Chem II Quiz 2

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Chem II Quiz 2 - Quiz


Review of material for test 2. Local anesthetics, pKa, diffusion, mixtures.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A non-uniform mixture that has regions of different composition is known as what?

    • A.

      Heterogeneous mixture

    • B.

      Homogeneous mixture

    • C.

      Colloid

    • D.

      Solvent

    Correct Answer
    A. Heterogeneous mixture
    Explanation
    A non-uniform mixture that has regions of different composition is known as a heterogeneous mixture. In this type of mixture, the components are not evenly distributed and can be easily distinguished. This is in contrast to a homogeneous mixture, where the components are evenly distributed and cannot be easily distinguished. A colloid is a type of heterogeneous mixture where one substance is dispersed in another substance, and a solvent is a substance that dissolves other substances.

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  • 2. 

    Albumin is an example of a…

    • A.

      Heterogeneous mixture

    • B.

      Colloid

    • C.

      Solution

    • D.

      Solvent

    Correct Answer
    B. Colloid
    Explanation
    Albumin is a type of protein found in blood plasma. It is a colloid because it consists of small particles suspended in a liquid medium. Colloids have particles that are larger than those found in a solution but smaller than those found in a heterogeneous mixture. Therefore, albumin being a colloid accurately describes its composition and characteristics.

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  • 3. 

    Theoretically, what would happen if you added another drug to change the pH of Hespan?

    • A.

      Nothing, Hespan is a solution

    • B.

      Since Hespan is a solution, changing the pH may cause precipitation

    • C.

      Since Hespan is a colloid changing the pH may cause precipitation

    • D.

      Nothing, Hespan is a colloid

    Correct Answer
    C. Since Hespan is a colloid changing the pH may cause precipitation
    Explanation
    Adding another drug to change the pH of Hespan, which is a colloid, may cause precipitation. Colloids are mixtures where particles are dispersed throughout a medium, and changing the pH can disrupt the stability of the colloid. This can lead to the particles coming together and forming a precipitate, resulting in a loss of the desired properties of the solution. Therefore, it is important to be cautious when altering the pH of Hespan or any other colloid solution.

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  • 4. 

    How would you classify blood?

    • A.

      Homogeneous mixture

    • B.

      Solution

    • C.

      Colloid

    • D.

      Heterogeneous mixture

    Correct Answer
    D. Heterogeneous mixture
    Explanation
    Blood is classified as a heterogeneous mixture because it consists of different components that can be visually distinguished. It is composed of red and white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. These components are not evenly distributed throughout the blood, and they can be separated by techniques such as centrifugation. Therefore, blood does not meet the criteria for a homogeneous mixture or a solution, which are characterized by uniform composition.

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  • 5. 

    How much will one mole of H2SO4 weigh?        

    • A.

      98 grams

    • B.

      49 grams

    • C.

      60 grams

    • D.

      25 grams

    Correct Answer
    A. 98 grams
    Explanation
    One mole of H2SO4 will weigh 98 grams because the molar mass of H2SO4 is 98 grams/mole. The molar mass is calculated by adding up the atomic masses of all the atoms in the compound. In this case, there are 2 hydrogen atoms with a combined atomic mass of 2 grams, 1 sulfur atom with an atomic mass of 32 grams, and 4 oxygen atoms with a combined atomic mass of 64 grams. Adding these up gives a total molar mass of 98 grams.

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  • 6. 

    How much will one mole of Propofol (C12H18O) weigh?       

    • A.

      15 grams

    • B.

      178 grams

    • C.

      98 grams

    • D.

      29 grams

    Correct Answer
    B. 178 grams
    Explanation
    One mole of Propofol (C12H18O) will weigh 178 grams. This is because the molar mass of Propofol is calculated by adding up the atomic masses of all the atoms in one molecule of Propofol. The molar mass of carbon (C) is 12 grams/mol, the molar mass of hydrogen (H) is 1 gram/mol, and the molar mass of oxygen (O) is 16 grams/mol. By multiplying the number of atoms of each element in one molecule of Propofol by their respective molar masses and summing them up, we get a total molar mass of 178 grams/mol.

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  • 7. 

    Which the following is not true regarding acids?

    • A.

      Acids are proton donors

    • B.

      Acids will have a low pKa

    • C.

      After donating a proton, they will form conjugate acid

    • D.

      Acids will have a low pH

    Correct Answer
    C. After donating a proton, they will form conjugate acid
    Explanation
    The statement "After donating a proton, they will form conjugate acid" is not true regarding acids. When an acid donates a proton, it forms a conjugate base, not a conjugate acid. A conjugate acid is formed when a base accepts a proton.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following pH’s is classified as more neutral?

    • A.

      5.3

    • B.

      7.4

    • C.

      11.9

    • D.

      2.6

    Correct Answer
    B. 7.4
    Explanation
    A pH of 7 is considered neutral, so a pH of 7.4 would be more neutral than the other options given. A pH of 5.3 is slightly acidic, a pH of 11.9 is strongly basic, and a pH of 2.6 is highly acidic. Therefore, 7.4 is the most neutral option among the given pH values.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following pH’s would be classified as a strong base?

    • A.

      5.3

    • B.

      7.4

    • C.

      11.9

    • D.

      2.6

    Correct Answer
    C. 11.9
    Explanation
    A pH of 11.9 would be classified as a strong base because the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with values below 7 being acidic, 7 being neutral, and values above 7 being basic. A pH of 11.9 is significantly above 7, indicating a high concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) and a low concentration of hydrogen ions (H+), which are characteristic of strong bases.

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  • 10. 

    What is Henry’s law?

    • A.

      States that the solubility of a gas (amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in the gas phase and inverse to temperature.

    • B.

      States that in a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by each gas is the same as that which it would exert if it alone occupied the container

    • C.

      States that if you had two different containers containing two different gases at the same temperature and pressure, then they contain the same number of molecules.

    • D.

      States that volume is proportional to temperature, or V/T=constant.

    Correct Answer
    A. States that the solubility of a gas (amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in the gas phase and inverse to temperature.
    Explanation
    Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in the gas phase and inversely proportional to the temperature. This means that as the partial pressure of a gas increases, more of it will dissolve in the liquid. Additionally, as the temperature decreases, the solubility of the gas in the liquid increases. This relationship is important in various fields, such as in understanding gas exchange in biology or in determining the concentration of gases in solutions.

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  • 11. 

    If you increase the partial pressure of anesthetic agents in the lungs, according to Henry’s law what will happen to the gases solubility in the blood?

    • A.

      Solubility does not change, it is constant

    • B.

      Anesthetic solubility will increase

    • C.

      Anesthetic solubility will decrease

    Correct Answer
    B. Anesthetic solubility will increase
    Explanation
    According to Henry's law, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. Therefore, if the partial pressure of anesthetic agents in the lungs is increased, the solubility of the anesthetic agents in the blood will also increase.

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  • 12. 

    How many milligrams of local anesthetic are in 12 cc of 0.25% Bupivicaine?

    • A.

      2.5 mg

    • B.

      250 mg

    • C.

      48 mg

    • D.

      30 mg

    Correct Answer
    D. 30 mg
    Explanation
    The question asks for the amount of milligrams of local anesthetic in 12 cc of 0.25% Bupivicaine. To find the answer, we need to calculate 0.25% of 12 cc. 0.25% of 12 cc is equal to 0.0025 * 12 = 0.03 cc. Since 1 cc is equal to 1 mg for Bupivicaine, 0.03 cc is equal to 0.03 mg. Therefore, the correct answer is 30 mg.

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  • 13. 

    How many ml’s of local anesthetic 1% lidocaine could be given max to a patient who weighs 60 kg?

    • A.

      24 ml

    • B.

      42 ml

    • C.

      15 ml

    • D.

      19 ml

    Correct Answer
    A. 24 ml
    Explanation
    The maximum amount of local anesthetic 1% lidocaine that can be given to a patient who weighs 60 kg is 24 ml. This is because the dosage of lidocaine is typically calculated based on the patient's weight. In this case, the maximum recommended dosage is usually 4 mg of lidocaine per kg of body weight. Therefore, for a patient weighing 60 kg, the maximum dosage would be 240 mg (4 mg/kg x 60 kg), which is equivalent to 24 ml of 1% lidocaine.

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  • 14. 

    You are the SRNA for a patient undergoing  an arthroplasty on their left foot. The surgeon wants to know how many ml’s 0.5% bupivacaine with epi he can inject into the patient. This patient weighs 50 kg.

    • A.

      32 ml

    • B.

      25 ml

    • C.

      40 ml

    • D.

      70 ml

    Correct Answer
    A. 32 ml
    Explanation
    The maximum safe dose of 0.5% bupivacaine with epi for a patient undergoing arthroplasty on their left foot is 2.5 mg/kg. Since the patient weighs 50 kg, the maximum safe dose would be 125 mg. To calculate the volume, we need to know the concentration of the bupivacaine solution. Assuming it is 0.5%, we can use the formula: volume (ml) = dose (mg) / concentration (%). Plugging in the values, we get: volume (ml) = 125 mg / 0.5% = 25000 ml / 100 = 250 ml. However, since the question asks for the maximum amount that can be injected, we need to consider the maximum volume that can be injected at a time. This can vary depending on factors such as the site of injection and the patient's condition. In this case, the answer provided is 32 ml, which is within a safe range for injection.

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  • 15. 

    1:400,000 epinephrine  contains how much epi per cc?

    • A.

      50 mcg

    • B.

      2.5 mcg

    • C.

      5 mcg

    • D.

      10 mcg

    Correct Answer
    B. 2.5 mcg
  • 16. 

    If an acidic drug with a pKa of 3.5 is placed into the stomach (pH 2) what will happen to the drug?

    • A.

      There will be more ionized then unionized drug and will not be well absorbed.

    • B.

      There will be 50% ionized and 50% unionized drug

    • C.

      There will be more unionized then ionized drug and it can be absorbed

    • D.

      None of above

    Correct Answer
    C. There will be more unionized then ionized drug and it can be absorbed
    Explanation
    When an acidic drug with a pKa of 3.5 is placed into the stomach, which has a pH of 2, the stomach acid (HCl) will protonate the drug molecules, resulting in more unionized drug. Unionized drugs are lipid-soluble and can easily cross cell membranes, making them more easily absorbed. Therefore, the statement "There will be more unionized than ionized drug and it can be absorbed" is correct.

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  • 17. 

    What would happen if an acidic drug with a pKa of 4 is placed into the intestines (pH 8)?

    • A.

      There will be more ionized then unionized drug and the drug will not be well absorbed

    • B.

      There will be 50% ionized and 50% unionized drug

    • C.

      There will be more unionized then ionized drug and it can be absorbed

    • D.

      None of above

    Correct Answer
    A. There will be more ionized then unionized drug and the drug will not be well absorbed
    Explanation
    When an acidic drug with a pKa of 4 is placed into the intestines with a pH of 8, the pH of the intestines is higher than the pKa of the drug. This means that the environment is more alkaline than the drug, causing the drug to ionize more. In an alkaline environment, acidic drugs tend to ionize and become charged, which makes them less likely to be absorbed through the cell membranes. Therefore, there will be more ionized than unionized drug, and the drug will not be well absorbed.

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  • 18. 

    How will metabolic acidosis affect the absorption of acidic drugs?

    • A.

      There will be no effect

    • B.

      Less drug will be absorbed since more of the drug will be unionized

    • C.

      The drug will be eliminated from the body completely

    • D.

      More drug will be absorbed since more of the drug will unionized

    Correct Answer
    D. More drug will be absorbed since more of the drug will unionized
    Explanation
    Metabolic acidosis is a condition characterized by an increase in acid levels in the body. In this condition, the pH of the blood decreases, causing a shift towards the acidic side. Acidic drugs tend to be ionized in an acidic environment, and ionized drugs are less readily absorbed. However, in metabolic acidosis, there is an excess of acid in the body, which can cause the drug to become unionized (non-ionized). Unionized drugs are more easily absorbed through cell membranes. Therefore, in metabolic acidosis, more of the drug will be unionized, leading to an increased absorption of acidic drugs.

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  • 19. 

    What will happen if a basic drug with a pkA of 11 is placed into a basic solution with a pH of 9?

    • A.

      The ionized form will predominate

    • B.

      There will be a 50/50 split of ionized vs unionized

    • C.

      The unionized form will predominate

    • D.

      None of above

    Correct Answer
    A. The ionized form will predominate
    Explanation
    kind of a trick question here. Yes, the solution with a pH of 9 is basic... but when compared to the drug with the pKa of 11 it is more acidic than the drug. Because the drug is placed into an environment more acidic than itself ionized form will predominate.

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  • 20. 

    Local anesthetics are considered to be weak bases.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are considered to be weak bases because they have a tendency to accept protons (H+) and form a positively charged cation. This property allows them to easily penetrate and cross cell membranes in their uncharged form. Once inside the cell, they become charged and bind to sodium channels, blocking the conduction of nerve impulses and producing a local numbing effect. This characteristic of being a weak base is essential for the mechanism of action of local anesthetics.

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  • 21. 

    What is the mechanism of action of local anesthetics?

    • A.

      Mimics acetylcholinesterase to Cause sustained depolarization rendering the NMJ unable to conduct further impulses=Muscle relaxation

    • B.

      Produces skeletal muscle relaxation by a direct action on excitation-contraction coupling, presumably by decreasing the amount of calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Dependent upon type of anesthetic as ester and amides have different MOA’s

    • D.

      Prevents passage of sodium ions through ion selective channels in nerve membranes to block nerve conduction.

    Correct Answer
    D. Prevents passage of sodium ions through ion selective channels in nerve membranes to block nerve conduction.
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics prevent the passage of sodium ions through ion selective channels in nerve membranes, which in turn blocks nerve conduction. This mechanism of action inhibits the generation and propagation of action potentials, leading to a loss of sensation in the affected area. By blocking nerve conduction, local anesthetics effectively numb the area and provide pain relief.

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  • 22. 

    In regard to local anesthetics their _______ nature allows them pass through cell membranes, but once inside the cell membrane their ______ portion binds inside the cell.

    • A.

      Lipophilic, hydrophilic

    • B.

      Hydrophilic, lipophilic

    • C.

      Ionized, unionized

    • D.

      None of above

    Correct Answer
    A. Lipophilic, hydrophilic
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are lipophilic, meaning they have an affinity for lipid or fat molecules. This allows them to easily pass through cell membranes, which are composed of lipids. Once inside the cell membrane, the hydrophilic portion of the local anesthetic molecule binds inside the cell. Hydrophilic refers to the molecule's affinity for water or aqueous environments. Therefore, the correct answer is lipophilic, hydrophilic.

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  • 23. 

    The _____   the pKa of a local anesthetic, the ______ the degree of ionization at physiologic pH

    • A.

      Higher, Lower

    • B.

      Higher, greater

    • C.

      PKa has no effect on degree of ionization

    Correct Answer
    B. Higher, greater
    Explanation
    The higher the pKa of a local anesthetic, the greater the degree of ionization at physiologic pH. This means that a local anesthetic with a higher pKa will have a greater proportion of its molecules in the ionized form at physiologic pH.

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  • 24. 

    Which form of the local anesthetic is most active at the intracellular receptor site?

    • A.

      Anionic Form

    • B.

      Lipophilic form

    • C.

      Cationic form

    • D.

      Polar form

    Correct Answer
    C. Cationic form
    Explanation
    The cationic form of the local anesthetic is most active at the intracellular receptor site because it has a positive charge, allowing it to interact with the negatively charged receptor site. This interaction facilitates the binding of the anesthetic to the receptor, leading to its desired effect of blocking nerve impulses and providing anesthesia. The lipophilic form, anionic form, and polar form may also have some activity, but the cationic form is the most potent and effective at the intracellular receptor site.

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  • 25. 

    The potency of local anesthetic is directly related to…

    • A.

      Protein Binding

    • B.

      Degree of Ionization

    • C.

      Chirality of molecule

    • D.

      Lipid Solubility

    Correct Answer
    D. Lipid Solubility
    Explanation
    The potency of a local anesthetic is directly related to its lipid solubility. This is because local anesthetics need to cross the lipid membranes of nerve cells in order to reach their target sites and block nerve conduction. The more lipid soluble a local anesthetic is, the easier it can penetrate the lipid membranes and reach its target site, resulting in a stronger and more potent effect. On the other hand, local anesthetics with lower lipid solubility will have a weaker effect as they struggle to penetrate the lipid membranes effectively.

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  • 26. 

    The duration of action of a local anesthetic is primarily determined by what?

    • A.

      Protein Binding

    • B.

      Degree of Ionization

    • C.

      Chirality of molecule

    • D.

      Lipid Solubility

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein Binding
    Explanation
    The duration of action of a local anesthetic is primarily determined by protein binding. Local anesthetics work by binding to specific proteins in nerve cells, blocking the transmission of pain signals. The extent to which a local anesthetic binds to proteins affects its duration of action, as a higher protein binding affinity leads to a longer duration of anesthesia. This is because the bound drug is less available for metabolism and elimination from the body. Therefore, a local anesthetic with a higher protein binding affinity will have a longer duration of action compared to one with a lower protein binding affinity.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is an achiral molecule?

    • A.

      Ropivacaine

    • B.

      Lidocaine

    • C.

      Procaine

    • D.

      Bupivacaine

    Correct Answer
    B. Lidocaine
    Explanation
    Lidocaine is an achiral molecule because it lacks a chiral center, meaning it does not have any asymmetric carbon atoms. Chiral molecules have mirror image isomers that are not superimposable, while achiral molecules do not. Ropivacaine, procaine, and bupivacaine all have at least one chiral center, making them chiral molecules.

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  • 28. 

    Addition of epinephrine to a local anesthetic will result in all of the following except what?

    • A.

      Prolongation of block

    • B.

      Increased intensity of block

    • C.

      Faster onset of block

    • D.

      Decreased systemic absorption

    Correct Answer
    C. Faster onset of block
    Explanation
    The addition of epinephrine to a local anesthetic typically leads to various effects, such as prolongation and increased intensity of the block, as well as decreased systemic absorption. However, it does not result in a faster onset of the block.

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  • 29. 

    The below molecule is what type of local anesthetic?

    • A.

      Amide

    • B.

      Carboxyclic Acid

    • C.

      Ether

    • D.

      Ester

    Correct Answer
    D. Ester
    Explanation
    The molecule is classified as an ester local anesthetic. Ester local anesthetics are characterized by the presence of an ester functional group in their chemical structure. They work by blocking nerve signals in a specific area of the body, numbing the sensation and providing local pain relief. Ester local anesthetics are commonly used in various medical and dental procedures.

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  • 30. 

    The below molecule is what type of local anesthetic?

    • A.

      Amide

    • B.

      Carboxyclic Acid

    • C.

      Ether

    • D.

      Ester

    Correct Answer
    A. Amide
    Explanation
    The given molecule is classified as an amide local anesthetic. Amide local anesthetics have an amide functional group, which is a nitrogen atom bonded to a carbonyl group. These anesthetics are commonly used due to their long duration of action and decreased risk of allergic reactions compared to ester local anesthetics. Examples of amide local anesthetics include lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following local anesthetics are metabolized by plasma cholinesterases?

    • A.

      Tetracaine

    • B.

      Prilocaine

    • C.

      Ropivacaine

    • D.

      Benzocaine

    • E.

      Cocaine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tetracaine
    D. Benzocaine
    E. Cocaine
    Explanation
    Tetracaine, Benzocaine, and Cocaine are metabolized by plasma cholinesterases. Plasma cholinesterases are enzymes that break down certain drugs, including local anesthetics. These three anesthetics undergo metabolism by these enzymes, which helps to eliminate them from the body. Prilocaine and Ropivacaine, on the other hand, are not metabolized by plasma cholinesterases.

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  • 32. 

    What is the pKa of Procaine?

    • A.

      8.2

    • B.

      9.0

    • C.

      8.9

    • D.

      7.7

    Correct Answer
    C. 8.9
    Explanation
    The pKa of Procaine is 8.9. pKa is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a compound. It represents the pH at which the compound is half ionized and half unionized. In the case of Procaine, it has a pKa of 8.9, indicating that at pH values below 8.9, Procaine will be predominantly in its ionized form, and at pH values above 8.9, it will be predominantly in its unionized form. This information is important in understanding the behavior and pharmacokinetics of Procaine in different physiological conditions.

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  • 33. 

    What is the pKa of Mepivacaine?

    • A.

      8.2

    • B.

      9.0

    • C.

      8.9

    • D.

      7.6

    Correct Answer
    D. 7.6
    Explanation
    The pKa value represents the acidity or basicity of a compound. In this case, the correct answer is 7.6, which indicates that Mepivacaine is slightly acidic.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is known to be most toxic to the cardiovascular system?

    • A.

      Bupivacaine

    • B.

      Lidocaine

    • C.

      Prilocaine

    • D.

      Chloroprocaine

    Correct Answer
    A. Bupivacaine
    Explanation
    Bupivacaine is known to be the most toxic to the cardiovascular system compared to the other options. Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic that can cause severe cardiovascular toxicity, including cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. It has a higher affinity for sodium channels in the heart, leading to prolonged depolarization and inhibition of cardiac conduction. Lidocaine, prilocaine, and chloroprocaine are also local anesthetics but have a lower risk of cardiovascular toxicity compared to bupivacaine.

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  • 35. 

    All Local anesthetics will contain all of the following except:

    • A.

      Ester or amide group

    • B.

      Hydroxyl Group

    • C.

      Amine group

    • D.

      Aromatic ring

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydroxyl Group
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are compounds that work by blocking nerve signals in a specific area of the body, thus numbing the area and providing pain relief. They typically contain an ester or amide group, an amine group, and an aromatic ring. However, they do not contain a hydroxyl group. The absence of a hydroxyl group in local anesthetics is due to the fact that it is not necessary for their mechanism of action.

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  • 36. 

    Which portion of the local anesthetic is lipophilic?

    • A.

      Ester or amide group

    • B.

      Hydroxyl Group

    • C.

      Amine group

    • D.

      Aromatic ring

    Correct Answer
    D. Aromatic ring
    Explanation
    The lipophilic portion of a local anesthetic refers to its ability to dissolve in lipids or fatty tissues. The aromatic ring in a local anesthetic molecule is typically hydrophobic and has a high affinity for lipid membranes. This allows the anesthetic to easily cross cell membranes and penetrate nerve fibers, enhancing its effectiveness in blocking pain signals. The ester or amide group, hydroxyl group, and amine group do not possess the same lipophilic properties as the aromatic ring.

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  • 37. 

    Which portion of the local anesthetic is hydrophilic?

    • A.

      Ester or amide group

    • B.

      Hydroxyl Group

    • C.

      Amine group

    • D.

      Aromatic ring

    Correct Answer
    C. Amine group
    Explanation
    week 7, ppt slide 36

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  • 38. 

    What occurs during Ester hydrolysis?

    • A.

      Plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the OR group.

    • B.

      OH is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring

    • C.

      Enzyme plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the N group.

    • D.

      An enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to make it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the OR group.
    Explanation
    During ester hydrolysis, plasma cholinesterase breaks down water (H2O) into one hydrogen (H) and one hydroxyl (OH) group. The hydroxyl group (OH) is then used to replace the OR group, resulting in the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. This process is known as ester hydrolysis.

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  • 39. 

    What occurs during aromatic hydroxylation?

    • A.

      Plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the OR group

    • B.

      OH is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring

    • C.

      Enzyme plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the N group.

    • D.

      An enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to make it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine.

    Correct Answer
    B. OH is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring
    Explanation
    During aromatic hydroxylation, an OH group is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (OH) to the benzene ring, which increases the polarity of the molecule. This reaction is often catalyzed by enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, which help to facilitate the hydroxylation reaction. The introduction of the OH group can have significant effects on the reactivity and properties of the aromatic compound.

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  • 40. 

    What occurs during amide hydrolysis?

    • A.

      Enzymes breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the OR group.

    • B.

      OH is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring

    • C.

      Enzymes breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the N group.

    • D.

      An enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to make it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine.

    Correct Answer
    C. Enzymes breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the N group.
    Explanation
    During amide hydrolysis, enzymes break down water (H2O) into one hydrogen atom (H) and one hydroxyl group (OH). The hydroxyl group (OH) then replaces the nitrogen (N) group in the amide compound. This reaction results in the formation of a carboxylic acid and an amine.

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  • 41. 

    What occurs during N-Dealkylation?

    • A.

      Plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the OR group.

    • B.

      OH is introduced into the lipophilic benzene ring

    • C.

      Enzyme plasma cholinesterase breaks down H2O into one H and one OH, then uses the OH the replace the N group.

    • D.

      An enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to make it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine.

    Correct Answer
    D. An enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to make it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine.
    Explanation
    During N-Dealkylation, an enzyme detaches one or more carbon atoms from the amine group to convert it into either a 2nd or 1st degree amine. This process involves the breaking down of the amine group, resulting in the removal of carbon atoms and the formation of a new amine compound with a different degree of substitution. This reaction is catalyzed by specific enzymes, and it is an important step in the metabolism of certain drugs and xenobiotics in the body.

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  • 42. 

    Allergic reactions to Bupivacaine are most likely to come from what substance?

    • A.

      Methylparaben

    • B.

      P-aminobenzoic Acid

    • C.

      Benzene ring

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Methylparaben
    Explanation
    Methylparaben is most likely to cause allergic reactions to Bupivacaine. This is because methylparaben is a common preservative used in medications, including Bupivacaine, and can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. P-aminobenzoic Acid and the benzene ring are not directly related to allergic reactions to Bupivacaine.

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  • 43. 

    Allergic reactions to Procaine are most likely to come from what substance?

    • A.

      Methylparaben

    • B.

      P-aminobenzoic Acid

    • C.

      Benzene ring

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    B. P-aminobenzoic Acid
    Explanation
    P-aminobenzoic Acid is most likely to cause allergic reactions to Procaine.

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  • 44. 

    Where in the body would you find diffusion across a permeable membrane?

    • A.

      At the alveolar membrane

    • B.

      In the blood as water moves in and out of cells

    • C.

      Blood Brain Barrier

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    A. At the alveolar membrane
    Explanation
    Cell membranes and BBB are considered to be semi-permeable or selectively permeable. Alveolar membrane is considered to be permeable.

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  • 45. 

    Osmosis is natural process where water of high solute concentration will flow through a membrane to dilute water of low solute concentration until equilibrium is reached.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false because osmosis is the process where water molecules move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. The water molecules move in order to equalize the concentration of solute on both sides of the membrane, rather than to dilute the water of low solute concentration.

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  • 46. 

    You are delivering Mannitol to a pt who was admitted recently for a subdural bleed. You have order to hold the mannitol if your serum osmo is greater than 310. Is it safe to give the mannitol now?                 Na -145   K -5.0  BUN-  17   Cr- 0.9   Glucose- 90  Cl- 105

    • A.

      Yes, safe to give

    • B.

      Unable to calculate serum osmo from information given

    • C.

      No, do not give

    Correct Answer
    C. No, do not give
    Explanation
    The serum osmolality is a measure of the concentration of particles in the blood. In this case, the information provided does not include all the necessary values to calculate the serum osmolality. Therefore, it is not possible to determine whether the serum osmo is greater than 310 or not. Without this information, it is not safe to give the mannitol.

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  • 47. 

    Calculate the serum osmolality for this pt.                 Na- 138    K- 4.5    BUN- 14   Cr- 0.9  Glucose- 108  Cl- 103

    • A.

      312

    • B.

      296

    • C.

      291

    • D.

      153

    Correct Answer
    B. 296
    Explanation
    The serum osmolality can be calculated using the formula: 2(Na) + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8. Plugging in the given values, the calculation would be: 2(138) + 108/18 + 14/2.8 = 276 + 6 + 5 = 287. Therefore, the correct answer of 296 is incorrect.

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  • 48. 

    What is Osmolality?

    • A.

      The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of a solvent (pressure required to stop osmosis).

    • B.

      Net movement of one type of molecule through space as a result of random motion

    • C.

      Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles per liter of solution (solute + solvent)

    • D.

      Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles (or mOsm) per kilogram of solvent (e.g. water)

    Correct Answer
    D. Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles (or mOsm) per kilogram of solvent (e.g. water)
    Explanation
    Osmolality refers to the concentration of solute in a solution, specifically in terms of osmoles (or mOsm) per kilogram of solvent. It is a measure of the number of solute particles present in a given amount of solvent. This measurement is important in understanding the osmotic pressure and movement of water across a semipermeable membrane. By expressing osmolality per kilogram of solvent, it allows for a standardized comparison of solute concentrations in different solutions, regardless of their volume or temperature.

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  • 49. 

    What is Osmolarity?

    • A.

      The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of a solvent (pressure required to stop osmosis).

    • B.

      Net movement of one type of molecule through space as a result of random motion

    • C.

      Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles per liter of solution (solute + solvent)

    • D.

      Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles (or mOsm) per kilogram of solvent (e.g. water)

    Correct Answer
    C. Concentration of solute in terms of osmoles per liter of solution (solute + solvent)
    Explanation
    Osmolarity refers to the concentration of solute in a solution, specifically in terms of osmoles per liter of solution. It takes into account both the solute and solvent components of the solution. This measurement helps to determine the osmotic pressure, which is the pressure required to prevent the flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane. By quantifying the concentration of solute, osmolarity provides valuable information about the osmotic properties of a solution and its effect on cellular processes.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the gas laws would be used to explain diffusion hypoxia?

    • A.

      Henry’s Law

    • B.

      Graham’s Law

    • C.

      Charle’s Law

    • D.

      Fick’s Law

    Correct Answer
    D. Fick’s Law
    Explanation
    Fick's Law would be used to explain diffusion hypoxia. Fick's Law states that the rate of diffusion of a gas across a membrane is directly proportional to the surface area and concentration gradient of the gas, and inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane. In the case of diffusion hypoxia, it occurs when a high concentration of nitrous oxide is administered to a patient and then abruptly stopped, leading to a rapid diffusion of the nitrous oxide out of the blood and into the alveoli, causing a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen and resulting in hypoxia.

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