Disease & Its Impact On Humans

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Disease & Its Impact On Humans - Quiz


This quiz will test the knowledge of students in the topic area. It covers everything covered in the taught sessions. Please note that some questions have MORE THAN ONE answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Diseases may be classified as being

    • A.

      Hereditary

    • B.

      Pathogenic

    • C.

      Physiological

    • D.

      Deficiency

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because diseases can be classified as hereditary, meaning they are passed down from generation to generation through genes. They can also be pathogenic, caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Some diseases are physiological, resulting from abnormalities or dysfunctions in the body's systems or organs. Lastly, diseases can be caused by deficiencies in essential nutrients or substances required for proper bodily function. Therefore, all of these classifications can be used to categorize different types of diseases.

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  • 2. 

    ________ is a type of deficiency disease

    • A.

      Diabetes

    • B.

      Scurvy

    • C.

      Hiv

    • D.

      Heart attack

    • E.

      Down's syndrome

    Correct Answer
    B. Scurvy
    Explanation
    Scurvy is a type of deficiency disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet. It is characterized by weakness, fatigue, swollen and bleeding gums, joint pain, and poor wound healing. Without enough vitamin C, the body is unable to produce collagen, which is necessary for the formation and maintenance of healthy connective tissues. Scurvy was historically common among sailors on long voyages who did not have access to fresh fruits and vegetables. However, it can still occur in individuals with poor nutrition or certain medical conditions that hinder vitamin C absorption or metabolism.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is NOT a pathogen?

    • A.

      Tapeworm

    • B.

      Salmonella

    • C.

      Hibiscus

    • D.

      Influenza virus

    • E.

      Ringworm

    Correct Answer
    C. Hibiscus
    Explanation
    A pathogen is an organism or a virus that can cause disease. Tapeworm, salmonella, influenza virus, and ringworm are all examples of pathogens. However, hibiscus is a flowering plant and not a pathogen. Therefore, hibiscus is the correct answer as it is not a pathogen.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following acts as a physical barrier against pathogens?

    • A.

      Tears

    • B.

      Skin

    • C.

      Blood

    • D.

      Teeth

    • E.

      Lymph

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tears
    B. Skin
    Explanation
    Tears and skin both act as physical barriers against pathogens. Tears contain lysozymes, which are enzymes that can destroy the cell walls of certain bacteria, preventing them from infecting the eyes. Skin acts as a physical barrier by providing a tough and waterproof outer layer that prevents pathogens from entering the body. It also produces oils and sweat that can inhibit the growth of bacteria on the skin's surface.

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  • 5. 

    Which nutrients can be found in egg yolk

    • A.

      Vitamin C

    • B.

      Vitamin B12

    • C.

      Vitamin A

    • D.

      Calcium

    • E.

      Vitamin D

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Vitamin A
    E. Vitamin D
    Explanation
    Egg yolks contain vitamin A and vitamin D. Vitamin A is essential for maintaining healthy vision, supporting the immune system, and promoting cell growth and development. Vitamin D is important for bone health, as it helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus. Both of these nutrients can be found in egg yolks, making them a nutritious addition to the diet.

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  • 6. 

    Which of these diseases is caused by a genetic mutation?

    • A.

      Influenza

    • B.

      Anaemia

    • C.

      Beri-beri

    • D.

      Down's syndrome

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Down's syndrome
    Explanation
    Down's syndrome is caused by a genetic mutation. It is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material affects the development and functioning of the brain and body, leading to intellectual disability and physical abnormalities. Influenza, anaemia, and beri-beri are not caused by genetic mutations but instead have other causes such as viral infections, iron deficiency, and thiamine deficiency respectively.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following contribute to Hypertension?

    • A.

      Lack of exercise

    • B.

      Stress

    • C.

      Obesity

    • D.

      Alcohol abuse

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the listed factors contribute to hypertension. Lack of exercise leads to a sedentary lifestyle, which can increase blood pressure. Stress triggers the release of stress hormones, causing blood vessels to constrict and raising blood pressure. Obesity puts extra strain on the heart, leading to hypertension. Alcohol abuse can elevate blood pressure and damage the arteries. Therefore, all of these factors combined can contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following best describes a vector?

    • A.

      A pathogenic organism

    • B.

      An organism which transmits a pathogen to its host

    • C.

      A host where a parasite lives

    • D.

      An insect

    • E.

      B and D

    Correct Answer
    B. An organism which transmits a pathogen to its host
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an organism which transmits a pathogen to its host." This answer accurately describes a vector as an organism that carries and transmits a pathogen to another organism, typically its host. Vectors can include insects, such as mosquitoes or ticks, which transmit diseases like malaria or Lyme disease. This answer effectively captures the essential characteristic of a vector, distinguishing it from the other options provided.

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  • 9. 

    Malaria is caused by which organism?

    • A.

      Culex mosquito

    • B.

      Lice

    • C.

      Aedes egypti

    • D.

      Anopheles mosquito

    • E.

      Tick

    Correct Answer
    D. Anopheles mosquito
    Explanation
    Malaria is caused by the Anopheles mosquito. This mosquito species carries and transmits the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria in humans. When an infected mosquito bites a person, the parasite is transmitted into their bloodstream, leading to the development of malaria. The Anopheles mosquito is specifically responsible for transmitting the malaria parasite, making it the correct answer.

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  • 10. 

    The Aedes egypti mosquito causes which disease?

    • A.

      Yellow fever

    • B.

      Malaria

    • C.

      Dengue fever

    • D.

      Sleeping sickness

    • E.

      West nile virus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Yellow fever
    C. Dengue fever
    Explanation
    The Aedes egypti mosquito is known to be the primary vector for transmitting yellow fever and dengue fever. Yellow fever is a viral disease that causes fever, headache, jaundice, and can lead to severe illness or death. Dengue fever is also a viral disease that causes high fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain, and can sometimes lead to a severe form called dengue hemorrhagic fever. Both diseases are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes egypti mosquitoes.

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  • 11. 

    What is the correct order for a mosquito's life cycle?

    • A.

      Egg, pupa, larva, adult

    • B.

      Adult, larva, pupa, egg

    • C.

      Egg, larva, pupa, adult

    • D.

      Adult, pupa, larva, egg

    • E.

      Egg, larva, nymph, adult

    Correct Answer
    C. Egg, larva, pupa, adult
    Explanation
    The correct order for a mosquito's life cycle is egg, larva, pupa, adult. Mosquitoes start their life cycle as eggs, which are laid by adult mosquitoes in water. The eggs hatch into larvae, also known as wigglers, which live in the water and feed on organic matter. After a few molts, the larvae transform into pupae, also known as tumblers. During this stage, the mosquito is inactive and undergoes metamorphosis. Finally, the adult mosquito emerges from the pupa, ready to mate and continue the life cycle.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following organisms are responsible for many STDs?

    • A.

      Parasites

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Viruses

    • D.

      B and C

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    C. Viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses are responsible for many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Unlike parasites and fungi, viruses are microscopic infectious agents that can only replicate inside the cells of living organisms. They can be transmitted through sexual contact and cause diseases like HIV/AIDS, herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis B. These viruses can infect the reproductive organs, mucous membranes, and immune system, leading to various symptoms and long-term health complications. Therefore, the correct answer is viruses.

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  • 13. 

    Chlamydia is caused by what type of pathogen?

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      Fungi

    • D.

      Parasite

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Chlamydia is caused by bacteria. This sexually transmitted infection is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common bacterial STIs worldwide and can affect both men and women. Chlamydia can be transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. It can lead to various complications if left untreated, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Therefore, it is important to get tested and treated if infected with chlamydia.

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  • 14. 

    Babies can develop the condition Ophthalmia Neonatorum from an infection of

    • A.

      Chlamydia

    • B.

      Hiv

    • C.

      Genital herpes

    • D.

      Syphilis

    • E.

      Gonorrhoea

    Correct Answer
    E. Gonorrhoea
    Explanation
    Babies can develop the condition Ophthalmia Neonatorum from an infection of gonorrhoea. Ophthalmia Neonatorum is a severe eye infection that occurs in newborns. It can be transmitted to the baby during delivery if the mother has an untreated gonorrhoea infection. The bacteria can cause inflammation and discharge in the baby's eyes, which, if left untreated, can lead to serious complications and even permanent vision loss. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and treat gonorrhoea in pregnant women to prevent the transmission of the infection to the baby.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following statements about Herpes is correct?

    • A.

      The infection persists for life

    • B.

      It only affects males

    • C.

      It is highly contagious

    • D.

      It can sometimes affect the mouth

    • E.

      It is treated with antibiotics

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The infection persists for life
    C. It is highly contagious
    D. It can sometimes affect the mouth
    Explanation
    Herpes is a viral infection that persists for life, meaning once a person is infected, they will carry the virus indefinitely. It is highly contagious, easily transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or their bodily fluids. Herpes can sometimes affect the mouth, causing cold sores or fever blisters. However, it is important to note that herpes is not treated with antibiotics, as antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections.

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  • 16. 

    The first documented case of HIV was in what year?

    • A.

      1980

    • B.

      1981

    • C.

      1992

    • D.

      2010

    • E.

      1781

    Correct Answer
    B. 1981
    Explanation
    In 1981, the first documented case of HIV was reported. This means that it was the first time a case of HIV infection was officially recorded and documented. The discovery and identification of HIV as a new virus occurred in the early 1980s, leading to increased awareness and research on the disease.

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  • 17. 

    Which region is currently ranked #1 for the highest amount of HIV cases?

    • A.

      North america

    • B.

      South america

    • C.

      Caribbean

    • D.

      Central america

    • E.

      Sub-saharan africa

    Correct Answer
    E. Sub-saharan africa
    Explanation
    Sub-Saharan Africa is currently ranked #1 for the highest amount of HIV cases. This region has been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with a high prevalence rate and a large number of people living with the virus. Factors such as limited access to healthcare, lack of education, poverty, and cultural norms contribute to the spread of HIV in this region. Efforts to combat the epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa include increasing access to antiretroviral treatment, promoting safe sex practices, and raising awareness about HIV prevention.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is NOT a route of transmission for HIV?

    • A.

      Breast milk

    • B.

      Blood transfusions

    • C.

      Sexual intercourse

    • D.

      Sharing eating utensils

    • E.

      Intravenous drug abuse

    Correct Answer
    D. Sharing eating utensils
    Explanation
    Sharing eating utensils is not a route of transmission for HIV because the virus is not easily transmitted through saliva. HIV is primarily transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, exposure to infected blood (such as through blood transfusions or sharing needles during intravenous drug abuse), and from an infected mother to her child through breastfeeding. However, sharing eating utensils does carry a risk of transmitting other infections, such as colds or flu, if an infected person has open sores or cuts in their mouth.

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  • 19. 

    The HIV virus attaches to which cells of the immune system?

    • A.

      Phagocytes

    • B.

      Red blood cells

    • C.

      CD4 cells

    • D.

      CD8 cells

    • E.

      B-lymphocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. CD4 cells
    Explanation
    The HIV virus attaches to CD4 cells of the immune system. CD4 cells, also known as T-helper cells, play a crucial role in coordinating immune responses. They are responsible for recognizing foreign antigens and activating other immune cells to attack and destroy the pathogens. HIV specifically targets CD4 cells by binding to a protein called CD4 receptor on their surface. This attachment allows the virus to enter the CD4 cells, replicate inside them, and eventually destroy them, leading to immune system dysfunction and progression of HIV infection.

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  • 20. 

    HAART stands for what?

    • A.

      Highly active antiretroviral therapy

    • B.

      Highly active antiretroviral treatment

    • C.

      HIV antibody reconstruction therapy

    • D.

      HIV active antiretroviral treatment

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Explanation
    HAART stands for highly active antiretroviral therapy. This treatment is used for individuals infected with HIV to suppress the virus and slow down the progression of the disease. HAART involves a combination of different antiretroviral drugs that target different stages of the HIV life cycle, reducing the viral load in the body and improving the immune system. This therapy has been proven to be highly effective in managing HIV infection and improving the quality of life for individuals living with the disease.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of blood?

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Red blood cells

    • C.

      Phagocytes

    • D.

      CSF fluid

    • E.

      Cell fragments

    Correct Answer
    D. CSF fluid
    Explanation
    CSF fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, is not a component of blood. It is a clear, colorless fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a protective cushion for the brain, providing nutrients and removing waste products. While blood contains plasma, red blood cells, phagocytes (white blood cells), and cell fragments (such as platelets), CSF fluid is not present in the blood.

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  • 22. 

    Blood clotting is part of what type of immunity?

    • A.

      Artificial

    • B.

      Natural

    • C.

      Passive

    • D.

      Active

    • E.

      B and D

    Correct Answer
    E. B and D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B and D. Blood clotting is part of both natural immunity and active immunity. Natural immunity refers to the body's innate ability to defend against pathogens, while active immunity is acquired through exposure to antigens, leading to the production of antibodies. Blood clotting is an important defense mechanism that prevents excessive bleeding and helps in the healing process, making it a part of both natural and active immunity.

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  • 23. 

    Haemophilia is a hereditary disease. It is caused by the absence of which clotting factor?

    • A.

      VII

    • B.

      VIII

    • C.

      XIII

    • D.

      VI

    • E.

      IX

    Correct Answer
    B. VIII
    Explanation
    Haemophilia is a hereditary disease caused by the absence of clotting factor VIII. This clotting factor plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process, and its absence leads to prolonged bleeding and difficulty in clot formation. Haemophilia is typically passed down from parents to their children through a faulty gene on the X chromosome, making it more common in males. Treatment for haemophilia often involves replacing the missing clotting factor through medication or infusion therapy.

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  • 24. 

    How many clotting factors exist in blood?13

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      8

    • C.

      100

    • D.

      13

    • E.

      23

    Correct Answer
    D. 13
    Explanation
    There are 13 clotting factors that exist in blood. These factors play a crucial role in the blood clotting process, which helps to prevent excessive bleeding and promote wound healing. Without these factors, the blood would not be able to form a clot effectively, leading to potential complications.

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  • 25. 

    The mechanism by which phagocytes destroy pathogens is called

    • A.

      Autolysis

    • B.

      Cellular degradration

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      Oxygen mediated killing

    • E.

      Phagocytosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis is the process by which phagocytes, such as macrophages and neutrophils, engulf and destroy pathogens. These cells recognize the pathogens, bind to them, and form a phagosome, which is then fused with lysosomes containing enzymes that break down the pathogens. This mechanism allows phagocytes to effectively eliminate pathogens and protect the body from infections. Autolysis refers to the self-destruction of cells, cellular degradation is a general term that does not specifically refer to the destruction of pathogens, osmosis is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane, and oxygen mediated killing is not a recognized term for the mechanism of pathogen destruction.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following people are among those who should be immunized against a strain of flu?

    • A.

      Young fit adults

    • B.

      Young children

    • C.

      Pregnant women

    • D.

      A diabetic

    • E.

      All off the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Young children
    C. Pregnant women
    D. A diabetic
    Explanation
    Young children, pregnant women, and diabetics should be immunized against a strain of flu. This is because these groups are more vulnerable to complications and severe illness from the flu compared to young fit adults. Immunization helps protect them from the flu virus and reduces the risk of serious health consequences.

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  • 27. 

    Which of these drugs is NOT legal?

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Tobacco

    • C.

      Ecstacy

    • D.

      Alcohol

    • E.

      Antidepressants

    Correct Answer
    C. Ecstacy
    Explanation
    Ecstasy is not legal because it is a recreational drug that is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in most countries. It is known for its psychoactive effects and is commonly used as a party drug. The use, possession, and distribution of ecstasy are illegal due to its potential for abuse and harmful health effects. Steroids, tobacco, alcohol, and antidepressants, on the other hand, may have legal restrictions or regulations but are generally legal for various purposes such as medical use or recreational consumption.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is not related to marijuana abuse?

    • A.

      Decreased mental ability

    • B.

      Liver disease

    • C.

      Lung cancer

    • D.

      Possible decrease in immune response

    • E.

      Reduced fertility

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver disease
    Explanation
    Marijuana abuse is not directly linked to liver disease. While it is known to have negative effects on mental ability, lung health, immune response, and fertility, there is no strong evidence suggesting a direct association between marijuana abuse and liver disease.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following are useful in tackling drug abuse?

    • A.

      Group therapy

    • B.

      Remaining silent

    • C.

      Rehabilitation centres

    • D.

      Taking more drugs

    • E.

      Educational programmes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Group therapy
    C. Rehabilitation centres
    E. Educational programmes
    Explanation
    Group therapy, rehabilitation centers, and educational programs are all useful in tackling drug abuse. Group therapy provides individuals with a supportive environment where they can share their experiences, receive guidance, and learn coping strategies. Rehabilitation centers offer comprehensive treatment programs that address the physical, psychological, and social aspects of drug addiction. Educational programs help raise awareness about the dangers of drug abuse and provide information on prevention and treatment options. Taking more drugs or remaining silent are not useful approaches in tackling drug abuse.

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  • 30. 

    What is the name of  organization in Barbados that focuses on drug abuse?

    • A.

      Ladymeade reference unit

    • B.

      NCSA

    • C.

      QEH

    • D.

      NSC

    • E.

      CDRC

    Correct Answer
    B. NCSA
    Explanation
    The NCSA (National Council on Substance Abuse) is the organization in Barbados that focuses on drug abuse. They work to prevent and reduce drug abuse through education, awareness campaigns, and treatment programs. They collaborate with various stakeholders to develop and implement strategies to address the issue of drug abuse in Barbados.

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  • Mar 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 31, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Asha26
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