The intracellular fluid (ICF).
The extracellular fluid (ECF).
Tissue (interstitial) fluid.
Blood plasma and lymph.
The temperature difference between compartments
The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment.
The relative volume in each compartment.
The relative size of each compartment.
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
Metabolic water; cutaneous transpiration
Metabolic water; sweat
Drinking; cutaneous transpiration and expired air
Stimulates angiotensin II secretion
Promotes water conservation.
Stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors
Inhibits salivation and thirst.
Targets the cerebral cortex.
ADH release is inhibited.
ADH release is stimulated
Renal tubules reabsorb more water
Renal tubules reabsorb more sodium.
The kidneys produce less urine.
Fluid sequestration in the upper limbs
A positive water balance.
A negative water balance
ADH; decreasing water reabsorption
ADH; increasing water reabsorption
Aldosterone; decreasing sodium and water reabsorption
Aldosterone; increasing sodium and water reabsorption
Angiotensin II; increasing sodium reabsorption
Decrease body water but do not significantly affect osmolarity
Decrease body water but increase osmolarity
Decrease body water and decrease osmolarity
Increase ECF volume but decrease ICF volume
Decrease ECF volume but increase ICF volume.
Cooling of the mouth
Distention of the stomach by ingested water
A drop in blo0d osmolarity
Moistening of the mouth
The adrenal cortex
The adernal medulla
The posterior pituitary
Increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorption.
Increases both Na+ and K+ secretion.
Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
Reduces Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
Causes the urine to be more diluted.
Interstitial fluid accumulation
A reduction in plasma volume
High blood sodium concentration
High blood potassium concentration
Aatrial natriuretic hormone
Cells are more excitable.
Resting membrane potential is more negative
Cells are partially depolarized.
Cells are more sensitive to stimulation.
There is less diffusion of potassium out of the cells.
Cells are partially depolarized
There is more diffusion of potassium into the cells
Cells are more excitable
Resting membrane potential is more positive
Cells are hyperpolarized.