Crisis And Absolutism In Europe

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    French Protestants influenced by John Calvin

    • A.

      Edit of Nantes

    • B.

      Huguenots

    • C.

      Peace of Westphalia

    • D.

      Charles I

    Correct Answer
    B. Huguenots
    Explanation
    The Huguenots were French Protestants who were heavily influenced by John Calvin's teachings. They played a significant role in the religious and political conflicts in France during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Edict of Nantes, issued by King Henry IV in 1598, granted religious toleration and certain rights to the Huguenots. However, the persecution of Huguenots continued under subsequent rulers, leading many of them to flee the country. The Huguenots also had an impact on the Peace of Westphalia, a series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War, as their rights and liberties were addressed in the negotiations.

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  • 2. 

    Recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France

    • A.

      Charles I

    • B.

      Queen Elizabeth

    • C.

      Peter the Great

    • D.

      Peace of Westphilia

    Correct Answer
    C. Peter the Great
    Explanation
    Peter the Great is the correct answer because he recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France. This decision was part of Peter the Great's efforts to modernize and Westernize Russia, as he believed that adopting Catholicism would bring Russia closer to the rest of Europe. This decision had significant implications for religious and political dynamics in France and helped to solidify Catholicism as the dominant religion in the country.

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  • 3. 

    Officially ended the Thirty Years's War

    • A.

      Toleration Act of 1689

    • B.

      Peace of Westphilia

    • C.

      Papal King

    • D.

      Bourbon

    Correct Answer
    B. Peace of Westphilia
    Explanation
    The Peace of Westphalia officially ended the Thirty Years' War. This peace treaty, signed in 1648, brought an end to the conflict between various European powers and established a new system of international relations. It recognized the sovereignty of individual states and introduced the principle of religious toleration, allowing for greater religious freedom. The treaty also reshaped the political landscape of Europe and marked the beginning of a new era in international diplomacy.

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  • 4. 

    His execution horrified much of Europe

    • A.

      Queen Elizabeth

    • B.

      York

    • C.

      Louis XII

    • D.

      Charles I

    Correct Answer
    D. Charles I
    Explanation
    Charles I was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until his execution in 1649. His execution horrified much of Europe because it was the first time a reigning monarch had been put on trial and executed by their own subjects. This event sent shockwaves throughout Europe and challenged the traditional belief in the divine right of kings. It also marked a significant turning point in English history, leading to the establishment of the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.

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  • 5. 

    The invasion of England by William of Orange

    • A.

      "Toleration Act of 1689"

    • B.

      "Glorious Revolution"

    • C.

      "Peace of Westphilia"

    • D.

      "Peter the Great"

    Correct Answer
    B. "Glorious Revolution"
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Glorious Revolution." The Glorious Revolution refers to the events that took place in England in 1688 when William of Orange, a Dutch prince, invaded England and overthrew King James II. This revolution was considered "glorious" because it resulted in a relatively bloodless transfer of power and led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in England. The Toleration Act of 1689, which granted religious freedom to Protestants, was one of the significant outcomes of the Glorious Revolution. The other options, such as the Peace of Westphalia and Peter the Great, are unrelated to the invasion of England by William of Orange.

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  • 6. 

    Granted Puritains, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship

    • A.

      Papal King

    • B.

      Toleration Act

    • C.

      Peace of Westphilia

    • D.

      Pter the Great

    Correct Answer
    B. Toleration Act
    Explanation
    The Toleration Act granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship. This act was passed in 1689 in England, following the Glorious Revolution. It aimed to promote religious tolerance and end religious persecution. The act allowed non-conformist Protestant groups, such as the Puritans, to worship publicly without fear of punishment or discrimination. However, Catholics were excluded from this act, as they were still seen as a threat to the Protestant establishment. The Toleration Act was an important step towards religious freedom and pluralism in England.

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  • 7. 

    Louis XIII's chief minister

    • A.

      Peter the Great

    • B.

      El Greco

    • C.

      Jean-Baptiste Colbert

    • D.

      Cardinal Richelieu

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardinal Richelieu
    Explanation
    Cardinal Richelieu was Louis XIII's chief minister during his reign. He was a powerful and influential figure in French politics and played a crucial role in centralizing the monarchy's power. Richelieu implemented policies that strengthened the monarchy and diminished the power of the nobility, making him an important figure in French history.

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  • 8. 

    Sought to increase France's wealth and power by following the ideas of mercantilism

    • A.

      El Greco

    • B.

      Cardinal Richelieu

    • C.

      Jean Baptiste Colbert

    • D.

      Papal King

    Correct Answer
    C. Jean Baptiste Colbert
    Explanation
    Jean Baptiste Colbert is the correct answer because he was a prominent figure in French politics during the reign of King Louis XIV. He served as the Minister of Finances and implemented policies that aimed to increase France's wealth and power. Colbert followed the ideas of mercantilism, which advocated for government intervention in the economy to promote exports and accumulate precious metals. He implemented various reforms, such as promoting domestic industries, establishing trade monopolies, and implementing tariffs. These policies helped France become economically stronger and increase its power on the international stage.

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  • 9. 

    His work reflected the high point of Mannerism

    • A.

      Papal King

    • B.

      El Greco

    • C.

      Edict of Nantes

    • D.

      Peter the Great

    Correct Answer
    B. El Greco
    Explanation
    El Greco's work is considered the high point of Mannerism, an artistic style that emerged in the late Renaissance period. Mannerism is characterized by exaggerated and elongated figures, distorted proportions, and dramatic lighting. El Greco's paintings, such as "The Burial of the Count of Orgaz" and "The View of Toledo," showcase these Mannerist characteristics. His unique style and innovative use of color and composition made him a significant figure in the art world, and his work continues to be celebrated for its emotional intensity and spiritual depth.

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  • 10. 

    Introduced Western customs and ways of doing things to Russia

    • A.

      Jean-Baptiste Colbert

    • B.

      Edit of Nantes

    • C.

      King of the World

    • D.

      Huguenot King

    Correct Answer
    B. Edit of Nantes
    Explanation
    The Edict of Nantes was a decree issued by King Henry IV of France in 1598. It granted religious freedom to the Huguenots, who were French Protestants, and allowed them to practice their religion openly. This edict aimed to bring peace and stability to France after decades of religious conflict. However, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who was a minister under King Louis XIV, did not introduce the Edict of Nantes. Therefore, this answer is incorrect and does not explain the given correct answer.

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  • 11. 

     recognized catholicism as the  official religion of France

    • A.

      Peter the Great

    • B.

      Charles I

    • C.

      Toleration Act of 1689

    • D.

      Valois

    Correct Answer
    A. Peter the Great
    Explanation
    Peter the Great is the correct answer because he recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France. This decision was significant as it showed Peter's efforts to modernize and westernize Russia, as Catholicism was the dominant religion in Western Europe at the time. By recognizing Catholicism as the official religion of France, Peter aimed to align Russia with Western European powers and promote religious tolerance within his empire. This decision also had political implications, as it helped strengthen diplomatic ties between Russia and Catholic-majority countries in Europe.

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  • 12. 

    The house of ______________ ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre.

    • A.

      Valois

    • B.

      Bourbon

    • C.

      York

    • D.

      Annecy

    Correct Answer
    B. Bourbon
    Explanation
    The Bourbon family ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre.

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  • 13. 

    Philip II of Spain was known as the

    • A.

      "Huguenot King."

    • B.

      "Most Catholic King."

    • C.

      "king of the World"

    • D.

      "Papal King."

    Correct Answer
    B. "Most Catholic King."
    Explanation
    Philip II of Spain was known as the "Most Catholic King" because he was a devout Catholic and played a significant role in promoting and defending Catholicism during his reign. He sought to establish Catholicism as the dominant religion in his territories and fought against Protestantism, particularly during the religious conflicts of the time. His strong religious beliefs and actions earned him the title of the "Most Catholic King."

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  • 14. 

    James I England believed in the divine right of kings, which is

    • A.

      The belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the throne, and therefore was faultless.

    • B.

      The concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by the laws of the Church.

    • C.

      The theory that kings alone know the mind of God, and therefore could determine the future through divination.

    • D.

      The idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible onlyto God.

    Correct Answer
    D. The idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible onlyto God.
    Explanation
    James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which means that he believed that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God. This belief suggests that the authority of the king is derived directly from God, and therefore he is not subject to the laws of the Church or any other earthly authority. This concept grants the king absolute power and places him above any human laws or limitations.

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  • 15. 

    The ____ were Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas.

    • A.

      Puritans

    • B.

      Royalists

    • C.

      Roundheads

    • D.

      Cavaliers

    Correct Answer
    A. Puritans
    Explanation
    The Puritans were a group of Protestants in England who were influenced by Calvinist ideas. They sought to purify the Church of England from what they saw as remnants of Catholic practices and beliefs. The Puritans believed in a strict interpretation of the Bible and emphasized personal piety and moral behavior. They were known for their strong work ethic, simplicity of lifestyle, and opposition to religious rituals and ceremonies they deemed unnecessary. The Puritans played a significant role in the religious and political history of England, particularly during the English Civil War and the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America.

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  • 16. 

    Oliver Cromwell’s defeat of the king’s forces allowed him to

    • A.

      Restore the French monarchy to the throne.

    • B.

      Execute the members of Parliament that disagreed with his policies and beliefs.

    • C.

      Take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship.

    • D.

      return England to Catholicism and establish an entirely pro-Catholic Parliament.

    Correct Answer
    C. Take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship.
    Explanation
    Oliver Cromwell's defeat of the king's forces allowed him to take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship. This is because Cromwell was a key figure in the English Civil War and led the Parliamentarian forces to victory against the Royalists. After the war, he dissolved the monarchy and established the Commonwealth, a republican government. Cromwell then became Lord Protector, effectively ruling as a military dictator until his death. Therefore, the correct answer is that Cromwell's defeat of the king's forces allowed him to take control of England and establish a military dictatorship.

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  • 17. 

      The foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England was laid by the

    • A.

      Toleration Act of 1489.

    • B.

      Bill of Rights.

    • C.

      “Glorious Revolution.”

    • D.

      Rump Parliament.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bill of Rights.
    Explanation
    The Bill of Rights laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England. It was passed in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution, which saw William and Mary of Orange replace James II as monarchs. The Bill of Rights established important principles, such as parliamentary sovereignty and the limitation of the monarch's powers. It also protected individual rights, such as freedom of speech and the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. This document played a crucial role in shaping the constitutional monarchy that exists in England today.

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  • 18. 

    What is absolutism?

    • A.

      The practice by monarchs of undergoing daily absolution to keep states free of the burden of sin

    • B.

      The belief that all citizens within a state must conform to one religion

    • C.

      An offshoot of Islam, in which it is believed that baptism absolves all past and future sins

    • D.

      A system of government in which a ruler holds total power

    Correct Answer
    D. A system of government in which a ruler holds total power
    Explanation
    Absolutism refers to a system of government where a ruler possesses complete and unrestricted authority. In this form of governance, the ruler holds absolute power and is not limited by any constitutional or legal restraints. They have the authority to make decisions, enact laws, and control all aspects of the state without any checks or balances. This system is characterized by the concentration of power in the hands of a single individual, typically a monarch.

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  • 19. 

    Louis XIV maintained complete authority as monarch by

    • A.

      Executing the previous monarch’s entire family.

    • B.

      Maintaining a network of spies to find conspirators against him.

    • C.

      Distracting the nobles and royal princes with court life, to keep them out of politics.

    • D.

      Bestowing lavish riches on any serf who supported his right to rule.

    Correct Answer
    C. Distracting the nobles and royal princes with court life, to keep them out of politics.
    Explanation
    Louis XIV maintained complete authority as monarch by distracting the nobles and royal princes with court life, to keep them out of politics. By creating a luxurious and extravagant court at the Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV effectively kept the nobles and royal princes occupied with the pursuit of pleasure and entertainment. This diversionary tactic prevented them from engaging in political activities and potentially challenging the king's authority. The lavish lifestyle and social events at court served as a means of control, ensuring that the nobility remained focused on their own personal enjoyment rather than involving themselves in political affairs.

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  • 20. 

    The style of painting known as ____ is known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions.

    • A.

      Gauche

    • B.

      Realism

    • C.

      Baroque

    • D.

      Mannerism

    Correct Answer
    C. Baroque
    Explanation
    The style of painting known as baroque is known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions. Baroque art is characterized by its grandeur, ornate details, and exaggerated gestures. It often features intense lighting, dynamic compositions, and a sense of movement. This style emerged in the 17th century and was popularized by artists such as Caravaggio, Bernini, and Rembrandt. The baroque style aimed to evoke strong emotions in the viewer, whether it be awe, admiration, or even fear.

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  • 21. 

      The work of William Shakespeare is perhaps the best example of ____ literature.

    • A.

      Elizabethan

    • B.

      Baroque

    • C.

      Gothic

    • D.

      Mannerist

    Correct Answer
    A. Elizabethan
    Explanation
    The work of William Shakespeare is often associated with the Elizabethan era, which refers to the period of English history during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Shakespeare's plays and poems were written and performed during this time, making them a prime example of Elizabethan literature. The term "Elizabethan" is used to describe the cultural, social, and artistic characteristics of this period, including the flourishing of literature and drama. Therefore, the correct answer is Elizabethan.

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  • 22. 

      ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre

    • A.

      Phillip II

    • B.

      House of Bourbon

    • C.

      Divine right of kings

    • D.

      Louis XIV

    Correct Answer
    B. House of Bourbon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "house of Bourbon." The house of Bourbon ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre. This ruling family held power during the reign of Louis XIV and believed in the divine right of kings.

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  • 23. 

    The “Most Catholic King”

    • A.

      Miguel de Cervantes

    • B.

      Puritans

    • C.

      Louis XIV

    • D.

      Phillip II

    Correct Answer
    D. Phillip II
    Explanation
    Phillip II is referred to as the "Most Catholic King" because of his strong devotion to the Catholic Church and his efforts to promote Catholicism throughout his reign. He was a devout Catholic who saw himself as the defender of the faith and fought against Protestantism during the time of the Reformation. Phillip II was known for his strict adherence to Catholic doctrines and his involvement in various religious conflicts, such as the Spanish Inquisition and the wars against the Protestant Netherlands and England. His commitment to Catholicism earned him the title of the "Most Catholic King."

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  • 24. 

    The idea that kings receive their power from God

    • A.

      Divine right of kings

    • B.

      Independents

    • C.

      Mannerism

    • D.

      Miguel de Cervantes

    Correct Answer
    A. Divine right of kings
    Explanation
    The term "divine right of kings" refers to the belief that kings receive their power directly from God. This concept was commonly accepted in monarchies, where the king's authority was considered to be absolute and unquestionable. It justified the king's rule as being ordained by a higher power, making any opposition or rebellion against the king's authority a sin. This idea was prevalent during the medieval and early modern periods, and it played a significant role in shaping the political and social structures of many countries.

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  • 25. 

    Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas

    • A.

      Puritans

    • B.

      Louis XIV

    • C.

      Absolutism

    • D.

      House of Bourbon

    Correct Answer
    A. Puritans
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Puritans because they were a group of Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas. They sought to purify the Church of England from what they saw as remnants of Catholicism. The Puritans were known for their strict moral code and desire for religious reform, and they played a significant role in the English Civil War and the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America.

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  • 26. 

    Soldiers in the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell

    • A.

      Bill of Rights

    • B.

      Mannerism

    • C.

      Independents

    • D.

      Divine right of kings

    Correct Answer
    C. Independents
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Independents. The Independents were a political and religious group in England during the 17th century. They were known for their opposition to the monarchy and their support for religious freedom. They played a significant role in the English Civil War and were influential in the formation of the New Model Army, which was led by Oliver Cromwell. They advocated for a more democratic government and were instrumental in the establishment of the Commonwealth of England.

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  • 27. 

      laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England

    • A.

      Bill of Rights

    • B.

      Independents

    • C.

      "Toleration Act of 1689"

    • D.

      "Glorious Revolution"

    Correct Answer
    A. Bill of Rights
    Explanation
    The Bill of Rights, enacted in 1689, laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England. It established the rights and liberties of the people, limiting the powers of the monarchy and ensuring that the monarch would rule in accordance with the laws passed by Parliament. The Bill of Rights also guaranteed freedom of speech, fair trials, and protection against excessive fines and cruel punishments. This document marked a significant shift in power from the monarchy to the Parliament, establishing the principles of limited government and individual rights that are still influential today.

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  • 28. 

    System of government in which a ruler holds total power

    • A.

      Puritans

    • B.

      Bill of Rights

    • C.

      Independents

    • D.

      Absolutism

    Correct Answer
    D. Absolutism
    Explanation
    Absolutism refers to a system of government where a ruler holds total power. In this form of government, the ruler has absolute control over all aspects of the state, including political, social, and economic decisions. This means that the ruler has the authority to make laws, enforce them, and make decisions without any limitations or checks from other branches or institutions. Absolutism was commonly practiced in monarchies during the 16th to 18th centuries, where the monarch's power was often justified by divine right. This system contrasts with other forms of government, such as constitutional monarchy or democracy, where power is shared or limited by laws and institutions.

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  • 29. 

      fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King

    • A.

      Louis XIV

    • B.

      Philip I

    • C.

      Peter the Great

    • D.

      John III

    Correct Answer
    A. Louis XIV
    Explanation
    Louis XIV fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King. This refers to the belief that he was the center of power and authority, just like the sun is the center of the solar system. Louis XIV was known for his absolute monarchy and his extravagant lifestyle, which further reinforced this myth. He centralized power in France and portrayed himself as a symbol of divine right and absolute authority. This myth helped to solidify his control over the country and maintain his image as a powerful and influential ruler.

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  • 30. 

      marked the end of the artistic Renaissance

    • A.

      Independents

    • B.

      Absolutism

    • C.

      Mannerism

    • D.

      Bill of Rights

    Correct Answer
    C. Mannerism
    Explanation
    Mannerism is the correct answer because it refers to a style of art that emerged in the late Renaissance period. It is characterized by exaggerated and distorted figures, complex compositions, and a sense of artificiality. Mannerism is often seen as a reaction against the balanced and harmonious style of the High Renaissance, and it marked a shift towards more emotional and subjective expression in art. Therefore, the emergence of Mannerism can be seen as the end of the artistic Renaissance, as it signaled a departure from the ideals and principles of the earlier period.

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  • 31. 

      wrote the novel Don Quixote

    • A.

      Sun King

    • B.

      Oliver Cromwell

    • C.

      Phillip II

    • D.

      Miguel de Cervantes

    Correct Answer
    D. Miguel de Cervantes
    Explanation
    Miguel de Cervantes is the correct answer because he is the author who wrote the novel Don Quixote. The other options, Sun King, Oliver Cromwell, and Phillip II, are not known for writing novels.

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  • 32. 

    Describe the impact of the Peace of Westphalia on Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.

  • 33. 

    Explain the importance of the English Parliament Bill of Rights.

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