CSQA Prep - Chapter 4 - Quality Assurance

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CSQA Prep - Chapter 4 - Quality Assurance - Quiz

Quiz on topics covered in the CSQA Chapter 4 on Quality Assurance.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The four variables of the project are: (select all that apply) (4-2)

    • A.

      Scope

    • B.

      Schedule

    • C.

      Cost

    • D.

      Resources

    • E.

      Quality

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Scope
    B. Schedule
    D. Resources
    E. Quality
    Explanation
    The four project variables are scope, schedule, resources, and quality. The management challenge in completing the project can be illustrated as a dashboard of four system attribute dials, which get set according to the project criteria as illustrated in Figure 4-1. The four dials are interconnected, so movement of one dial affects one or more of the other dials.

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  • 2. 

    The key concept to establishing a quality function is establishing the need for _______. (4-2)

    Correct Answer(s)
    quality
    Explanation
    The key concept to establishing a quality function is establishing the need for quality. Until management believes there is a need for quality improvement, the real impediment, management, cannot be dealt with.
    A quality function exists when a specific individual/group is assigned the responsibility to assist in improving quality. While individual workers have responsibility for the quality of their products and services, it is management's responsibility to ensure that the environment is one in which quality can flourish.

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  • 3. 

    The ultimate responsibility for quality rests with _______  ___________. (4-2)

    Correct Answer(s)
    senior management
    Explanation
    Many people argue that because everyone has some quality responsibility, a staff function for
    quality is unnecessary. That argument is theoretically correct, but in practice unless there is a group
    charged with responsibility for ensuring quality, the pressures of other priorities such as meeting
    schedules and budgets frequently takes precedence over quality.

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  • 4. 

    The Organizational Readiness Matrix represents: (4-2)

    • A.

      How ready the organization and people are

    • B.

      How ready the organization is and how good a sales job the quality organization can do

    • C.

      How ready are the people and their skills

    Correct Answer
    B. How ready the organization is and how good a sales job the quality organization can do
    Explanation
    Under the assumption that it is a good idea for an organization to establish a quality function, it is
    helpful to analyze the challenge of gaining management’s acceptance of the establishment and
    operation of the activity. During this analysis, two basic challenges emerge, and either or both may
    be present in any particular organization. One challenge is that the organization is not ready to
    establish a quality function, and the other is that the salesmanship for getting the process sold to
    executive management is not available even though the organization is ready. This observation is
    shown in Table 4-1.

    If an organization is not ready, and also lacks the sales skills to convince the management group,
    the probability of success is so low that it is best not to bother with implementation at this time. A
    ready organization with good salesmanship can take care of itself. The other scenarios present
    different challenges. Organizations that are not ready, but have the salesmanship, are referred to as
    “Challenge 1.” Organizations that are ready, but lack the salesmanship, are referred to as
    “Challenge 2.” Each challenge is analyzed separately.

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  • 5. 

    Three Phases of Quality Function Maturation The maturation of the quality management system can be divided into three phases: (choose all that apply) (4-5)

    • A.

      Mature

    • B.

      Initial

    • C.

      Intermediate

    • D.

      Final

    • E.

      Growth

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Initial
    C. Intermediate
    D. Final
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Initial, Intermediate, and Final. These three phases represent the progression and development of the quality management system. The initial phase refers to the starting point or the early stage of implementation. The intermediate phase signifies a period of growth and improvement in the system. The final phase represents the fully matured and optimized state of the quality management system. These phases reflect the continuous efforts and evolution of the organization's approach to quality.

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  • 6. 

    The initial phase is: (4-5)

    • A.

      Where an organization's objectives move from control to assurance. The emphasis is on defining, stabilizing, measuring, and improving work processes.

    • B.

      Objectives such as consulting, motivating, and benchmarking move the organization toward optimization.

    • C.

      Considered the formalization of quality control activities. An organization in this phase is results-driven, focusing on defining and controlling product quality.

    Correct Answer
    C. Considered the formalization of quality control activities. An organization in this phase is results-driven, focusing on defining and controlling product quality.
    Explanation
    The initiation point of the quality management system can be considered the formalization of quality control activities. An organization in this phase is results-driven, focusing on defining and controlling product quality. It normally takes at least two years in this phase of maturity for management and staff to recognize that quality cannot be tested into a product; it must happen
    through process maturity. In this phase:
    • A quality control department performs quality control activities. This department may be called independent testing, software QA, or other names that identify an activity focused on product control. The quality practitioners performing the work are viewed as inspectors
    or testers, regardless of their job title. In many IT groups, quality control is an ongoing activity performed through maintenance, rather than controlling the initial development of products and services.
    • A standards committee or standards manager normally performs QA activities focused on process definition. However, these processes are rarely defined fully, and rarely followed in detail. Also, the standards committee tends to define tasks, such as assigning job numbers,
    rather than defining processes. Once defined, the tasks are usually not improved.
    • The role of the quality consultant may not be performed at all. If performed, it tends to be by an individual member of management or initiated by the organization’s auditing function.
    It is more often a single advocate for quality, rather than an organizational responsibility.

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  • 7. 

    The intermediate phase is: (4-6)

    • A.

      Where an organization's objectives move from control to assurance. The emphasis is on defining, stabilizing, measuring, and improving work processes.

    • B.

      Objectives such as consulting, motivating, and benchmarking move the organization toward optimization.

    • C.

      Considered the formalization of quality control activities. An organization in this phase is results-driven, focusing on defining and controlling product quality.

    Correct Answer
    A. Where an organization's objectives move from control to assurance. The emphasis is on defining, stabilizing, measuring, and improving work processes.
    Explanation
    In this phase an organization's objectives move from control to assurance. The emphasis is on
    defining, stabilizing, measuring, and improving work processes. While process improvement occurs before and after this phase, it is during this phase that resources are allocated to make process maturity happen. It takes between two and four years for significant process maturity. At this level products and services achieve consistency in product quality (consistency being the
    prerequisite to improved quality and productivity). In this phase:

    Quality control is a shared responsibility of the customer or user, worker, and the QA analyst.
    For example, the customer may be involved in acceptance testing and requirement reviews; the worker may perform checklists and do some independent verification and
    validation activities or do it in conjunction with peers or the QA analyst.
    • Process definition and improvement are emphasized, and are performed by the quality function, QA analyst, and consultants. Under the direction of the QA analyst, teams may be formed and facilitators obtained. The QA analyst often performs the facilitator role, the team leader role or the reviewing role.
    • The quality function or QA analyst also acts as quality consultant. That role may be fulfilled on an ad hoc, part-time basis, or as requested. Quality Councils are also normally formed (see Skill Category 2), and may act as consultants to their staffs.

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  • 8. 

    The two major drivers that change the role of the QA analyst are: (4-7)

    • A.

      Organizational definition of quality assurance

    • B.

      Management philosophy used in the IT group

    • C.

      Capability maturity of the QA organization

    • D.

      Personal belief system of managers

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Management philosophy used in the IT group
    D. Personal belief system of managers
    Explanation
    As management moves from an authoritarian philosophy in the initial phase toward the quality management philosophy, the need from their quality staff changes. Quality management as a process-oriented philosophy leads management to begin defining, measuring and improving processes. This creates the need for a quality function directed at process definition and improvement.
    As the quality management philosophy matures, the organization moves from a hierarchical structure, to teams that are organized and empowered to define, measure and improve their own processes. Thus, some activities initially performed by QA analysts are transferred to the empowered teams. The QA analyst then consults those individuals with quality responsibilities.

    Personal Belief System of Managers
    The management philosophy and managers’ belief systems may not be in synchronization. A corporation may dictate a quality management philosophy, but the IT manager’s approach is more authoritarian. These managers may talk quality management, but walk authoritarian approaches.
    With authoritarian management, the belief is that defects are caused by people, and are only correctable by people doing better work. If people are unable to perform their work correctly, the solution is to organize independent groups to validate the correctness of work. This philosophy
    may lead to independent groups checking on independent groups.
    As the managerial belief system moves toward accepting that processes cause defects, and that management is responsible for the processes, it understands workers can no longer be blamed for defects and that management must achieve the solution. With this belief system, managementneeds the support of the QA analyst, first as a quality group and then as a consultant to define and drive the quality initiatives to achieve high customer satisfaction, high productivity, and high levels of quality.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not a step for implementing an IT quality function? (4-10)

    • A.

      Locate organizationally the IT quality function

    • B.

      Build and deploy the quality toolbox

    • C.

      Identify the quality manager

    • D.

      Determine the quality methodology

    Correct Answer
    D. Determine the quality methodology
    Explanation
    The seven steps for implementing a quality function are isted below, and then detailed in the following sections.
    1. Develop a charter.
    Determine the responsibilities and activities of the quality function.
    2. Identify the quality manager.
    Select a quality "fanatic" to head the quality function.
    3. Locate organizationally the IT quality function.
    Determine to whom the quality leader reports.
    4. Build support for quality.
    Initiate programs that will encourage both management and staff to support quality processes.
    5. Staff and train the quality function.
    Determine what is needed to make quality happen, identify and select the people to do it, and provide them with the training they need.
    6. Build and deploy the quality toolbox.
    Select effective quality tools and implement them throughout the organization.
    7. Drive the implementation of the quality management environment.
    The quality manager will need to spend a significant amount of time maturing the quality management environment.

    These steps are listed sequentially, but may be implemented concurrently. In addition, some steps are only performed periodically, such as selecting a quality manager, while other steps will be performed continually, such as driving the implementation of the quality environment.

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  • 10. 

    From the choices below, select all elements that should be included in an IT Quality Plan? (4-19)

    • A.

      The mission, giving a detailed description of what business IT is in

    • B.

      Long-term IT goals giving direction for IT in the next five years

    • C.

      Short-term objectives for the next business year

    • D.

      Budget projections to support operation of quality operations

    • E.

      Organizational renewal programs that will assure the long-range success of the organization

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The mission, giving a detailed description of what business IT is in
    B. Long-term IT goals giving direction for IT in the next five years
    C. Short-term objectives for the next business year
    E. Organizational renewal programs that will assure the long-range success of the organization
    Explanation
    Quality planning is discussed in Skill Category 5. The IT Strategic Business Plan should include the following:
    • The mission, giving a detailed description of what business IT is in
    • Long-term IT goals giving direction for IT in the next five years
    • Short-term objectives for the next business year
    • How the objectives will be accomplished, including IT projects for the next business year

    • Organizational renewal programs that will assure the long-range success of the organization
    • The resources necessary to accomplish the short-term objectives and the organizational renewal activities that will enable the long-term goals to be achieved

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  • 11. 

    The CSQA CBOK focuses upon three catagories of quality tools.  They are: __________, _________ and ________ tools. (4-23)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Management
    Presentation
    Statistical
    Explanation
    Quality tools can be categorized many different ways. For this presentation the following three groups have been selected. The tools described in each of these categories are a subset of existing tools. They have been included because they are more common and experience has demonstrated
    their effectiveness.
    • Management Tools
    These tools are based on logic rather than mathematics, to address idea generation and organization, decision-making and implementation.
    • Statistical Tools
    These tools have a mathematical focus, usually related to data collection, organization, or interpretation. They may also be separated into tools used for counting and tools used with measures.
    • Presentation Tools
    These tools are used during presentations to summarize or graphically illustrate data. These tools may be used in the development of written materials, such as proposals or reports, or to accompany oral presentations.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following are characteristics of Brainstorming?(4-25) Please select all that apply.

    • A.

      Quickly generate a quantity of creative or original ideas

    • B.

      Structured approach to solicit input in an orderly manner

    • C.

      All participants have equal opportunity to participate

    • D.

      No idea is insigificant and no criticism is offered

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Quickly generate a quantity of creative or original ideas
    C. All participants have equal opportunity to participate
    D. No idea is insigificant and no criticism is offered
    Explanation
    Brainstorming is a technique used to quickly generate a quantity of creative or original ideas on or about a process, problem, product, or service. Brainstorming can be used to:
    • Develop a vision
    • Review inputs, outputs, and flows of existing processes
    • Create a list of products or services
    • Eliminate wasteful and redundant work activities
    • Re-engineer a process, product, or service
    • Design a new or improved process
    • Establish standards, guidelines, or measures
    • Identify the internal and external customers served
    • Improve the work environment
    • Gather data for use with other tools

    A brainstorming session begins with a facilitator establishing basic ground rules and a code of conduct. Typical brainstorming rules state that all members have an equal opportunity to participate, there is no criticism or pulling rank, people should think creatively, no idea will be treated as insignificant, and there should be only one conversation at a time. Members need to be active participants, willing to share their ideas, opinions, concerns, issues, and experiences.

    Next the team agrees on the topic to be brainstormed and whether to give ideas verbally or written on individual index cards, or any other easily manipulated medium. Either a structured (round table) or unstructured (free-flowing) approach is selected. Ideas should be generated quickly (5-15 minutes) and are recorded clearly on a flip-chart or board. The process stops when ideas become redundant or infrequent. Recorded ideas are reviewed for duplication and clarification, and eliminated when necessary. Remaining ideas are then evaluated with an open mind and may be
    used with the affinity diagram, nominal group technique, or cause-and-effect diagram.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a structured, facilitated approach to rank ideas, issues, concerns and solutions? (4-26)

    • A.

      Cause-and-Effect Diagram

    • B.

      Nominal Group Technique

    • C.

      Affinity Diagram

    • D.

      Force Field Analysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Nominal Group Technique
    Explanation
    Nominal Group Technique
    The nominal group technique is a structured, facilitated technique where all team members participate by individually ranking ideas, issues, concerns, and solutions, and then achieve consensus by combining the individual rankings. Sample ideas that could be ranked with the nominal group technique are:
    • Which defect is the greatest?
    • Who are our customers?
    • What are our impediments to quality improvement?
    • What new standards are needed?
    • What are our key indicators?
    • What tool is not being used effectively and how can we increase usage?
    • How do we get a quality tool used?

    Nominal grouping uses a round table (verbal) or index card (written) method for equal participation of teams or groups. It is a good technique to gather large amounts of information. The steps for the nominal group technique are:
    1. Generate a list of ideas, issues, concerns, or solutions to prioritize. Brainstorming can be used if the list is not readily available.
    2. If the list contains more than about 35 items, it may be desirable to shorten it using Pareto analysis to make it more manageable.
    3. As shown in Table 4-3, record the remaining listed items in a location visible to the team, prefacing each item with a letter of the alphabet.

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  • 14. 

    Which diagram is an orderly extension of a structured brainstorming session that categorizes a large number of ideas? (4-25)

    • A.

      Cause-and-Effect Diagram

    • B.

      Nominal Group Technique

    • C.

      Affinity Diagram

    • D.

      Force Field Analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Affinity Diagram
    Explanation
    The affinity diagram is an orderly extension of a tructured brainstorming session. Teams use this tool to help create order out of chaos, by categorizing large numbers of ideas. Rather than having teams react logically to a group of ideas, this technique helps to identify more creative olutions or to structure ideas for a cause-and-effect diagram.

    Possible topics or problem statements where affinity diagrams could help are:
    • Why policies don’t exist
    • Why standards are not adhered to
    • Why QA failed
    • Why objective measures aren’t used
    • Understanding the leadership role in quality management
    • Why employees are not involved or lack empowerment
    • Why quality doesn’t work
    • Improving teamwork in the workplace
    • Understanding the issues to automation and use of CASE tools
    To generate affinity diagrams, continue with these steps after a brainstorming session:
    1. Write each idea on a separate index card.
    2. Randomly place each index card on a flat surface, wallboard or flipchart.
    3. In silence, team members move the cards into meaningful groups until consensus has been achieved (the group stops moving the cards).
    4. As a team, discuss and then label each category with a title.
    5. As a team, discuss each category, using cause-and-effect diagrams, if needed.

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  • 15. 

    Which diagram helps visualize, clarify, link, identify, and classify possible causes of problems, products, and services? (4-27)

    • A.

      Cause-and-Effect Diagram

    • B.

      Nominal Group Technique

    • C.

      Affinity Diagram

    • D.

      Force Field Analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cause-and-Effect Diagram
    Explanation
    Teams use cause-and-effect diagrams to visualize, clarify, link, identify, and classify possible causes of problems in processes, products, and services. They are also referred to as "fishbone diagrams," “why-why diagrams,” or "Ishikawa diagrams" (after Kaoru Ishikawa, a quality expert from Japan).

    Through understanding problems within the work processes, teams can identify root causes of a problem. A diagnostic approach for complex problems, this technique begins breaking down root causes into manageable pieces of a process. A cause-and-effect diagram visualizes results of brainstorming and affinity grouping through major causes of a process problem. Through a series of "why-why" questions on causes, this process can uncover the lowest-level root cause. Figure 4-3 displays a sample cause-and-effect diagram.

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  • 16. 

    A visual tool used to determine and understand factors that drive and restrain change is called? (4-29)

    • A.

      Cause-and-Effect Diagram

    • B.

      Nominal Group Technique

    • C.

      Affinity Diagram

    • D.

      Force Field Analysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Force Field Analysis
    Explanation
    Force field analysis is a visual team tool used to etermine and understand the forces that drive and restrain a change. Driving forces promote the change from the existing state to the desired goal.

    Opposing forces prevent or fight the change. Understanding the positive and negative barriers helps teams reach consensus faster. Following are sample processes that could benefit by a force field analysis:
    • Implementing a quality function
    • Implementing quality management in IT
    • Developing education and training programs
    • Establishing a measurement program/process
    • Selecting a new technique or tool
    • Implementing anything new
    • Establishing meaningful meetings
    • Empowering the work force
    The steps below show how a team uses force field analysis:
    1. Establish a desired situation or goal statement.
    2. Brainstorm and list all possible driving forces.
    3. Brainstorm and list all possible restraining forces.
    4. Determine the relative importance of reaching consensus on each force.
    5. Draw a force field diagram that consists of two columns, driving forces on one side and restraining forces on the other.
    6. Select the most significant forces that need to be acted upon using the nominal group technique to prioritize and reduce the number, if there are too many.
    7. Proceed to a plan of action on the forces selected in the previous step.

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  • 17. 

    __________ is the process of determining how well a company's products, services, and practices measure up against others.

    Correct Answer
    Benchmarking
    Explanation
    Benchmarking is the process of determining how well a company’s products, services, and practices measure up against others. Benchmarking partners can be internal (against other company units), competitive (against competitors within the same industry), or functional (against “best in class” or “best in breed” within any industry). It is the highest level of performance that fully meets customer requirements.

    Benchmarking enables a company to identify the performance gap between themselves and the benchmarking partner, and to determine a realistic improvement goal (some set higher goals) based on industry practices. It helps achieve process improvement, measurement, motivation and a
    management process for improvement. The use of benchmarking is not normally associated with cost cutting or a quick fix. Benchmarking should be integrated with an organization’s process improvement process.

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  • 18. 

    Select all of the following that are types of benchmarking identified in the CSQA CBOK? (4-32)

    • A.

      Cost

    • B.

      Process

    • C.

      Time

    • D.

      Performance

    • E.

      Product

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Process
    D. Performance
    E. Product
    Explanation
    Benchmarking has been used to:
    • Evaluate and upgrade the customer requirements process.
    • Design a professional career ladder for information technology professionals.
    • Identify and install measurements for quality and productivity.
    The three types of benchmarking are identified below. The first two types account for about 80% of all benchmarking that is done.

    • Process Benchmarking
    This benchmark is used to plan for business process improvement, and is documented as part of business plans and quality improvement projects.
    • Product Benchmarking
    This benchmark is used to help in product planning and development, using product documentation that includes the product performance goals and design practices identified through benchmarking.
    • Performance Benchmarking
    This benchmark is used to set and validate objectives to measure performance, and to project improvements required to close the benchmark “gap.”
    Benchmarking is a ten-step process, involving four phases, as described below. Steps 2 through 5 are iterative.

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  • 19. 

    Please select all statements which are applicable about Quality Function Deployment (QFD)? (4-35)

    • A.

      An organized approach to quality with tools, techniques and a set of methods.

    • B.

      Dr. Yoji Akao is the principal developer of QFD

    • C.

      Comprehensive quality deployment includes quality deployment, technology deployment, cost/schedule deployment and reliability deployment.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. An organized approach to quality with tools, techniques and a set of methods.
    B. Dr. Yoji Akao is the principal developer of QFD
    C. Comprehensive quality deployment includes quality deployment, technology deployment, cost/schedule deployment and reliability deployment.
    Explanation
    A quality system is an organized approach to quality with tools, techniques and a set of methods. Dr. Yoji Akao, principal developer of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), defines QFD as a quality system with many components as shown in Figure 4-5. Comprehensive quality deployment includes quality deployment, technology deployment, cost/schedule deployment, and reliability deployment. It can also address other special concerns with a corresponding deployment, such as usability, reuse, security, etc. QFD provides forward and backward traceability of value in the software development life cycle.

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  • 20. 

    A graph that groups data by predetermined intervals to show the frequency of a data set is called? (4-41)

    • A.

      Pareto

    • B.

      Histogram

    • C.

      Run Chart

    • D.

      Scatter Plot

    • E.

      Control Chart

    Correct Answer
    B. Histogram
    Explanation
    A histogram (or frequency distribution chart) is a bar graph that groups data by predetermined intervals to show the frequency of the data set. It provides a way to measure and analyze data collected about a process or problem, and may provide a basis for what to work on first.

    Histograms are also useful for displaying information such as defects by type or source, delivery rates or times, experience or skill levels, cycle times, or end user survey responses. Figure 4-8 shows a simple histogram.

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  • 21. 

    This graph is used when there is a need to order or rank problems or causes by frequency. (4-43)

    • A.

      Pareto

    • B.

      Histogram

    • C.

      Run Chart

    • D.

      Scatter Plot

    • E.

      Control Chart

    Correct Answer
    A. Pareto
    Explanation
    The Pareto chart is a special type of histogram, used to view causes of a problem in order of severity from largest to smallest. It is a simple statistical tool that graphically shows the 20-80 rule where 20% of the sources cause 80% of the problems. Joseph Juran refers to this Pareto principle as the separation of the “vital few” from the “trivial many”.

    A Pareto chart is typically used early in the continuous improvement process when there is a need to order or rank problems or causes by frequency. The vital few problems and their respective root causes can then be focused on. This technique provides the ability to:
    • Categorize items, usually by content (type of defect, position, process, time, etc.) or cause (materials, operating methods, manpower, measurement, etc.) factors
    • Identify the causes or characteristics that contribute most to a problem
    • Decide which basic causes of a problem to work on first
    • Understand the effectiveness of the improvement by doing pre- and post-improvement charts

    Sample problems for Pareto analysis include:
    • Problem-solving for the vital few causes or characteristics
    • Defect analysis
    • Cycle or delivery time reductions
    • Failures found in production
    • Employee satisfaction/dissatisfaction

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  • 22. 

    This chart provides a way of objectively defining a process and variation. (4-45)

    • A.

      Pareto

    • B.

      Histogram

    • C.

      Run Chart

    • D.

      Scatter Plot

    • E.

      Control Chart

    Correct Answer
    E. Control Chart
    Explanation
    Control charts provide a way of objectively defining a process and variation. They establish measures on a process, improve process analysis and allow process improvements to be based on facts.

    Note: Variation is briefly described here to put control charts in perspective. Skill Category 8 provides additional details on the topic of variation.

    The intent of a control chart is to determine if a process is statistically stable and then to monitor the
    variation of stable process where activities are repetitive. There are two types of variation:
    • Common or random causes of variation
    These are inherent in every system over time, and are a part of the natural operation of the system. Resolving common cause problems requires a process change.
    • Special causes of variation
    These are not part of the system all the time. They result from some special circumstance and require changes outside the process for resolution.

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  • 23. 

    A graph of data in chronological order that displays changes and trends in the central tendency average is called a ____ _____. (4-44)

    Correct Answer
    Run Chart
    Explanation
    A run chart as shown in Figure 4-9 is a graph of data, in chronological order that displays changes and trends in the central tendency (average). The data represents measures, counts, or percentages of outputs (products or services) from a process. Run charts are often used to monitor and quantify process outputs before a control chart is developed. Run charts can be used as input for establishing control charts.

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  • 24. 

    A scatter plot shows the relationship of two variables by showing how one variable ________ the other. (4-47)

    Correct Answer
    influences
    Explanation
    A scatter plot is used for problem solving and understanding cause-and-effect relationships. It
    shows whether a relationship exists between two variables, by testing how one variable influences the response (other variable). Scatter plots are also called scatter diagrams or correlation diagrams.

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  • 25. 

    This is an example of a: (4-52)

    • A.

      Bar Chart

    • B.

      Stem-and-Leaf Chart

    • C.

      Pie Chart

    • D.

      Line Chart

    Correct Answer
    B. Stem-and-Leaf Chart
    Explanation
    Stem-and-Leaf Chart
    The stem-and-leaf chart is a variation of the bar chart using the actual distributed values shown by
    category. Since the actual values are used, the stem-and-leaf chart is only practical when the
    absolute number of values is low (usually 100 or less).

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following ARE NOT part of the steps for Getting Buy-In for Process Change through Marketing? (4-53)

    • A.

      Determine Key Decision Makers

    • B.

      Present Solution in Terms of Customer Needs

    • C.

      Obtain Approval

    • D.

      Identify Barriers and Obstacles

    • E.

      Validate Process and Pilot New Process

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Determine Key Decision Makers
    E. Validate Process and Pilot New Process
    Explanation
    The five-step marketing process is as follows:
    Step 1: Identify Customer Needs
    In this step of information gathering, the customer’s needs are differentiated from wants, and the needs are validated as true needs. Needs are what the customer requires to do his/her job effectively. Wants are the requirements defined by the customer. Ideally, they will be the same, but it cannot be assumed that what the customer says is wanted, is what is really wanted. Customer needs are typically determined by any combination of customer surveys, user developed statement of requirements, customer process decomposition, data flow diagrams, JAD sessions, and prototyping. They then are confirmed with the customer.
    While confirming the requirements, effort is undertaken to win as many supporters as possible, so that when the formal proposal is made, it has already been approved and the ceremony is a formality rather than a selling event.
    Step 2: Present Solution in Terms of Customer Needs
    People buy benefits, not products (i.e., deliverables). Thus, in this step the deliverables or solutions are defined in terms of showing benefit to the customer in a manner understandable to the customer. For example, end users do not need client-server technology; they need the
    capabilities provided by client-server technology. It must be demonstrated how these benefits are aligned with organizational goals. They must be packaged to match the organization’s and decision-maker’s style and then marketed to the customer (emphasizing the value of the proposal and importance to them).
    Step 3: Identify Barriers and Obstacles
    Customer objections such as lack of resources, schedule length, difficulty to build, or not meeting management approval criteria are a normal part of the marketing process. They should be viewed positively, because objections usually show interest. Objections fall into three
    general categories:
    • Formal Objections
    These objections are those voiced by the customer or potential customer about the solution to a need. The challenge is to ensure that the objections are the correct ones,not substitutes. For example, a decision-maker who does not want to implement empowerment might not voice personal objections, but, substitute objections like lack
    of time, resources, or priorities. Once an objection has been validated as real, it can be addressed through compromise or alternative strategies.
    • Organizational Barriers and Obstacles
    These objections are internal, such as procedures that inhibit change within an organization, or conflicting policies. Plans are often prepared without identifying
    organizational barriers and obstacles. Root causes should be determined to understand why these barriers exist. Then the most effective way of addressing them should be incorporated into tactical plan tasks.
    • People Barriers and Obstacles
    These objections come from stakeholders. Marketers should identify stakeholders, their stake in success or failure, and the reasons that support this stake so that selling
    efforts can focus on their known or unknown objections.
    Step 4: Address Barriers and Obstacles
    Once an objection occurs, the key to the sale is overcoming the objection. For example, if management says they cannot buy a tool because there is no money available, finding a way to transfer money from an end user budget to the information budget is all that is needed to gain
    approval to acquire the tool. It is generally poor business practice to request approval for a project to which objections have been raised but not addressed. If this happens, the objections normally occur again during the approval process or during implementation of the project.
    People disliking the proposal may give lukewarm support to the proposal during the early stages, but will make their objections known if they detect a weakness. Objections can be expressed formally, or can occur through intentionally performing the new activities ineffectively. It is more cost-effective to address objectives before implementation, and the probability of a successful project is significantly higher. After recognizing that there is an objection, assess its magnitude and root cause (such as ineffective, personal preference). Address the objection
    quickly and forcibly. Too many objections may indicate that the proposal is probably not aligned with the customer or organization.
    Step 5: Obtain Approval
    In marketing, this is called “closing the sale,” and is generally done as early in the process as possible. For example, if approval can be obtained when defining the need, do not continue with the remaining steps. Management may be ready to give approval, but staff members who
    have prepared a detailed proposal and marketing strategy may want to present their material. Once management begins to understand barriers and obstacles they may change their mind. If the first four steps have been adequately performed, approval should be an automatic process. If approval is not obtained, then the execution of steps one through four should be carefully examined to determine the root cause of disapproval. While it may not be possible to
    reverse this decision, lessons learned could improve the marketing process to ensure approval.
    on the next proposal.

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  • 27. 

    The Formula for Effective Behavior Change Industrial psychologists state that the formula for behavior change is: Behavior = _____________ + _____________. (4-56)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Individual
    Environment
    Explanation
    The Formula for Effective Behavior Change
    Industrial psychologists state that the formula for behavior change is:
    Behavior = Individual + Environment
    This formula indicates that if neither the individual nor the environment changes, there is no change in behavior. It is significantly easier to change the environment in which an individual operates than to change an individual’s attitudes and beliefs

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  • 28. 

    In deploying change, what are the three deployment phases? (4-57)

    • A.

      Planning

    • B.

      Assessment

    • C.

      Strategic

    • D.

      Validate

    • E.

      Tactical

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Assessment
    C. Strategic
    E. Tactical
    Explanation
    There are three deployment phases - assessment, strategic, and tactical. The assessment and strategic deployment phases represent the Planning component of the PDCA cycle. The tactical deployment phase represents the Do, Check and Act components of the PDCA cycle.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following are part of the four-step process for recommended deployment strategy for quality initiatives: (4-58)

    • A.

      Develop, Acquire and Customize the Approach

    • B.

      Select and Sequence or Prioritize Change Approaches

    • C.

      Identify Possible Solutions

    • D.

      Determine Financial Impact of Implementation

    • E.

      Set the Goal

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Develop, Acquire and Customize the Approach
    B. Select and Sequence or Prioritize Change Approaches
    C. Identify Possible Solutions
    E. Set the Goal
    Explanation
    The recommended deployment strategy for quality initiatives is a four-step process:
    1. Set the Goal
    Establishing a vision or a goal starts the strategic phase of deployment. If there is no desire to improve, deployment tactics will not work. The gap between the current level of performance(from the assessment phase), and the goal to be achieved defines the deployment challenge. Both must be expressed quantitatively. Goal setting is a management responsibility, but it may also be done by self-managed teams or empowered individuals. Goals are the results desired from the process change. Failure to meet
    a goal should not be viewed negatively since the overall objective should be continuous improvement. A goal may not be met because it was too optimistic or the process to meet it was inadequate.
    Some guidelines to follow when setting goals are:
    • Use measurements that were established to identify the baseline for the goal.
    • The goal must be realistic (this does not preclude setting stretch goals if there is a reasonable expectation they can be achieved).
    • Those responsible for achieving the goal must agree to it.
    • Those responsible for meeting the goal should follow the process, and not circumvent the process to meet the goal.
    • Use tools that can help with goal setting, such as consensus or benchmarking.
    2. Identify Possible Solutions
    Since a problem can have hundreds of solutions, it is important to identify the better ones. Good identification practice states to first identify all viable options, and then select the ones that appear to be most effective. Searching for, and identifying, effective solutions varies based on the goal. Avoid having a solution looking for a problem, or the search leading to “analysis paralysis”. Determine whether spending excessive time seeking out the optimal solution is a better choice than quickly implementing a good, effective solution that also works.
    Developing the strategic plan for how to reach a goal involves building the road map to get from the current baseline to the desired point. For example, the strategic plan might establish moving the structure from a waterfall development process to an IT engineering environment.
    Some guidelines for identifying solutions are:
    • Assure that all involved parties have an opportunity to offer solutions.
    • Determine how other organizations have solved the same or similar problems.
    • Realize that the goal must be the driver, and there must be reasonable agreement that the solution will move the organization toward achieving it.
    • Assure that it is possible to implement the solution within the organization’s level of competency.
    • Assure that it is possible to implement the solution within the time frame associated with the goal.
    • Consider different methods of identifying possible solutions, such as brainstorming, benchmarking, affinity diagrams, a quality improvement process, request for proposals, or engaging consultants.
    3. Select and Sequence or Prioritize Change Approaches
    Simple goals can have simple, easy to implement solutions. If the solution for reducing job control language (JCL) errors is to acquire a software tool to edit the JCL statements, the sequencing and implementing of the solution is readily apparent.
    The implementation of complex goals and solutions can have complex sequencing. For example, a goal to improve customer satisfaction may involve a series of approaches that can
    be implemented in a variety of sequences. Assume the approach selected was to improve the score from the MBNQA criteria. This is realistic because the goal of the Baldrige model is to improve customer satisfaction. The dilemma is that the Baldrige model has approximately 100
    items to address in implementation. The question becomes: “Which of the 100 should be emphasized first, second, third, and so forth?” The objective of this step is to answer that question.
    From the possible solutions in Step 2, select the most appropriate ones. Then prioritize and sequence the changes for implementation. For example, decide that IT standards should be developed before implementing the engineering tools. Identify any prerequisites and constraints associated with the needed approach.
    Some guidelines for selecting and sequencing change approaches are:
    • Select approaches that are most acceptable to the culture (poor approaches that are acceptable may be more effective than optimal approaches that are resisted).
    • Select approaches that have the highest probability of success, first.
    • Select approaches that will provide both short-term and long-term results.
    • Select an implementation strategy that will use the best people and the best projects, as opposed to trying to improve the poorest projects with the least effective staff.
    • Implement the prerequisites to the approach before implementing the approach.
    • Use tools such as risk ranking, analysis, or return on investment.
    4. Develop, Acquire and Customize the Approach
    After selecting the approach, it must be implemented. If conducting a survey was the approach selected, the survey would be developed in this step. The options for implementing the approach are:
    • Develop the approach; for example, select someone to write a customer survey.
    • Acquire the approach; for example, purchase a survey, or engage a market research firm to conduct the survey.
    • Customize the approach, starting with a generic approach and then customizing it for the organization; for example, purchase a customer survey, and then modify, delete, or add to the questions to meet the specific needs of the organization.
    Guidelines to assuring that an effective approach is developed are:
    • Ensure that the owners/users of the approach help develop the approach.
    • Select simplicity of execution over complexity.
    • Develop the quality control tools in conjunction with the approach tools (build the do and check procedures at the same time.)
    • Ensure that objectives for the approach are well defined and understood (The goal should be expressed quantitatively and might be a policy for the approach.)
    • Ensure that the approach is consistent with, and fits with, other interrelated activities.
    • Use tools for developing, acquiring, and customizing, such as a system development methodology, a process management process, or a quality improvement process.

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  • 30. 

    TRUE OR FALSE: The deployment costs of a process are three to ten more than the development cost? (4-60)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    As previously stated, effectively performing the strategic deployment activities helps ensure the success of the deployment tactics. It takes three to ten times more resources to deploy an approach than to develop it. If the deployment resources are inadequate, there is a high probability that the approach will fail, or that its use will be minimal. For example, if a capture/playback testing tool is purchased for $25,000, installation costs should be between $50,000 and $250,000. If those funds are not expended, that tool will normally fall into disuse.
    The tactical phase answers three questions:
    • When the process is initially implemented, compliance is attempted (see Step 5 below), answering the implementation question “How do I get people to follow the process?”
    • Measurement is performed (see Step 6 below) to answer the question “Does the process work (is it under control) and is the organization moving in the right direction to support the vision or goal?”
    • Based on the measurement, the question “Does the process need improvement, and if so, how?” is answered in Step 7 below.

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  • 31. 

    Please select all of the following which ARE part of the five critical success factors for an effective deployment process?  (4-64)

    • A.

      Deployment responsibilities are effectively passed between individuals and between teams.

    • B.

      Deployment is a series of integrated tasks, which together enable approaches to be effectively implemented.

    • C.

      Deployment is a team effort.

    • D.

      Deployment champion(s) is in place.

    • E.

      There is buy-in by the affected parties.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Deployment responsibilities are effectively passed between individuals and between teams.
    B. Deployment is a series of integrated tasks, which together enable approaches to be effectively implemented.
    C. Deployment is a team effort.
    D. Deployment champion(s) is in place.
    E. There is buy-in by the affected parties.
    Explanation
    Deployment is much harder than defining an approach. Approach is an intellectual exercise; deployment is a people-intensive process. There are five intangible attributes called critical success factors that help make deployment work.
    These five critical success factors for an effective deployment process are:
    1. Deployment is a series of integrated tasks, which together enable approaches to be effectively implemented.
    • These integrated tasks are a deployment process that should be customized as needed for each organization and each approach.
    2. Deployment champion(s) is in place.
    • Someone must take the lead for making the identified approach happen. While the champion can be a highly respected staff member, it is always advantageous for the
    champion to be a senior manager.
    3. Deployment is a team effort.
    • A single individual can develop an effective approach, but can rarely deploy that approach. A team of people including instructors, technicians, colleagues and management must implement the deployment process.
    4. There is buy-in by the affected parties.
    • Tasks that transfer ownership of the approach to the users of the approach involve a buy-in. In this activity an individual accepts the approach as the way business will
    be done. The individual does not have to like the approach, but does have to wholeheartedly support its use in performing the effective work tasks.
    5. Deployment responsibilities are effectively passed between individuals and between teams.
    • Deployment is a continuous process that begins prior to developing the approach, and goes on until the approach is discontinued. During that time, the level of enthusiasm for the approach will vary. People involved in ensuring that the approach is followed (i.e., deployed) likely will change over time. It is essential that new people
    involved in the work tasks have the same enthusiasm and desire that existed in the initial deployment effort.

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  • 32. 

    Please select the three types of internal audits. (4-66)

    • A.

      Financial

    • B.

      Operational

    • C.

      Process

    • D.

      Program

    • E.

      Quality

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Financial
    B. Operational
    D. Program
    Explanation
    Internal auditing is a management control directed at measuring and evaluating an activity to determine if it is performed in accordance with the policies and procedures of an organization (i.e.,meets the intent of management). It is an independent appraisal activity. The specific types of
    auditing are:
    • Financial Auditing
    Financial auditing is performed in accordance with generally accepted accounting procedures and other applicable laws and regulations to determine that the accounting records are reasonable.
    • Operational Auditing
    Operational auditing is performed to determine that operations are performed in an efficient, effective and economical manner.
    • Program Auditing
    Program auditing is performed to determine that the objectives of specific business activities are being properly fulfilled.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 04, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Uhgcsqa

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