Diffuse Liver Pathology- Glycogen Storage Disease

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Quizzes Created: 32 | Total Attempts: 19,463
Questions: 21 | Attempts: 161

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Liver Pathology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Glycogen storage disease is also called _________________.

    Explanation
    Glycogen storage disease is also known as glycogenosis. This term is used to describe a group of inherited disorders that affect the body's ability to break down glycogen, leading to an abnormal accumulation of glycogen in various tissues. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, liver enlargement, and low blood sugar. Therefore, glycogenosis is the correct term to use when referring to glycogen storage disease.

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  • 2. 

    Glycogen storage disease is an _______________ __________________ disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.

    Explanation
    Glycogen storage disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. This means that the disease is caused by a mutation in a gene that is located on one of the autosomes (non-sex chromosomes), and in order for an individual to be affected by the disease, they must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent. Autosomal recessive disorders often result in the absence or dysfunction of an enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism, leading to the accumulation of glycogen in certain tissues and organs.

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  • 3. 

    The underlying problem in all of the glycogen storage diseases is the __________ and _____________ of glycogen.

    Explanation
    The underlying problem in all of the glycogen storage diseases is the impaired use and storage of glycogen. This means that individuals with these diseases have difficulty in both utilizing glycogen for energy and in properly storing it in their cells. This can lead to a buildup of glycogen in certain tissues and organs, causing various symptoms and complications associated with these diseases.

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  • 4. 

    Glucose is a major source of energy for the body; it is stored in the form of ______________ and later released with the help of ____________.

    Explanation
    Glucose, which is a major source of energy for the body, is stored in the form of glycogen. Glycogen serves as a reserve of glucose that can be readily accessed when the body needs energy. When the body requires energy, enzymes help break down glycogen into glucose molecules, which can then be used by cells for various metabolic processes.

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  • 5. 

    People with Glycogen storage disease have an inherited absence or deficiency of any of the ______________ responsible for forming or releasing glycogen as it is needed by the body during exercise and/or between meals.

    Explanation
    People with Glycogen storage disease have an inherited absence or deficiency of enzymes responsible for forming or releasing glycogen as it is needed by the body during exercise and/or between meals. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions in the body, and in this case, they are specifically involved in the formation and release of glycogen. Without these enzymes, the body is unable to properly store and release glycogen, leading to the symptoms and complications associated with Glycogen storage disease.

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  • 6. 

    The enzyme defect leads to abnormal tissue concentrations of _____________ or to structurally _______________ forms of glycogen

    Explanation
    The enzyme defect in the body causes either abnormal tissue concentrations of glycogen or the formation of structurally abnormal glycogen. This means that there is either an excess or a deficiency of glycogen in the tissues, or the glycogen itself is structurally different from normal.

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  • 7. 

    There are about 12 known types of GSD but the most common type is ________ _____________ disease, or type _____(#).

    Explanation
    Von Gierke's disease is the most common type of glycogen storage disease (GSD), with approximately 12 known types. Type 1 GSD, also known as von Gierke's disease, is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which leads to the accumulation of glycogen in the liver and kidneys. This accumulation can cause symptoms such as hypoglycemia, enlarged liver, growth retardation, and elevated blood lactate levels. Therefore, the correct answer is von Gierke's, 1.

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  • 8. 

    Type 1 GSD results from a defect in the enzyme glucose 6- phosphatase allowing excessive _______________ of glycogen in the liver, intestinal tract and kidnets.

    Explanation
    Type 1 GSD results from a defect in the enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase allowing excessive deposition of glycogen in the liver, intestinal tract, and kidneys. This means that due to the defect in the enzyme, glycogen is being accumulated or stored excessively in these organs, leading to the symptoms and complications associated with Type 1 GSD.

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  • 9. 

    In GSD 1, the breaking down of _____________ into _______________ does not occur.

    Explanation
    In Glycogen Storage Disease 1 (GSD 1), the body is unable to break down glycogen into glucose. Glycogen is a form of stored glucose in the body, and it is usually broken down into glucose when the body needs energy. However, in individuals with GSD 1, there is a deficiency in the enzyme called glucose-6-phosphatase, which is responsible for breaking down glycogen into glucose. As a result, glycogen cannot be converted into glucose, leading to a buildup of glycogen in the liver and kidneys. This can cause various symptoms and complications associated with GSD 1.

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  • 10. 

    As a result of GSD 1, the liver is clogged with excess ____________ and becomes _______________ and _______________.

    Explanation
    GSD 1, also known as Glycogen Storage Disease 1, is a genetic disorder that affects the liver's ability to break down glycogen. As a result, excess glycogen builds up in the liver, leading to its enlargement. Additionally, the accumulation of glycogen can cause the liver to become fatty, further impairing its normal functions.

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  • 11. 

    Von Gierke's disease usually occurs in ___________ and ______________ _________________.

    Explanation
    Von Gierke's disease is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of glycogen, resulting in the accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Symptoms usually appear in infancy, such as enlarged liver, low blood sugar, and growth retardation. However, some individuals may not show symptoms until early adulthood, when they may experience complications like kidney problems, gout, and high blood pressure. Therefore, Von Gierke's disease typically manifests in both infancy and early adulthood.

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  • 12. 

    Clinically, symptoms include __________________ and ____________ levels of glucose 6-phosphatase, and elevated levels of lactic acid, ______________, and uric acid in the blood.

    Explanation
    Clinically, symptoms include hypoglycemia, decreased levels of glucose 6-phosphatase, and elevated levels of lactic acid, lipids, and uric acid in the blood.

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  • 13. 

    ____________ are stored in the liver along with the _____________ which leads to ________________.

    Explanation
    Fats and glycogen are stored in the liver. The accumulation of these substances in the liver can lead to hepatomegaly, which is the enlargement of the liver.

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  • 14. 

    Clinically, growth is ____________, puberty is often _________, and bones may be ______________ by __________________.

    Explanation
    Growth refers to the physical development and increase in size of an individual, while puberty is the stage of development where sexual maturation occurs. When growth is impaired, it means that the individual is not growing at the expected rate or is experiencing stunted growth. Delayed puberty refers to the late onset of sexual maturation compared to the average age range. Weakened bones indicate a loss of bone strength and density, which can lead to fractures and other bone-related issues. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, often caused by a decrease in bone mass and density. Therefore, impaired growth, delayed puberty, and weakened bones can be associated with osteoporosis.

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  • 15. 

    Glycogen storage disease- clinicallyBlood platelets are also affected and frequent ______________ and easy ________________ are common.

    Explanation
    Glycogen storage disease is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down and store glycogen, resulting in abnormal glycogen accumulation in various tissues. This can lead to various symptoms, including bleeding abnormalities. In this case, the question mentions that blood platelets are affected, which are crucial for blood clotting. When platelets are affected, it can result in a decreased ability to form blood clots, leading to nosebleeds and easy bruising. These symptoms are common in individuals with glycogen storage disease due to the impact on platelet function.

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  • 16. 

    Glycogen storage disease- clinicallyPrimary symptoms ______________ with age, but after age 20-30, liver tumors, liver cancer, chronic renal disease, and gout may appear.

    Explanation
    As individuals with glycogen storage disease age, their primary symptoms tend to improve. However, after the age of 20-30, they may experience the onset of liver tumors, liver cancer, chronic renal disease, and gout.

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  • 17. 

    Glycogen storage disease- Sono appearanceType 1 GSD is indistinguishable from any other cause of diffuse fatty infiltration so there will be a diffuse ______________ in liver parenchyma echogenicity and ______________ penetration.

    Explanation
    In Type 1 Glycogen Storage Disease, the liver parenchyma echogenicity will increase, meaning that the liver tissue will appear brighter on ultrasound due to the accumulation of glycogen. However, the penetration of the ultrasound waves into the liver parenchyma will be decreased. This means that the ultrasound waves will have difficulty penetrating through the liver tissue, resulting in a weaker ultrasound signal.

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  • 18. 

    Glycogen storage disease- sono appearanceThere will be _________________.

    Explanation
    In glycogen storage disease, hepatomegaly is commonly observed. This is due to the abnormal accumulation of glycogen in the liver, leading to its enlargement. The excessive glycogen storage impairs liver function and can cause hepatomegaly, which is characterized by an enlarged liver on ultrasound imaging. Therefore, in the sono appearance of glycogen storage disease, hepatomegaly is expected to be present.

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  • 19. 

    GSD is also associated with hepatic _________________.

    Explanation
    GSD, also known as glycogen storage disease, is a group of inherited disorders characterized by the accumulation of glycogen in various tissues. One of the associations of GSD is with hepatic adenomas. Hepatic adenomas are benign tumors that develop in the liver. In individuals with GSD, the excessive accumulation of glycogen can lead to the development of these adenomas in the liver. This association highlights one of the potential complications of GSD and the importance of monitoring liver health in individuals with this condition.

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  • 20. 

    Types 3 and 4 GSD is mostoften associated with ________________ and ____________________ ____________________.

    Explanation
    Types 3 and 4 glycogen storage disease (GSD) are commonly linked to cirrhosis, which is a condition characterized by the scarring of the liver. This scarring can lead to liver dysfunction and impairment of its normal functions. Additionally, these types of GSD are also associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a type of liver cancer that originates from the hepatocytes, the main cells of the liver. Thus, individuals with types 3 and 4 GSD are at an increased risk of developing both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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  • 21. 

    Treatment of Glycogen storage disease depends on the severity of the disease  and includes simple ____________ management, to more severe ____________ _____________. Glycogen storage disease can result in _____________.

    Explanation
    Treatment of Glycogen storage disease depends on the severity of the disease. For mild cases, dietary management is sufficient to control symptoms and prevent complications. This involves following a specific diet that limits the intake of certain carbohydrates and provides alternative sources of energy. However, for more severe cases, organ transplant may be necessary, particularly in cases where the liver is affected. Without proper treatment, Glycogen storage disease can lead to serious complications and even death.

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