faster breakdown of minerals in the soil. This results in the formation of rich, fertile soil that is ideal for supporting diverse plant life. In contrast, arctic soil is characterized by cold temperatures and limited moisture, which slow down chemical weathering processes. Temperate soil falls somewhere in between, with moderate temperatures and rainfall, resulting in a moderate rate of chemical weathering.

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  • 26. 

    Most important result of weathering is

    • A.

      New rock

    • B.

      Soil

    • C.

      Sediment rock

    Correct Answer
    B. Soil
    Explanation
    Weathering is the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down into smaller particles through exposure to the elements. The most important result of weathering is the formation of soil. As rocks are weathered, they are broken down into smaller pieces, which mix with organic matter and minerals to create soil. Soil is vital for supporting plant growth and providing nutrients for ecosystems. It also plays a crucial role in water filtration and retention, as well as in the cycling of nutrients in the environment. Therefore, soil is the most significant outcome of weathering.

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  • 27. 

    Process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions.

    • A.

      Mechanical weathering

    • B.

      Chemical weathering

    • C.

      Weathering

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemical weathering
    Explanation
    Chemical weathering refers to the process in which rocks break down due to chemical reactions. This process involves the alteration of the rock's composition through various chemical processes such as oxidation, hydration, and dissolution. Unlike mechanical weathering, which involves physical forces like temperature changes and pressure, chemical weathering is primarily driven by chemical reactions that occur between the rock and substances in its environment. These reactions can weaken the rock structure, leading to its breakdown and eventual erosion. Therefore, chemical weathering is the correct answer as it specifically describes the process of rock breakdown through chemical reactions.

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  • 28. 

    Examples of mechanical weathering. 

    • A.

      Ice wedging

    • B.

      Oxidation

    • C.

      Plants(lichens)

    • D.

      Wetting and drying

    • E.

      Acid rain

    • F.

      Carbonic acid/carbonation

    • G.

      Hydrolysis

    • H.

      Abrasion

    • I.

      Expansion/contraction

    • J.

      Exfoliation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ice wedging
    C. Plants(lichens)
    D. Wetting and drying
    H. Abrasion
    I. Expansion/contraction
    J. Exfoliation
    Explanation
    The given answer lists examples of mechanical weathering processes. Mechanical weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces without any change in their chemical composition. Ice wedging occurs when water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the rock to break apart. Plants, specifically lichens, can grow on rocks and release chemicals that break down the rock surface. Wetting and drying cycles cause rocks to expand and contract, leading to their disintegration. Abrasion refers to the wearing away of rocks by friction, usually caused by wind or water. Expansion/contraction occurs when rocks heat up and expand during the day and contract at night, leading to their eventual breakage. Exfoliation is the process where outer layers of rocks peel away due to pressure release.

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  • 29. 

    Examples of chemical weathering.

    • A.

      Plants/animals (lichens)

    • B.

      Ice wedging

    • C.

      Acid rain

    • D.

      Exfoliation

    • E.

      Oxidation

    • F.

      Hydrolysis

    • G.

      Wetting and drying

    • H.

      Carbonic acid/carbonation

    • I.

      Espansion/contraction

    • J.

      Abrasion

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Plants/animals (lichens)
    C. Acid rain
    E. Oxidation
    F. Hydrolysis
    H. Carbonic acid/carbonation
    Explanation
    Chemical weathering refers to the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals through chemical processes. Examples of chemical weathering include the action of plants and animals, particularly lichens, which release chemicals that can dissolve minerals in rocks. Acid rain, which is caused by pollutants in the atmosphere reacting with water, can also chemically weather rocks by dissolving minerals. Oxidation occurs when minerals react with oxygen, causing them to break down. Hydrolysis involves the reaction of minerals with water, leading to their decomposition. Carbonic acid or carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, forming a weak acid that can dissolve minerals.

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  • 30. 

    Rates of weathering. 

    • A.

      Time

    • B.

      The rocks themselves

    • C.

      Surface area

    • D.

      Climate

    • E.

      Mechanical weathering

    • F.

      Topography

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. The rocks themselves
    C. Surface area
    D. Climate
    F. Topography
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the factors that affect the rate of weathering. The rocks themselves play a role in weathering as different types of rocks have different properties that make them more or less susceptible to weathering. Surface area is important because weathering occurs at the surface of the rocks, so larger surface area means more weathering. Climate also affects weathering as different climates have different levels of moisture and temperature, which can accelerate or slow down weathering processes. Finally, topography refers to the shape and elevation of the land, which can influence the exposure of rocks to weathering agents such as water and wind.

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  • 31. 

    Thin sheets of soil removed prevent by--grass, continued plowing, crop rotation, strip crop, terraces.

    • A.

      Gullying

    • B.

      Sheet wash

    • C.

      Contour plowing

    Correct Answer
    B. Sheet wash
    Explanation
    Sheet wash refers to the process of water flowing over a thin sheet of soil and carrying it away. This can occur when there is heavy rainfall or improper drainage, causing erosion and the removal of soil. The other options listed (gullying, contour plowing, strip crop, terraces) are all methods used to prevent erosion and soil loss, but they do not specifically address the issue of sheet wash. Therefore, sheet wash is the correct answer as it directly relates to the removal of thin sheets of soil.

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  • 32. 

    An accelerated soil erosion caused by the plowing of furrows up and down slopes that allows water to run swiftly over the soil, carrying away the topsoil, is called

    • A.

      Mudflow

    • B.

      Erosion

    • C.

      Gullying

    Correct Answer
    C. Gullying
    Explanation
    Gullying refers to an accelerated soil erosion caused by plowing furrows up and down slopes, which allows water to flow swiftly over the soil and carry away the topsoil. This process leads to the formation of deep channels or gullies in the landscape. Unlike mudflow, which involves the rapid downhill movement of water-saturated soil, and erosion, which is a broader term for the wearing away of land surfaces, gullying specifically describes the formation of these channels due to the plowing technique.

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  • 33. 

    Constant erosion reduces the __________ of the soil by removing the A horizon, which contains humus.

    • A.

      Topsoil

    • B.

      Fertility

    • C.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    B. Fertility
    Explanation
    Constant erosion reduces the fertility of the soil by removing the A horizon, which contains humus. Humus is a crucial component of soil fertility as it provides essential nutrients and improves the soil's ability to retain moisture. When the A horizon is eroded, the soil loses its fertility because it lacks the organic matter necessary for healthy plant growth. As a result, crops may struggle to obtain the necessary nutrients from the soil, leading to decreased productivity.

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  • 34. 

    Planting a field with one type of crop one year and a different type of crop the next year.

    • A.

      Contour plowing

    • B.

      Strip-cropping

    • C.

      Terracing

    • D.

      Crop rotation

    Correct Answer
    D. Crop rotation
    Explanation
    Crop rotation involves planting different types of crops in a field in successive years. This practice helps to prevent the depletion of nutrients in the soil, control pests and diseases, and improve overall soil health. By alternating crops, different nutrient requirements are met, reducing the risk of nutrient imbalances and improving soil fertility. Additionally, crop rotation disrupts the life cycles of pests and diseases, reducing their populations and the need for chemical pesticides. Overall, crop rotation is a sustainable agricultural practice that promotes long-term soil health and productivity.

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  • 35. 

    Plowing soil in curved bands that follow the shape of the land, thus preventing soil from flowing directly down slopes.

    • A.

      Contour plowing

    • B.

      Strip-cropping

    • C.

      Terracing

    • D.

      Crop rotation

    Correct Answer
    A. Contour plowing
    Explanation
    Contour plowing is the correct answer because it involves plowing soil in curved bands that follow the shape of the land. This technique helps to prevent soil erosion by slowing down the flow of water and preventing it from directly flowing down slopes. By plowing along the contours, the soil is better able to retain moisture and nutrients, leading to improved crop growth. Contour plowing is an effective method for conserving soil and preventing erosion in hilly or sloped areas.

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  • 36. 

    Building steplike ridges that follow the contours of a sloped field, thus slowing the downslope movement of water.

    • A.

      Contour plowing

    • B.

      Strip-cropping

    • C.

      Terracing

    • D.

      Crop rotation

    Correct Answer
    C. Terracing
    Explanation
    Terracing is the correct answer because it involves building steplike ridges that follow the contours of a sloped field. This technique helps to slow down the downslope movement of water, preventing erosion and allowing for better water retention in the soil. Terracing is commonly used in agriculture to create flat areas on hillsides for planting crops, as well as to prevent soil erosion and water runoff.

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  • 37. 

    Planting crops in alternating bands, one of which is a cover crop that slows rain runoff.

    • A.

      Contour plowing

    • B.

      Strip-cropping

    • C.

      Terracing

    • D.

      Crop rotation

    Correct Answer
    B. Strip-cropping
    Explanation
    Strip-cropping involves planting crops in alternating bands, one of which is a cover crop that slows rain runoff. This technique helps to prevent soil erosion by reducing the speed at which water flows across the land. The cover crop acts as a barrier, trapping sediment and preventing it from being washed away. By implementing strip-cropping, farmers can protect their soil from erosion and improve water infiltration, leading to healthier crops and sustainable agriculture practices.

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  • 38. 

    What occurs along very steep slopes when saturation by water and loss of friction with underlying rock cause loose soil to slip downhill in one huge piece?

    • A.

      A rockfall

    • B.

      A mudflow

    • C.

      A landslide

    • D.

      A slump

    Correct Answer
    D. A slump
    Explanation
    A slump occurs along very steep slopes when saturation by water and loss of friction with underlying rock cause loose soil to slip downhill in one huge piece. In a slump, the movement of the soil is rotational, with the soil sliding along a curved surface. This is different from a landslide, where the movement is more rapid and the soil slides straight downhill. A rockfall refers to the sudden falling of rocks from a steep slope, while a mudflow is the rapid movement of a mixture of water and fine-grained sediments down a slope.

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  • 39. 

    The movement of a large mass of sediment or a section of land down a slope is called

    • A.

      Gullying

    • B.

      Mass movement

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      A rockslide

    Correct Answer
    B. Mass movement
    Explanation
    Mass movement refers to the movement of a large amount of sediment or a section of land down a slope. This can occur due to various factors such as gravity, erosion, or human activities. It includes processes like landslides, mudslides, and slumping. The term "mass movement" is a broad and encompassing term that describes the overall movement of sediments or landmasses, making it the most appropriate answer in this context.

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  • 40. 

    What is the rapid fall of rocks, ranging in size from tiny fragments to large boulders, from a steep cliff?

    • A.

      A rockfall

    • B.

      A mudflow

    • C.

      A landslide

    • D.

      A slump

    Correct Answer
    A. A rockfall
    Explanation
    A rockfall refers to the rapid descent of rocks, varying in size from small fragments to large boulders, from a steep cliff. This phenomenon occurs when rocks become detached and fall due to gravity, often resulting in a cascade of rocks tumbling down a slope. Unlike mudflows, landslides, or slumps, which involve the movement of soil or earth, a rockfall specifically involves the movement of rocks.

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  • 41. 

    Occurring as a result of heavy rainfall, spring thaws, volcanic eruptions, or earthquakes, the sudden fall down a steep slope of masses of loose rock combined with soil is called a

    • A.

      Rockfall

    • B.

      Mudflow

    • C.

      Landslide

    • D.

      Slump

    Correct Answer
    C. Landslide
    Explanation
    A landslide is the sudden fall down a steep slope of masses of loose rock combined with soil. It can occur due to heavy rainfall, spring thaws, volcanic eruptions, or earthquakes. This explanation fits the given correct answer, which is "landslide".

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  • 42. 

    What may occur in dry regions during a sudden, heavy rainfall or as a result of volcanic eruptions, with mud churning and tumbling down slopes and through valleys?

    • A.

      A rockfall

    • B.

      A mudflow

    • C.

      A landslide

    • D.

      A slump

    Correct Answer
    B. A mudflow
    Explanation
    In dry regions, sudden heavy rainfall or volcanic eruptions can cause a mudflow. This is when mud churns and tumbles down slopes and through valleys. Unlike a rockfall, which is the falling of rocks, or a landslide, which is the sliding of a mass of earth or rock, a mudflow specifically refers to the movement of mud caused by these specific conditions. A slump, on the other hand, is the downward movement of a mass of rock or soil along a curved surface.

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  • 43. 

    The slow, downslope flow of soil saturated with water over hard or frozen layers in areas surrounding glaciers at high elevations is called

    • A.

      Creep

    • B.

      Solifuction

    • C.

      Talus

    • D.

      Landslide

    Correct Answer
    B. Solifuction
    Explanation
    Solifuction is the correct answer because it refers to the slow, downslope flow of water-saturated soil over hard or frozen layers. This process occurs in areas surrounding glaciers at high elevations, where the frozen or compacted ground prevents proper drainage. As a result, the water-saturated soil slowly moves downhill, causing a creeping or flowing motion known as solifuction. This phenomenon is common in periglacial environments and can lead to the formation of distinctive landforms.

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  • 44. 

    A relatively flat landform near seal level.

    • A.

      Plateau

    • B.

      Plain

    • C.

      Mesa

    Correct Answer
    B. Plain
    Explanation
    A plain is a relatively flat landform near sea level. It is characterized by low relief and lacks significant variations in elevation. Plains are typically formed by the deposition of sediment over time, such as by rivers or glaciers. They are often found in coastal areas and can be extensive in size. Unlike plateaus or mesas, which have more pronounced elevation changes, plains are relatively flat and level.

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  • 45. 

    A broad, flat landform that has a high elevation. Subject to much more erosion than a plain.

    • A.

      Butte

    • B.

      Mesa

    • C.

      Plateau

    Correct Answer
    C. Plateau
    Explanation
    A plateau is a broad, flat landform that is elevated above its surroundings. It is subject to more erosion than a plain due to its higher elevation. Plateaus are often formed by the uplift of the Earth's crust or by the erosion of surrounding areas. They can be found in various regions around the world and are characterized by their flat top and steep sides. Due to their elevated position, plateaus are more susceptible to erosion from wind, water, and ice, resulting in a more rugged and eroded landscape compared to a plain.

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  • 46. 

    A smaller plateau that are tablelike areas.

    • A.

      Mesas

    • B.

      Buttes

    • C.

      Plains

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesas
    Explanation
    Mesas are smaller plateaus that have a table-like appearance. They are characterized by their flat tops and steep sides, which make them resemble large tables or elevated platforms. Unlike plains, which are generally flat and low-lying, mesas are elevated landforms that stand out in the surrounding landscape. Buttes, on the other hand, are similar to mesas but are smaller in size and have more vertical sides. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is mesas.

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  • 47. 

    Small, narrow-topped formations.

    • A.

      Mesa

    • B.

      Plain

    • C.

      Butte

    Correct Answer
    C. Butte
    Explanation
    A butte is a small, narrow-topped formation. It is a geological feature that stands out prominently from the surrounding landscape due to its steep, vertical sides and flat top. Buttes are typically formed through erosion, where softer rock layers are eroded away, leaving behind a more resistant rock formation. This process creates the distinct shape of a butte. Unlike mesas or plains, which have broader flat tops, buttes have a smaller and more defined flat area at the summit.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 29, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 16, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Falvs17
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