The elevation of emotion over reason
The preoccupation with the heroic figure
The belief in the transcendental power of nature
The preference for the exotic and remote
Multiple languages being spoken in one setting.
The growth of relationships between family members.
Conflicts arising from stereotyping.
The use of humor to escape a difficult situation.
What facts does the author emphasize in the article?
Has the author structured the article coherently?
What is the author's reputation as a writer?
How many authorities does the writer cite in the article?
Acknowledgment of the opposition's side of the issue
Quotations from opponents of the readers' views
Emotional language to bolster the argument
Sophisticated language to display scholarship
Allowing for time between writing steps.
Providing insight into how the text communicates to others.
Exposing writers to a broad variety of styles and genres.
Providing an opportunity for writers to socialize and see each other's work.
Add anecdotes about other speakers to encourage rapport with listeners.
Incorporate visual aids that reinforce important points.
Explain technical concepts and terms on a more general level.
Discard material that does not have a direct bearing on local politics.
Formulating a counterargument to each of the main ideas
Identifying contradictions and fallacies of reasoning
Evaluating the level of the speaker's vocabulary and syntax
Comparing the speech to other speeches heard previously
The way a person visually scans an image is dependent on the characteristics of his or her written language.
The physical perception of visual elements, such as shapes and tones, is influenced by cultural factors.
The interpretation of a symbol is the result of a highly individualized construction of meaning by the viewer.
The connection between a symbol and what it represents is learned.