Chem Aug 2010 Regents

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Chem Aug 2010 Regents - Quiz


Multiple choice + explanations.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the total number of valence electrons in a calcium atom in the ground state? 

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      18

    • D.

      20

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    the last number of the configuration is the valence electrons

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    Which subatomic particles are located in the nucleus of an He-4 atom? 

    • A.

      Electrons and neutrons

    • B.

      Electrons and protons

    • C.

      Neutrons and protons

    • D.

      Neutrons, protons, and electrons

    Correct Answer
    C. Neutrons and protons
    Explanation
    electrons are in orbitals around the nucleus.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    In the late 1800s, experiments using cathode ray tubes led to the discovery of the 

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Protons

    • D.

      Positrons

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrons
    Explanation
    Using the cathode ray tube enabled the scientists to discover that negatively charged particles exist outside the nucleus.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    The atomic mass of titanium is 47.88 atomic mass units. This atomic mass represents the 

    • A.

      Total mass of all the protons and neutrons in an atom of Ti

    • B.

      Total mass of all the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of Ti

    • C.

      Weighted average mass of the most abundant isotope of Ti

    • D.

      Weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of Ti

    Correct Answer
    D. Weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of Ti
    Explanation
    atomic mass equals the weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    An atom of which element has the largest atomic radius? 

    • A.

      Fe

    • B.

      Mg

    • C.

      Si

    • D.

      Zn

    Correct Answer
    B. Mg
    Explanation
    This one's a bit tricky...magnesium has fewer orbitals, but it also has only two valence electrons, which makes it the largest.

    WHEN IN DOUBT, CHECK OUT TABLE S!!!

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  • 6. 

    Which element requires the least amount of energy to remove the most loosely held electron from a gaseous atom in the ground state? 

    • A.

      Bromine

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Sodium

    • D.

      Silver

    Correct Answer
    C. Sodium
    Explanation
    sodium only has one valence electron, which is NOT held very strongly.

    WHEN IN DOUBT, CONSULT TABLE S.

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  • 7. 

    A balanced equation representing a chemical reaction can be written using 

    • A.

      Chemical formulas and mass numbers

    • B.

      Chemical formulas and coefficients

    • C.

      First ionization energies and mass numbers

    • D.

      First ionization energies and coefficients

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemical formulas and coefficients
    Explanation
    Chemical formulas are the atomic symbols and the coefficients are the numbers in front of the symbols.

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  • 8. 

    Every water molecule has two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. This fact supports the concept that elements in a compound are 

    • A.

      Chemically combined in a fixed proportion

    • B.

      Chemically combined in proportions that vary

    • C.

      Physically mixed in a fixed proportion

    • D.

      Physically mixed in proportions that vary

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemically combined in a fixed proportion
    Explanation
    the molecule is chemically combined. The proportion is fixed, meaning two hydrogens and one oxygen.

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  • 9. 

    The percent composition by mass of nitrogen in NH4OH (gram-formula mass = 35 grams/mole) is equal to 

    Correct Answer
    B.
    Explanation
    calculating percent composition is the mass of the part divided by the mass of the whole.

    In this example, 14/35

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  • 10. 

    Which Group 15 element exists as diatomic molecules at STP? 

    • A.

      Phosphorus

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Bismuth

    • D.

      Arsenic

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrogen
    Explanation
    HOFBrINCl

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  • 11. 

    What is the total number of electrons shared in a double covalent bond? 

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    one bond is two electrons...double bonds means 4 electrons.

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  • 12. 

    Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: Br2 +energy→Br+Br Which statement describes the energy change and bonds in this reaction? 

    • A.

      Energy is released as bonds are broken.

    • B.

      Energy is released as bonds are formed.

    • C.

      Energy is absorbed as bonds are broken.

    • D.

      Energy is absorbed as bonds are formed.

    Correct Answer
    C. Energy is absorbed as bonds are broken.
    Explanation
    To break a bond, energy must be added. Br2 is diatomic and the bonds are broken. Energy must go in to make the bonds break.

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  • 13. 

    Which substance can not be broken down by a chemical change? 

    • A.

      Methane

    • B.

      Propanal

    • C.

      Tungsten

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Tungsten
    Explanation
    Tungsten (W) is an element. elements cannot be broken down by a chemical change.

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  • 14. 

    Object A at 40.°C and object B at 80.°C are placed in contact with each other. Which statement describes the heat flow between the objects? 

    • A.

      Heat flows from object A to object B.

    • B.

      Heat flows from object B to object A.

    • C.

      Heat flows in both directions between the objects.

    • D.

      No heat flow occurs between the objects.

    Correct Answer
    B. Heat flows from object B to object A.
    Explanation
    Heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature.

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  • 15. 

    Which unit can be used to express the concentration of a solution? 

    • A.

      L/s

    • B.

      J/g

    • C.

      Ppm

    • D.

      KPa

    Correct Answer
    C. Ppm
    Explanation
    Table T shows the correct answer...ppm is parts per million.

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  • 16. 

    Which formula represents a mixture?

    • A.

      C6H12O6 (l)

    • B.

      C6H12O6 (s)

    • C.

      LiCl (aq)

    • D.

      LiCl (s)

    Correct Answer
    C. LiCl (aq)
    Explanation
    Process of elimination: (l) means liquid, (s) means solid, and (aq) means aqueous. AQUEOUS means dissolved in water. Dissolved in water is a mixture.

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  • 17. 

    Which gas sample at STP has the same total number of molecules as 2.0 liters of CO2(g) at STP? 

    • A.

      5.0 L of CO2(g)

    • B.

      2.0 L of Cl2(g)

    • C.

      3.0 L of H2S(g)

    • D.

      6.0 L of He(g)

    Correct Answer
    B. 2.0 L of Cl2(g)
    Explanation
    All gases with the same volume have the same number of molecules, regardless of their molecular formula. In other words, 2.0 L of ANY gas has the same number of particles as 2.0 L of any other gas.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    Petroleum can be separated by distillation because the hydrocarbons in petroleum are 

    • A.

      Elements with identical boiling points

    • B.

      Elements with different boiling points

    • C.

      Compounds with identical boiling points

    • D.

      Compounds with different boiling points

    Correct Answer
    D. Compounds with different boiling points
    Explanation
    The compounds have different boiling points, which is distillation.

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  • 19. 

    Which sample has particles with the lowest average kinetic energy?

    • A.

      1.0 g of Br2 at 50.°C

    • B.

      2.0 g of Br2 at 30.°C

    • C.

      7.0 g of Br2 at 40.°C

    • D.

      9.0 g of Br2 at 20.°C

    Correct Answer
    D. 9.0 g of Br2 at 20.°C
    Explanation
    Average kinetic energy is TEMPERATURE. The lowest temperature is 20C.

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  • 20. 

    Which compound is insoluble in water?    

    • A.

      KOH

    • B.

      NH4Cl

    • C.

      Na2SO4

    • D.

      PbSO4

    Correct Answer
    D. PbSO4
    Explanation
    Group 1 elements are ALWAYS soluble. Ammonium (NH4) is ALWAYS soluble. Pb (lead) is an exception to the sulfate rule.

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  • 21. 

    A gas sample is at 25°C and 1.0 atmosphere. Which changes in temperature and pressure will cause this sample to behave more like an ideal gas? 

    • A.

      Decreased temperature and increased pressure

    • B.

      Decreased temperature and decreased pressure

    • C.

      Increased temperature and increased pressure

    • D.

      Increased temperature and decreased pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased temperature and decreased pressure
    Explanation
    HIGH temperature and LOW pressure is an ideal gas.

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  • 22. 

    The isotopes K-37 and K-42 have the same   

    • A.

      Decay mode

    • B.

      Bright-line spectrum

    • C.

      Mass number for their atoms

    • D.

      Total number of neutrons in their atoms

    Correct Answer
    B. Bright-line spectrum
    Explanation
    Bright-line spectrum deals with electrons. Electrons are not different between two different isotopes.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    Which element is present in all organic compounds? 

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Nitrogen

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon
    Explanation
    organic chemistry deals with carbon...think about the unit.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    Each of four test tubes contains a different concentration of HCl(aq) at 25°C. A 1-gram cube of Zn is added to each test tube. In which test tube is the reaction occurring at the fastest rate? 

    Correct Answer
    A.
    Explanation
    Higher concentrations make a reaction go faster.

    Rate this question:

  • 25. 

    Which energy conversion occurs during the operation of an electrolytic cell? 

    • A.

      Chemical energy to electrical energy

    • B.

      Electrical energy to chemical energy

    • C.

      Nuclear energy to electrical energy

    • D.

      Electrical energy to nuclear energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemical energy to electrical energy
    Explanation
    Chemical energy exists in the electrodes (the aqueous solutions and the solid blocks) and it is converted to electrical energy.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

     Which compound is an Arrhenius acid?    

    • A.

      CaO

    • B.

      HCl

    • C.

      NaOH

    • D.

      NH3

    Correct Answer
    B. HCl
    Explanation
    Arrhenius acid has H+ as the only positive ion in the solution.

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    Based on the results of testing colorless solutions with indicators, which solution is most acidic? 

    • A.

      A solution in which bromthymol blue is blue

    • B.

      A solution in which bromcresol green is blue

    • C.

      A solution in which phenolphthalein is pink

    • D.

      A solution in which methyl orange is red

    Correct Answer
    D. A solution in which methyl orange is red
    Explanation
    Methyl orange is red in acidic solutions.

    Rate this question:

  • 28. 

    According to one acid-base theory, water acts as an acid when an H2O molecule 

    • A.

      Accepts an H+

    • B.

      Donates an H+

    • C.

      Accepts an H-

    • D.

      Donates an H-

    Correct Answer
    B. Donates an H+
    Explanation
    Bronsted-Lowry acids donate H+.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    In which type of reaction is an atom of one element converted to an atom of a different element? 

    • A.

      Decomposition

    • B.

      Neutralization

    • C.

      Transmutation

    • D.

      Saponification

    Correct Answer
    C. Transmutation
    Explanation
    transmutation is a nuclear reaction that converts one element to another element.

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    Which nuclide is listed with its half-life and decay mode? 

    • A.

      K-37, 1.24 h, α

    • B.

      N-16, 7.2 s, β−

    • C.

      Rn-222, 1.6 × 10^3 y, α

    • D.

      U-235, 7.1 × 10^8 y, β−

    Correct Answer
    B. N-16, 7.2 s, β−
    Explanation
    The only one that matches is the Nitrogen...look at Table N.

    Rate this question:

  • 31. 

    The table below shows the number of subatomic particles in atom X and in atom Z.     Atom X and atom Z are isotopes of the element    

    • A.

      Aluminum

    • B.

      Carbon

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Nitrogen

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon
    Explanation
    6 protons equals carbon. 'NUFF SAID.

    Rate this question:

  • 32. 

    1. The greatest composition by mass in an atom of oxygen-18 is due to the total mass of its 

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Protons

    • D.

      Positrons

    Correct Answer
    B. Neutrons
    Explanation
    oxygen-17 has 8 protons. oxygen-17 has 9 neutrons. More of the mass is from the neutrons.

    Rate this question:

  • 33. 

    The bond between which two atoms is most polar? 

    • A.

      Br and Cl

    • B.

      Br and F

    • C.

      I and Cl

    • D.

      I and F

    Correct Answer
    D. I and F
    Explanation
    Iodine is the least electronegative of the Group 17 elements listed...Fluorine is the most electronegative of the Group 17 elements. The electronegativities of the two elements is the farthest apart, meaning the most polar.

    Rate this question:

  • 34. 

    In the formula X2(SO4)3, the X represents a metal. This metal could be located on the Periodic Table in 

    • A.

      Group 1

    • B.

      Group 2

    • C.

      Group 13

    • D.

      Group 14

    Correct Answer
    C. Group 13
    Explanation
    Group 13 has oxidation states of +3, SO4 has an oxidation of -2. Switch the numbers.

    Rate this question:

  • 35. 

    At STP, which element is solid, brittle, and a poor conductor of electricity? 

    • A.

      Al

    • B.

      K

    • C.

      Ne

    • D.

      S

    Correct Answer
    D. S
    Explanation
    Neon is a gas, so the answer cannot be Ne. Sulfur is a nonmetal, which makes it brittle.

    Rate this question:

  • 36. 

    Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: 2NaCl(l) → 2Na(l) + Cl2(g) A 1170.-gram sample of NaCl(l) completely reacts, producing 460. grams of Na(l). What is the total mass of Cl2(g) produced? 

    • A.

      355 g

    • B.

      710 g

    • C.

      1420 g

    • D.

      1630 g

    Correct Answer
    B. 710 g
    Explanation
    Do the math. 1170 - 460 = 710 g.

    Rate this question:

  • 37. 

    Given the formula representing a hydrocarbon:     The molecular formula and the empirical formula for this hydrocarbon are 

    • A.

      C5H10 and CH2

    • B.

      C5H10 and CH3

    • C.

      C4H8 and CH2

    • D.

      C4H8 and CH3

    Correct Answer
    A. C5H10 and CH2
    Explanation
    the compound is for pentENE, and the formula is C5H10. The empirical formula (simplest form) is CH2.

    Rate this question:

  • 38. 

    Which element forms an ionic compound when it reacts with lithium? 

    • A.

      K

    • B.

      Fe

    • C.

      Kr

    • D.

      Br

    Correct Answer
    D. Br
    Explanation
    Kr is a noble gas, so it doesn't react. Br is a nonmetal and nonmetals form ionic bonds when reacted with metals.

    Rate this question:

  • 39. 

    Given the formula representing a molecule:     The molecule is 

    • A.

      Symmetrical and polar

    • B.

      Symmetrical and nonpolar

    • C.

      Asymetrical and polar

    • D.

      Asymmetrical and nonpolar

    Correct Answer
    B. Symmetrical and nonpolar
    Explanation
    The molecule is symmetrical, which makes it nonpolar overall.

    Rate this question:

  • 40. 

    Which compound has both ionic and covalent bonds

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      CH3OH

    • C.

      NaI

    • D.

      Na2CO3

    Correct Answer
    D. Na2CO3
    Explanation
    A compound with both ionic and covalent bonds would be one that has Table E compounds as well as a metal.

    Rate this question:

  • 41. 

    A cylinder with a movable piston contains a sample of gas having a volume of 6.0 liters at 293 K and 1.0 atmosphere. What is the volume of the sample after the gas is heated to 303 K, while the pressure is held at 1.0 atmosphere? 

    • A.

      9.0 L

    • B.

      6.2 L

    • C.

      5.8 L

    • D.

      4.0 L

    Correct Answer
    B. 6.2 L
    Explanation
    Combined gas law problems. Plug in the digits...6.2 L.

    Rate this question:

  • 42. 

    What is the minimum amount of heat required to completely melt 20.0 grams of ice at its melting point? 

    • A.

      20.0 J

    • B.

      83.6 J

    • C.

      6680 J

    • D.

      45 200 J

    Correct Answer
    C. 6680 J
    Explanation
    Using the heat of fusion (melting and freezing), you will multiply 20 by 334 to get 6680

    Rate this question:

  • 43. 

    As the temperature of a chemical reaction in the gas phase is increased, the rate of the reaction increases because 

    • A.

      Fewer particle collisions occur

    • B.

      More effective particle collisions occur

    • C.

      The required activation energy increases

    • D.

      The concentration of the reactants increases

    Correct Answer
    B. More effective particle collisions occur
    Explanation
    Higher temperatures means more effective collisions...

    Rate this question:

  • 44. 

    The entropy of a sample of CO2 increases as the CO2 changes from 

    • A.

      Gas to liquid

    • B.

      Gas to solid

    • C.

      Liquid to solid

    • D.

      Solid to gas

    Correct Answer
    D. Solid to gas
    Explanation
    Entropy is randomness, gases are the most random.

    Rate this question:

  • 45. 

    Which two factors must be equal when a chemical reaction reaches equilibrium? 

    • A.

      The concentration of the reactants and the concentration of the products

    • B.

      The number of reactant particles and the number of product particles

    • C.

      The rate of the forward reaction and the rate of the reverse reaction

    • D.

      The mass of the reactants and the mass of the products

    Correct Answer
    C. The rate of the forward reaction and the rate of the reverse reaction
    Explanation
    Rates of reactions in an equilibrium must be constant.

    Rate this question:

  • 46. 

    Which formula represents an unsaturated hydrocarbon? 

    • A.

      C5H12

    • B.

      C6H14

    • C.

      C7H16

    • D.

      C8H14

    Correct Answer
    D. C8H14
    Explanation
    3 of them are alkanes. One is an alkyne (C8H14), which makes is unsaturated.

    Rate this question:

  • 47. 

    The reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol produces 

    • A.

      An aldehyde

    • B.

      A ketone

    • C.

      An ether

    • D.

      An ester

    Correct Answer
    D. An ester
    Explanation
    The COOH and OH react to "pop off" a water (HOH) and leaves a -COO- (which is an ester).

    Rate this question:

  • 48. 

    Which balanced equation represents a redox reaction? 

    • A.

      AgNO3(aq)+NaCl(aq)→AgCl(s)+NaNO3(aq)

    • B.

      H2CO3(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)

    • C.

      NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

    • D.

      Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

    Correct Answer
    D. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
    Explanation
    QUICK TIP: Look for the elements (Mg and H2)...they have oxidation states of ZERO...one increases (Mg) and one decreases (H)...hence the oxidation/reduction.

    Rate this question:

  • 49. 

    A solution with a pH of 2.0 has a hydronium ion concentration ten times greater than a solution with a pH of 

    • A.

      1.0

    • B.

      0.20

    • C.

      3.0

    • D.

      20.

    Correct Answer
    C. 3.0
    Explanation
    2.0 is ten times greater than 3.0. As you go from a whole number to the next lowest (i.e., 3.0 to 2.0), the hydronium (H+ or H3O+) increases ten times...a pH of 4.0 vs. a pH of 2.0 is different by a factor of 100 times.

    Rate this question:

  • 50. 

    Which isotope is used to treat cancer?    

    • A.

      C-14

    • B.

      U-238

    • C.

      Co-60

    • D.

      Pb-206

    Correct Answer
    C. Co-60
    Explanation
    C-14 is used to date organic substances.
    U-238 is used to date minerals (rocks).
    Pb-206 is harmful (think lead paint).

    That leaves cobalt.

    Rate this question:

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  • Mar 14, 2024
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