Chapter 7: Forgetting (Grivas)

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Educational Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Unit 3 exam prep.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Anything that assists recovery of information stored in LTM is called a ______ cue.

    • A.

      Retrieval

    • B.

      Recovery

    • C.

      Trace

    • D.

      Trace-dependent

    Correct Answer
    A. Retrieval
    Explanation
    The term "retrieval" refers to the process of accessing and recalling information that is stored in long-term memory (LTM). In this context, a cue is any stimulus or prompt that helps to trigger the retrieval of information. Therefore, a cue that assists in the recovery of information stored in LTM is referred to as a "retrieval cue."

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  • 2. 

    Which measure of retention is the most sensitive?

    • A.

      Cued recall

    • B.

      Free recall

    • C.

      Recognition

    • D.

      Relearning

    Correct Answer
    D. Relearning
    Explanation
    Relearning is the most sensitive measure of retention because it involves reacquiring knowledge or skills that have been previously learned but forgotten. This measure assesses the speed and effectiveness of relearning information, indicating how well the information has been retained in long-term memory. Unlike cued recall, free recall, and recognition measures, relearning directly measures the extent to which information has been forgotten and requires active effort to regain mastery. Therefore, relearning is considered the most sensitive measure of retention.

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  • 3. 

    In an experiment on forgetting, adolescent participants were required to memorise a long list of dates (for example, 1/10/22, 25/2/31, etc.) They were then regularly tested on retention over a period of several weeks. In general, the forgetting curve for this experiment is likely to show that participants forgot

    • A.

      About half of the dates within the first 10 minutes of learning.

    • B.

      About half of the dates within the first hour of learning.

    • C.

      Slowly at first, with a gradual increase as time passed.

    • D.

      At a slow, steady rate.

    Correct Answer
    B. About half of the dates within the first hour of learning.
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, the experiment required participants to memorize a long list of dates and they were regularly tested on retention over several weeks. The forgetting curve is likely to show that participants forgot about half of the dates within the first hour of learning. This is because forgetting tends to occur rapidly in the initial stages after learning, and the rate of forgetting slows down over time. Therefore, it is expected that participants would forget a significant portion of the dates within the first hour of learning.

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  • 4. 

    When old learning interferes with the ability to learn something new it is called

    • A.

      Retrieval failure.

    • B.

      Lack of rehearsal.

    • C.

      Retroactive interference.

    • D.

      Proactive interference.

    Correct Answer
    D. Proactive interference.
    Explanation
    Proactive interference refers to the phenomenon where previously learned information hinders the ability to remember and learn new information. In this case, old learning is interfering with the acquisition of new knowledge, leading to proactive interference. This can occur when the old information is similar or related to the new information, causing confusion and difficulty in encoding and retrieving the new material.

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  • 5. 

    Repression is said to involve ______, whereas suppression is said to involve ______.

    • A.

      Psychology factors; decay factors

    • B.

      Material lost from memory; material that can be retrieved from memory

    • C.

      Unconsciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness; consciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness

    • D.

      Consciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness; unconsciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness

    Correct Answer
    C. Unconsciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness; consciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness
    Explanation
    Repression is said to involve unconsciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness, whereas suppression is said to involve consciously blocking a memory from entering conscious awareness.

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  • 6. 

    Forgetting as a result of retrieval failure occurs when

    • A.

      We are in the same psychological state as the one we were in when we learned the information.

    • B.

      We fail to use the correct cue to locate and recover information.

    • C.

      Old information interferes with our ability to recall new information.

    • D.

      The memory trace is ineffective.

    Correct Answer
    B. We fail to use the correct cue to locate and recover information.
    Explanation
    Forgetting as a result of retrieval failure occurs when we fail to use the correct cue to locate and recover information. This means that even though the information is stored in our memory, we are unable to access it because we do not have the necessary cues or prompts to retrieve it. Without the correct cue, the information remains inaccessible, leading to forgetting.

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  • 7. 

    Decay theory suggests that memory loss occurs because

    • A.

      A memory has not been formed.

    • B.

      A memory trace fades over time through disuse.

    • C.

      Brain damage has occurred.

    • D.

      Inappropriate retrieval cues are used.

    Correct Answer
    B. A memory trace fades over time through disuse.
    Explanation
    Decay theory proposes that memory loss happens because the memory trace, or the physical representation of a memory in the brain, gradually weakens and fades away over time due to lack of use or retrieval. This theory suggests that if a memory is not reinforced or recalled regularly, it becomes more difficult to retrieve and may eventually be lost. The concept of decay theory aligns with the idea that memories are not permanent and can decay or weaken over time if not actively maintained.

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  • 8. 

    The more meaningful the information that has been learned,

    • A.

      The slower the rate of forgetting over time.

    • B.

      The more likely a forgetting curve will be evident.

    • C.

      The faster the rate of forgetting over time.

    • D.

      The more likely forgetting will barely be noticeable.

    Correct Answer
    A. The slower the rate of forgetting over time.
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that when information is meaningful, it is easier for our brain to process and store it in our long-term memory. This leads to a slower rate of forgetting over time because the information is more deeply encoded. On the other hand, when information is not meaningful or lacks significance, our brain struggles to retain it, resulting in a faster rate of forgetting. Therefore, the more meaningful the information, the slower the rate of forgetting over time.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following formulas would be used to calculate the amount of information saved from learning at some time in the past?

    • A.

      (no. of trials for original learning) – (time for relearning) x 100 (no. of trials for original learning) 1

    • B.

      (no. of trials for original learning) – (time for relearning) x 1 (no. of trials for original learning) 100

    • C.

      (no. of trials for original learning) – (no. of trials for relearning) x 100 (no. of trials for original learning) 1

    • D.

      (time for original learning) – (no. of trials for relearning) x 100 (no. of trials for original learning) 1

    Correct Answer
    C. (no. of trials for original learning) – (no. of trials for relearning) x 100 (no. of trials for original learning) 1
    Explanation
    The formula (no. of trials for original learning) – (no. of trials for relearning) x 100 / (no. of trials for original learning) is used to calculate the amount of information saved from learning at some time in the past. This formula takes into account the difference between the number of trials for the original learning and the number of trials for relearning, and then calculates the percentage of information saved by multiplying it by 100 and dividing it by the number of trials for the original learning.

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  • 10. 

    You have just bought a combination lock for your locker and find that you can’t remember the first three of the six numbers because you confuse them with the numbers on the combination lock you use on your bike. This memory failure is most likely due to

    • A.

      Proactive interference.

    • B.

      Partial retrieval failure.

    • C.

      Retroactive interference.

    • D.

      Partial decay of the memory trace.

    Correct Answer
    C. Retroactive interference.
    Explanation
    Retroactive interference occurs when newly acquired information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information. In this case, the confusion between the numbers on the combination lock for the locker and the bike lock suggests that the recently learned numbers are interfering with the recall of the previously learned numbers. This is why the individual is unable to remember the first three numbers of the combination lock for the locker.

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