Digestive & Urinary Systems Test A

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Digestive & Urinary Systems Test A - Quiz

Anatomy & Physiology
Unit 8 - Digestive & Urinary Systems


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Gallbladder

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Esophagus

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the liver. The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen. It plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of bile. The gallbladder, stomach, and esophagus are also important organs in the digestive system, but they are not depicted in the given image.

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  • 2. 

    Which is an example of chemical digestion?

    • A.

      Chewing food

    • B.

      Food churning in the stomach

    • C.

      The esophagus pushing food down to the stomach

    • D.

      Acid breaking down proteins in the stomach

    Correct Answer
    D. Acid breaking down proteins in the stomach
    Explanation
    The process of acid breaking down proteins in the stomach is an example of chemical digestion. Chemical digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller molecules through the use of enzymes and other chemicals. In this case, the stomach produces hydrochloric acid and enzymes like pepsin, which help to break down proteins into amino acids. This process is essential for the body to absorb nutrients from food. Chewing food, food churning in the stomach, and the esophagus pushing food down to the stomach are examples of mechanical digestion, which involves the physical breakdown of food.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these organs is involved in ELIMINATION of waste?

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Small intestine

    • C.

      Large intestine

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    B. Small intestine
    Explanation
    The small intestine is involved in the elimination of waste. After digestion occurs in the small intestine and nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream, the remaining waste material is passed into the large intestine. The large intestine then absorbs water and electrolytes from the waste, forming feces, which is eventually eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus.

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  • 4. 

    This organ is involved primarily in:

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Absorption

    • C.

      Elimination

    • D.

      Secretion

    Correct Answer
    B. Absorption
    Explanation
    The organ involved primarily in absorption is the small intestine. It is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the food we eat into the bloodstream. The small intestine has a large surface area due to its numerous folds and finger-like projections called villi, which increase the absorption capacity. It absorbs nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, which are then transported to the body's cells for energy and other functions.

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  • 5. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Large intestine

    • D.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    A. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It plays a crucial role in the digestion process by transporting food from the mouth to the stomach through rhythmic contractions called peristalsis. The esophagus is located behind the trachea (windpipe) and is responsible for the propulsion of food through the digestive system.

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  • 6. 

    What do the parietal cells in the stomach make?

    • A.

      Hydrochloric acid

    • B.

      Pepsinogen

    • C.

      Mucus

    • D.

      Bile

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrochloric acid
    Explanation
    The parietal cells in the stomach produce hydrochloric acid. This acid plays a crucial role in the digestion process by breaking down food and killing bacteria that may be present in the stomach. It also helps activate pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme produced by the chief cells in the stomach, which then becomes pepsin and aids in the digestion of proteins. Additionally, hydrochloric acid creates an acidic environment in the stomach that is necessary for the absorption of certain nutrients like iron and vitamin B12.

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  • 7. 

    What type of organic molecule is mainly digested in the stomach?

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Nucleic Acid

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are mainly digested in the stomach. The stomach secretes gastric juice, which contains an enzyme called pepsin. Pepsin breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The acidic environment in the stomach helps to denature the proteins, making them more accessible to the action of pepsin. Once the proteins are broken down into peptides, they are further digested in the small intestine by other enzymes, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, to produce amino acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following secretions comes from the liver?

    • A.

      Lipase

    • B.

      Bile

    • C.

      Nuclease

    • D.

      Amylase

    Correct Answer
    B. Bile
    Explanation
    Bile is the correct answer because it is a secretion produced by the liver. Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. It helps to emulsify fats, making them easier to break down and absorb. Lipase, nuclease, and amylase are enzymes that are involved in the digestion of lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates respectively, but they are not secretions from the liver.

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  • 9. 

    What would happen if the mucus cells in the stomach were not working properly?

    • A.

      The amylase would break down carbohydrates faster

    • B.

      Bile would back up into the liver

    • C.

      The hydrochloric acid would eat away at the stomach lining

    • D.

      The pepsin would not digest proteins properly

    Correct Answer
    C. The hydrochloric acid would eat away at the stomach lining
    Explanation
    If the mucus cells in the stomach were not working properly, the protective layer of mucus that coats the stomach lining would be reduced or absent. This would allow the hydrochloric acid in the stomach to come into direct contact with the stomach lining, leading to erosion and damage. The hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive and can eat away at the stomach lining, causing ulcers and other gastrointestinal issues.

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  • 10. 

    Parietal cells make ____________, which helps pepsinogen to digest _____________. 

    • A.

      Hydrochloric acid; proteins

    • B.

      Hydrochloric acid; lipids

    • C.

      Bile; lipids

    • D.

      Bile; carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrochloric acid; proteins
    Explanation
    Parietal cells in the stomach produce hydrochloric acid, which aids in the digestion of proteins. Hydrochloric acid lowers the pH of the stomach, creating an acidic environment that activates pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme. Pepsinogen is then converted into pepsin, which is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. Therefore, hydrochloric acid plays a crucial role in the digestion of proteins in the stomach.

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  • 11. 

    The small projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine for absorption are called:

    • A.

      Villi

    • B.

      Chyme

    • C.

      Ileum

    • D.

      Duodenum

    Correct Answer
    A. Villi
    Explanation
    Villi are small projections in the small intestine that increase its surface area for absorption. This increased surface area allows for more efficient absorption of nutrients from digested food. The villi have a finger-like structure and are covered in microvilli, which further increases the surface area. The absorption of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, occurs through the villi. Therefore, villi play a crucial role in the process of digestion and nutrient absorption in the small intestine.

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  • 12. 

    The part of the small intestine shown here is the:

    • A.

      Jejunum

    • B.

      Ileum

    • C.

      Duodenum

    • D.

      Anus

    Correct Answer
    C. Duodenum
    Explanation
    The part of the small intestine shown in the image is the duodenum. This can be determined based on its location, as the duodenum is the first part of the small intestine that receives partially digested food from the stomach. It is also characterized by the presence of the duodenal papilla, which is a small opening where the bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the duodenum.

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  • 13. 

    What is the purpose of this structure?

    • A.

      To move food into the large intestine

    • B.

      To absorb nutrients

    • C.

      To absorb water

    • D.

      To produce bile

    Correct Answer
    B. To absorb nutrients
    Explanation
    This structure's purpose is to absorb nutrients.

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  • 14. 

    Constipation results from:

    • A.

      Not enough water being absorbed in the large intestine

    • B.

      Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine

    • C.

      Not enough nutrients being absorbed in the large intestine

    • D.

      Too many nutrients being absorbed in the small intestine

    Correct Answer
    B. Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine
    Explanation
    Constipation occurs when there is too much water absorbed in the large intestine. The large intestine is responsible for absorbing water from the waste material as it passes through the digestive system. If too much water is absorbed, the stool becomes dry and hard, making it difficult to pass. This can be caused by factors such as dehydration, lack of fiber in the diet, or certain medications. Increasing water intake and consuming a fiber-rich diet can help prevent constipation by ensuring that the right amount of water is absorbed in the large intestine.

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  • 15. 

    The duodenum is the end of the small intestine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The duodenum is not the end of the small intestine. It is actually the first part of the small intestine, located immediately after the stomach. It plays a crucial role in the digestion process by receiving partially digested food from the stomach and further breaking it down with the help of enzymes and bile. After the duodenum, the partially digested food continues its journey through the rest of the small intestine, including the jejunum and ileum, before reaching the large intestine.

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  • 16. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Kidney

    • B.

      Ureter

    • C.

      Bladder

    • D.

      Urethra

    Correct Answer
    C. Bladder
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ located in the lower abdomen that stores urine before it is expelled from the body through the urethra. It is a muscular organ that expands as it fills with urine and contracts to release the urine during urination.

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  • 17. 

    If this organ fails, what will happen?

    • A.

      Waste will build up in the blood

    • B.

      A person will urinate more frequently

    • C.

      A person will have lower blood sugar

    • D.

      Urine will be lighter in color

    Correct Answer
    A. Waste will build up in the blood
    Explanation
    If this organ fails, waste will build up in the blood. This is because the organ mentioned is responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and excreting them in the form of urine. When the organ fails, it is unable to perform this function effectively, leading to a buildup of waste in the blood. This can have serious consequences for the body, as the accumulation of toxins and waste products can disrupt normal bodily functions and lead to various health problems.

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  • 18. 

    The main job of the kidneys is to:

    • A.

      Add glucose to the blood

    • B.

      Filter waste from the blood

    • C.

      Add uric acid and urea into the blood

    • D.

      Reduce a person's blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Filter waste from the blood
    Explanation
    The main job of the kidneys is to filter waste from the blood. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the body's internal balance by filtering out waste products, excess water, and toxins from the blood. They help regulate the levels of various substances in the body, such as electrolytes, pH, and fluid volume. The filtered waste is then excreted as urine, while the cleaned blood is returned to circulation. This process is essential for maintaining overall health and preventing the buildup of harmful substances in the body.

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  • 19. 

    Urine is filtered out of waste from the large intestine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Urine is not filtered out of waste from the large intestine. The large intestine primarily absorbs water and electrolytes from the remaining indigestible food matter, forming feces. Urine is produced in the kidneys through the filtration of blood, and it contains waste products, excess water, and electrolytes. It is then transported to the bladder for storage and eventually eliminated through the urethra.

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  • 20. 

    Blood in this blood vesel would have:

    • A.

      Low amounts of oxygen and low amounts of waste

    • B.

      Low amounts of oxygen and high amounts of waste

    • C.

      High amounts of oxygen and high amounts of waste

    • D.

      High amounts of oxygen and low amounts of waste

    Correct Answer
    A. Low amounts of oxygen and low amounts of waste
    Explanation
    The blood in this blood vessel would have low amounts of oxygen and low amounts of waste because this blood vessel is most likely a vein, which carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Deoxygenated blood has low amounts of oxygen, and waste products such as carbon dioxide and metabolic waste.

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  • 21. 

    Dialysis helps kidney patients by:

    • A.

      Filtering out waste from the blood

    • B.

      Reducing blood sugar levels

    • C.

      Strengthening bladder control

    • D.

      Adding uric acid to the blood

    Correct Answer
    A. Filtering out waste from the blood
    Explanation
    Dialysis helps kidney patients by filtering out waste from the blood. When the kidneys are not functioning properly, waste products and excess fluid can build up in the body, leading to serious health complications. Dialysis is a medical procedure that mimics the function of the kidneys by removing waste, excess fluid, and toxins from the blood. This helps to maintain the balance of electrolytes and fluid levels in the body, preventing further damage and improving overall health.

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  • 22. 

    What would be an appropriate treatment for someone with IBS?

    • A.

      There is no treatment

    • B.

      A high fiber diet

    • C.

      Antacids

    • D.

      Antibiotics

    Correct Answer
    B. A high fiber diet
    Explanation
    A high fiber diet would be an appropriate treatment for someone with IBS because it can help regulate bowel movements and reduce symptoms such as constipation or diarrhea. Fiber adds bulk to the stool, making it easier to pass through the digestive system. It can also help alleviate abdominal pain and bloating. Additionally, a high fiber diet promotes overall gut health by providing nourishment to beneficial bacteria in the gut. However, it is important to note that treatment for IBS may vary depending on the individual, and consulting a healthcare professional is recommended for personalized advice.

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  • 23. 

    A patient complains of pain and discomfort in his upper chest.  He describes the pain as burning and says it gets worse at night when he goes to sleep. Diagnose this patient:

    • A.

      Peptic ulcers

    • B.

      Heartburn

    • C.

      IBS

    • D.

      Urinary tract infection

    Correct Answer
    B. Heartburn
    Explanation
    The patient's description of the pain as burning and worsening at night when lying down is characteristic of heartburn. Heartburn is a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. This can cause a burning sensation in the chest, often referred to as heartburn. It is important to note that heartburn is different from peptic ulcers, IBS, and urinary tract infections, as they present with different symptoms and require different treatments.

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  • 24. 

    A patient is brought into the ER because he had been vomiting and his wife thought he was also feeling dizzy and weak. After taking a patient history, you find out that this man has a problem with alcohol. You take a urine sample and it appears to have tiny, foamy bubbles. You tell his wife:

    • A.

      His kidneys are failing. He needs dialysis.

    • B.

      He has a serious urinary tract infection. He needs antibiotics.

    • C.

      He is having a stroke. He needs surgery.

    • D.

      He has irritable bowel syndrome. You need to help him add fiber to his diet.

    Correct Answer
    A. His kidneys are failing. He needs dialysis.
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, the patient's history of alcohol problems and the presence of tiny, foamy bubbles in the urine suggest a potential issue with the kidneys. Foamy urine can be a sign of proteinuria, which occurs when the kidneys are not functioning properly and are leaking protein into the urine. This can be indicative of kidney damage or failure. Dialysis is a medical treatment used to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are unable to perform this function adequately. Therefore, the correct answer is that the patient's kidneys are failing and he needs dialysis.

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  • 25. 

    A patient with heartburn needs to worry about his blood pressure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Heartburn is a common symptom of acid reflux, which occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. While heartburn can be uncomfortable, it is not directly related to blood pressure. Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood against the walls of the arteries, and it can be affected by various factors such as diet, exercise, and stress. However, heartburn itself does not have a direct impact on blood pressure. Therefore, the statement that a patient with heartburn needs to worry about his blood pressure is false.

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