Chapter 8 Physiological Psychology Study Quiz

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Physiological Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 8: Control of Movement


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is not a category of muscles?

    • A.

      Skeletal

    • B.

      Smooth

    • C.

      Cardiac

    • D.

      Rough

    Correct Answer
    D. Rough
  • 2. 

    Flexion muscles _________ by  _____________a flexor muscle.

    • A.

      Draw in a limb; relaxing

    • B.

      Draw in a limb; contracting

    • C.

      Extend a limb; relaxing

    • D.

      Extend a limb; contracting

    Correct Answer
    B. Draw in a limb; contracting
    Explanation
    Flexion muscles are responsible for drawing in a limb, and they do so by contracting. When a flexor muscle contracts, it pulls the limb towards the body, causing it to bend or flex. This action is commonly seen in movements such as bending the elbow or bringing the knee towards the chest. The phrase "draw in a limb" refers to the action of flexion, and "contracting" describes the muscle's movement in this process.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these is not true:

    • A.

      Extrafusal fibers exert force

    • B.

      Intrafusal fibers feed extrafusal fibers ATP

    • C.

      Afferent fibers: report length of intrafusal fibers

    • D.

      Efferent fibers: adjust sensitivity of afferent fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Intrafusal fibers feed extrafusal fibers ATP
    Explanation
    Intrafusal fibers do not feed extrafusal fibers ATP. Intrafusal fibers are specialized muscle fibers found within muscle spindles, which are sensory organs that detect changes in muscle length and tension. They are innervated by both afferent and efferent nerve fibers. Afferent fibers report the length of intrafusal fibers to the central nervous system, while efferent fibers adjust the sensitivity of afferent fibers. Extrafusal fibers, on the other hand, are the regular skeletal muscle fibers responsible for generating force and movement.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these is true?

    • A.

      Myosin are thick filaments, anchored to Z-lines

    • B.

      Myosin are thin filaments, anchored to Z-lines

    • C.

      Myosin are thick filaments, anchored by titin fibers

    • D.

      Myosin are thin filaments, anchored by titin fibers

    Correct Answer
    C. Myosin are thick filaments, anchored by titin fibers
  • 5. 

    The ___________ moves the ___________ using ATP.

    • A.

      Actin; myosin

    • B.

      Actin; z-line

    • C.

      Myosin; titin fibers

    • D.

      Myosin; actin

    Correct Answer
    D. Myosin; actin
    Explanation
    Myosin is a protein that moves actin filaments using ATP. During muscle contraction, myosin binds to actin and uses ATP to generate the force necessary for muscle movement. Therefore, the correct answer is myosin; actin.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is not true?

    • A.

      A motor unit is a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls

    • B.

      Each muscle has only one motor unit

    • C.

      A motor unit can have several muscle fibers

    • D.

      Each motor unit has only one motor neuron

    Correct Answer
    B. Each muscle has only one motor unit
    Explanation
    The statement "Each muscle has only one motor unit" is not true. A motor unit is a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls. Each muscle can have multiple motor units, with each motor unit consisting of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates. This allows for precise control and coordination of muscle contraction.

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  • 7. 

    The neuromuscular junction is the synapse formed between ___________ and ___________.

    • A.

      Alpha motor neuron axon; motor unit

    • B.

      Motor unit; muscle

    • C.

      Alpha motor neuron axon; muscle fiber

    • D.

      Muscle unit; muscle fiber

    Correct Answer
    C. Alpha motor neuron axon; muscle fiber
    Explanation
    The correct answer is alpha motor neuron axon; muscle fiber. The neuromuscular junction is the point of connection between the axon of an alpha motor neuron and a muscle fiber. This is where the nerve signal is transmitted from the neuron to the muscle, causing it to contract.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not true:

    • A.

      Precision of muscle control is directly proportional to motor unit size

    • B.

      ACh is the primary neuromuscular junction neurotransmitter

    • C.

      The leg has large motor units

    • D.

      Release of ACh triggers myosin to pull further apart

    Correct Answer
    D. Release of ACh triggers myosin to pull further apart
    Explanation
    The statement "Release of ACh triggers myosin to pull further apart" is not true because the release of ACh actually triggers myosin to bind to actin and pull closer together, causing muscle contraction.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is untrue:

    • A.

      Smooth muscles are controlled by the central nervous system

    • B.

      Multiunit smooth muscles are normally inactive

    • C.

      Single-unit smooth muscles exhibit rhythmic contractions

    • D.

      Cardiac muscles look like striated muscles but act like single-unit smooth muscles due to their rhythmic contractions

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth muscles are controlled by the central nervous system
    Explanation
    Smooth muscles are not directly controlled by the central nervous system. Unlike skeletal muscles, which are under voluntary control, smooth muscles are controlled involuntarily by the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, which regulate the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles. Therefore, the statement that smooth muscles are controlled by the central nervous system is untrue.

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  • 10. 

    ___________ ions play a major regulatory role in the contraction of both smooth and skeletal muscles.

    • A.

      ACh

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium ions play a major regulatory role in the contraction of both smooth and skeletal muscles. Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to an action potential, allowing the myosin and actin filaments to interact and generate force. This interaction is essential for muscle contraction. Additionally, calcium ions also regulate the activity of enzymes involved in muscle contraction and relaxation. Therefore, calcium ions are crucial for the proper functioning of both smooth and skeletal muscles.

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  • 11. 

    Your body will stop trying to lift a fridge before the muscles rip because ____________.

    • A.

      Intrafusal fibers activate and inhibit agonist muscle fibers

    • B.

      Golgi tendon organ receptors activate and inhibit agonist muscle fibers

    • C.

      Extrafusal fibers activate and inhibit agonist muscle fibers

    • D.

      None of the above -- people routinely pull a muscle from straining it too hard

    Correct Answer
    B. Golgi tendon organ receptors activate and inhibit agonist muscle fibers
    Explanation
    The Golgi tendon organ receptors are sensory receptors located in the tendons that connect muscles to bones. These receptors are responsible for detecting changes in muscle tension. When the tension in the muscle exceeds a certain threshold, the Golgi tendon organ receptors send inhibitory signals to the agonist muscle fibers, which are responsible for contracting the muscle. This inhibitory signal prevents the muscle from exerting too much force and potentially causing damage or ripping. Therefore, the activation and inhibition of agonist muscle fibers by Golgi tendon organ receptors help prevent muscle damage and ensure that the body stops trying to lift a fridge before the muscles rip.

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  • 12. 

    Dorsal horn is to ____________ as ventral horn is to ____________

    • A.

      Efferent; afferent

    • B.

      Afferent; efferent

    Correct Answer
    B. Afferent; efferent
    Explanation
    The dorsal horn is responsible for receiving sensory information from the peripheral nerves and transmitting it to the brain, while the ventral horn is responsible for sending motor signals from the brain to the muscles. This means that the dorsal horn is associated with afferent pathways (carrying information towards the central nervous system), while the ventral horn is associated with efferent pathways (carrying information away from the central nervous system). Therefore, the correct answer is afferent; efferent.

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  • 13. 

    Your leg kicking out when the doctor hits it with his mallet is an example of a ______________.

    • A.

      Monosynaptic reflex in which the alpha motor neuron quickly contracts muscle fibers

    • B.

      Monosynaptic reflex in which synapses between sensory axons, interneurons, and motor neurons are activated

    • C.

      Polysynaptic reflex in which the alpha motor neuron quickly contracts muscle fibers

    • D.

      Polysynaptic reflex in which synapses between sensory axons, interneurons, and motor neurons are activated

    Correct Answer
    A. Monosynaptic reflex in which the alpha motor neuron quickly contracts muscle fibers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is monosynaptic reflex in which the alpha motor neuron quickly contracts muscle fibers. In this reflex, the sensory neuron directly synapses with the motor neuron in the spinal cord, bypassing the interneuron. This allows for a faster response as there are fewer synapses involved. The alpha motor neuron then signals the muscle fibers to contract, causing the leg to kick out in response to the doctor's stimulus.

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  • 14. 

    The purpose of the gamme motor neuron is _____________________.

    • A.

      To loosen intrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts, so that the muscle can continue to react to the environment even when contracted

    • B.

      To tighten intrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts, so that the muscle can continue to react to the environment even when contracted

    • C.

      To loosen extrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts, so that the muscle can continue to react to the environment even when contracted

    • D.

      To tighten extrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts, so that the muscle can continue to react to the environment even when contracted

    Correct Answer
    B. To tighten intrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts, so that the muscle can continue to react to the environment even when contracted
    Explanation
    The gamma motor neuron is responsible for tightening intrafusal muscle fibers when the muscle contracts. This is important because it allows the muscle to continue to react to the environment even when it is contracted. By tightening these fibers, the muscle is able to maintain its sensitivity to changes in the environment and respond accordingly. This helps to ensure that the muscle can adapt and continue to function effectively, even during periods of contraction.

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  • 15. 

    The motor homunculus is...

    • A.

      A map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the surface area they take up

    • B.

      A map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the number of motor units in them.

    • C.

      A map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the sensitivity of the body part.

    • D.

      A map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the size of the person

    Correct Answer
    C. A map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the sensitivity of the body part.
    Explanation
    The motor homunculus is a map of the body in which body parts are proportional to the sensitivity of the body part. This means that the size of each body part on the map corresponds to the level of sensitivity or the amount of sensory input that body part receives. For example, the hands and face, which are highly sensitive, are represented by larger areas on the map compared to less sensitive body parts like the legs or back. This map helps researchers and scientists understand the organization and representation of sensory information in the brain.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not true about axons from the primary motor cortex as they descend to the spinal cord:

    • A.

      Lateral group axons control independent limb movements

    • B.

      Lateral group axons control eye coordination

    • C.

      Ventromedial group axons control gross limb movements

    • D.

      Ventromedial group axons control sneezing

    Correct Answer
    B. Lateral group axons control eye coordination
  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not true for Parkinson's Disease?

    • A.

      It involves muscle rigidity, resting tremor, and slow movements

    • B.

      It's caused by damage to dopamine neurons

    • C.

      Stereotaxic lesions of the globus pallidus may cure Parkinson's Disease

    • D.

      It's treated with dopamine-secreting neuron transplants

    Correct Answer
    C. Stereotaxic lesions of the globus pallidus may cure Parkinson's Disease
    Explanation
    Parkinson's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by muscle rigidity, resting tremor, and slow movements. It is caused by damage to dopamine neurons in the brain. However, stereotaxic lesions of the globus pallidus, which involve the destruction of a specific brain region, are not a cure for Parkinson's Disease. While this procedure may help alleviate some symptoms, it does not provide a permanent cure for the condition.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not true of Huntington's Disease?

    • A.

      It involves uncontrollable jerky movements

    • B.

      It's caused by degeneration of the caudate nucleus and putamen

    • C.

      It's hereditary

    • D.

      It involves loss of cells associated with glutamate

    Correct Answer
    D. It involves loss of cells associated with glutamate
    Explanation
    Huntington's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by uncontrollable jerky movements, caused by the degeneration of the caudate nucleus and putamen. It is also hereditary, meaning it can be passed down from one generation to another. However, it does not involve the loss of cells associated with glutamate.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is untrue of apraxias:

    • A.

      Callosal apraxia involves inability to perform movements with left hand to a verbal request

    • B.

      Sympathetic apraxia causes paralysis of the left arm and hand, but not right arm and hand

    • C.

      Left parietal apraxia involves sifficulty in initiating movements to verbal requests

    • D.

      Constructional apraxias involve difficulty drawing pictures or assembling objects

    Correct Answer
    B. Sympathetic apraxia causes paralysis of the left arm and hand, but not right arm and hand
    Explanation
    Sympathetic apraxia causing paralysis of the left arm and hand, but not the right arm and hand, is untrue. Apraxia refers to a neurological condition that affects a person's ability to perform purposeful movements, and it is not related to sympathetic responses. Therefore, it is incorrect to associate apraxia with sympathetic paralysis affecting only one side of the body.

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  • 20. 

    Damage to the cerebellum results in ________________.

    • A.

      Death

    • B.

      Jerky, erratic, and uncoordinated movements

    • C.

      Paralysis

    • D.

      More death

    Correct Answer
    B. Jerky, erratic, and uncoordinated movements
    Explanation
    Damage to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating movement and maintaining balance, can lead to jerky, erratic, and uncoordinated movements. This is because the cerebellum plays a crucial role in fine-tuning motor commands and ensuring smooth and coordinated muscle contractions. When it is damaged, the communication between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain and body is disrupted, resulting in difficulties with movement control and coordination.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 12, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Hruka22
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