Chapter 6 For Test 2 In Justice And Ethics

23 Questions | Total Attempts: 211

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Ethics Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 6 for test 2 in Justice and Ethics______________________________________________


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    ________ comes in a variety of forms, though the basic idea of each is that the purpose of anything (e.g., values, beliefs, laws, or research) is not to uncover or represent the truth, but allow us to more effectively and/or comfortably live our lives.
    • A. 

      Pragmatism

    • B. 

      Relativism

    • C. 

      Determinism

    • D. 

      Universalism

  • 2. 
    Agents of criminal justice are exposed to difference and diversity of cultural and subcultural values routinely, thus recognizing ________ and being ________ is very important within the profession.
    • A. 

      Variability; open-minded

    • B. 

      Crimes; dutiful

    • C. 

      Utility; practical

    • D. 

      Offenders; assertive

  • 3. 
    Relativism does not simply acknowledge historical and cultural differences, it suggests that such differences are:
    • A. 

      Intervening

    • B. 

      Nominal

    • C. 

      Ordinal

    • D. 

      Numerical

  • 4. 
    In The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law, ________ explores four principles that might be used to determine whether the government can legitimately prohibit or criminalize certain forms of behavior.
    • A. 

      Plato

    • B. 

      Aristotle

    • C. 

      Jeremy Bentham

    • D. 

      Joel Feinberg

  • 5. 
    Under pragmatic relativism, social reality consists merely of human constructions that are not right nor wrong, but ________ for a given culture at a given time.
    • A. 

      Theologically-based

    • B. 

      Popular

    • C. 

      Desirable

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 6. 
    What is the definition of civil commitment?
    • A. 

      Involuntary hospitalization for persons deemed mentally ill (though not necessarily legally incompetent) and presumed to be in need of psychiatric treatment

    • B. 

      Voluntary hospitalization for persons deemed mentally ill (though not necessarily legally competent) and presumed to be in need of psychiatric treatment

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 7. 
    ________ holds that it is justifiable and morally permissible for the government to use law and policy to coercively protect people from themselves.
    • A. 

      Paternalism

    • B. 

      The harm principle

    • C. 

      Determinism

    • D. 

      Legal moralism

  • 8. 
    ________ acknowledges and describes the presence of moral differences between groups of people.
    • A. 

      Metaethical relativism

    • B. 

      Descriptive relativism

    • C. 

      Soft determinism

    • D. 

      Hard determinism

  • 9. 
    Relativism can be contrasted with:
    • A. 

      Ethical objectivism

    • B. 

      Ethical absolutism

    • C. 

      Ethical universalism

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 10. 
    Where conflict over moral values and appropriate behavior exists, who or what must supply the working answers?
    • A. 

      Religious beliefs

    • B. 

      The powerful

    • C. 

      Law

    • D. 

      Police officers

  • 11. 
    ________ refers to the refusal to entertain criticisms or challenges to one's beliefs.
    • A. 

      Pragmatism

    • B. 

      Dogmatism

    • C. 

      Determinism

    • D. 

      Universalism

  • 12. 
    ________ is often recognized as one of the earliest proponents of-and by some accounts the father-of what we now refer to as relativism.
    • A. 

      Plato

    • B. 

      Protagoras

    • C. 

      Aristotle

    • D. 

      Feinberg

  • 13. 
    Mathematics and science offer empirical explanations that are based on observation and measurement; ethics is different because we cannot:
    • A. 

      Anticipate the unpredictable consequences that may occur due to the emotional nature of beliefs and value systems

    • B. 

      Visually observe the rightness or wrongness of moral beliefs and practices

    • C. 

      Always please everyone

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    Descriptive relativism serves as a premise, reason, or foundation for accepting the broader and more controversial claims of metaethical and ________ relativism.
    • A. 

      Normative

    • B. 

      Pragmatic

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 15. 
    What type of relativism argues that given the presence of cultural variability, there is no objective sense in which right and wrong can be discussed?
    • A. 

      Deterministic

    • B. 

      Metaethical

    • C. 

      Descriptive

    • D. 

      Pragmatic

  • 16. 
    Most people do tend to think of morality as relative, at least to ________ circumstances.
    • A. 

      Historical

    • B. 

      Practical

    • C. 

      Situational

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 17. 
    Relativism is often interpreted as a strategy in support of ________ with regard to the beliefs and practices of others, however, pure relativism implies that ________should be tolerated as well.
    • A. 

      Tolerance; intolerance

    • B. 

      Acceptance; intolerance

    • C. 

      Intolerance; tolerance

    • D. 

      Rejection; acceptance

  • 18. 
    ________ argues that morality is relative to particular cultures, time periods, and even subcultures within cultures and time periods.
    • A. 

      Metaethics

    • B. 

      Determinism

    • C. 

      Pragmatism

    • D. 

      Relativism

  • 19. 
    The claim of objectivity is a ________ claim.
    • A. 

      Knowledge

    • B. 

      Subjective

    • C. 

      Ethical

    • D. 

      Metaethical

  • 20. 
    Universalism makes a claim very much related to, and following from, the argument of:
    • A. 

      Relativism

    • B. 

      Free will

    • C. 

      Objectivism

    • D. 

      Determinism

  • 21. 
    The four principles that might be used to determine whether the government can legitimately prohibit or criminalize certain forms of behavior are:
    • A. 

      The harm principle, paternalism, pragmatism, explicit conduct

    • B. 

      The harm principle, paternalism, legal moralism, offensive conduct

    • C. 

      Paternalism, legal moralism, pragmatism, determinism

    • D. 

      Legal moralism, offensive conduct, utilitarianism, metaethical moralism

  • 22. 
    Some philosophers and social scientists (including criminologists) suggest that even if we cannot say conclusively that certain laws, policies, and practices are right or wrong on a moral level we can make judgments concerning:
    • A. 

      The individual or individuals who create the particular law, policy, or practice in question

    • B. 

      The underlying reasons for the particular law, policy, or practice in question

    • C. 

      The consequences that result from the particular law, policy, or practice in question

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 23. 
    ________ is a position which holds that governments can and should pass laws to prohibit behaviors if those behaviors are considered to be immoral-even if they do not cause harm to self or others.
    • A. 

      The harm principle revised

    • B. 

      Utilitarianism

    • C. 

      Legal moralism

    • D. 

      Paternalism