Chapter 6: An Introduction To Metabolism

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 225

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Metabolism Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following situations does NOT represent a transformation of one type of energy to another?
    • A. 

      The burning of gasoline in a car engine

    • B. 

      The production of sugar by photosynthesis

    • C. 

      The production of electrical power by damming a river

    • D. 

      Cracking a nut by using a nutcracker

    • E. 

      Plugging a stereo into a wall socket to play music

  • 2. 
    What is energy?
    • A. 

      The capacity to perform work

    • B. 

      The amount of food eaten

    • C. 

      Movement

    • D. 

      The rearrangement of chemical molecules within matter

    • E. 

      The capacity to produce heat

  • 3. 
    Energy is most commonly stored in plants as ____________.
    • A. 

      Electrical energy

    • B. 

      Mechanical energy

    • C. 

      Electromagnetic energy

    • D. 

      Kinetic energy

    • E. 

      Chemical energy

  • 4. 
    Organisms are described as thermodynamically open systems. This means that _____. 
    • A. 

      The metabolism of an organism is isolated from its surroundings

    • B. 

      Organisms can reverse the increase in entropy

    • C. 

      Organisms acquire energy from their surroundings

    • D. 

      Organisms are capable of circumventing the second law of thermodynamics

    • E. 

      Because energy is conserved, organisms do not require energy input from their surroundings

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      Energy conversions increase the order in the universe.

    • B. 

      The total amount of energy in the universe is constant.

    • C. 

      The ordering of one system depends on the disordering of another.

    • D. 

      The entropy of the universe is constantly decreasing.

    • E. 

      All reactions produce some heat.

  • 6. 
    Which one of the following is an example of the second law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      The aerobic respiration of glucose generates heat.

    • B. 

      All types of cellular respiration produce ATP.

    • C. 

      CO2 is exhaled as a by-product of aerobic respiration.

    • D. 

      Photosynthesis enables plants to create energy from sunlight.

    • E. 

      Energy is stored during the Calvin cycle.

  • 7. 
    If the entropy of a system is increasing, this means that ____________.
    • A. 

      The sun's energy is being captured by photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Heat is being used by organisms as a source of energy

    • C. 

      The first law of thermodynamics is being violated

    • D. 

      Energy input will be needed to maintain organization

    • E. 

      The amount of usable energy in the system is increasing

  • 8. 
    The first law of thermodynamics ____________. 
    • A. 

      Deals with entropy

    • B. 

      States that energy is neither created nor destroyed

    • C. 

      Deals with heat content

    • D. 

      States that entropy spontaneously increases

    • E. 

      Predicts the direction of a reaction

  • 9. 
    Which one of the following is NOT true about the second law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      It states that energy is neither created nor destroyed.

    • B. 

      It deals with entropy.

    • C. 

      It deals with heat content.

    • D. 

      It deals with spontaneity.

    • E. 

      All the above are true.

  • 10. 
    Which one of the following has the most free energy per molecule?
    • A. 

      A sugar molecule

    • B. 

      An amino acid molecule

    • C. 

      A starch molecule

    • D. 

      A fatty acid molecule

    • E. 

      A cholesterol molecule

  • 11. 
    From the equation DG = DH - TDS it is clear that _____.
    • A. 

      A decrease in the system's total energy will increase the probability of spontaneous change

    • B. 

      Increasing the entropy of a system will increase the probability of spontaneous change

    • C. 

      Increasing the temperature of a system will increase the probability of spontaneous change

    • D. 

      The capacity of a system to perform work is related to the total energy of the system

    • E. 

      All of the above are true

  • 12. 
    What must be true if the reaction AB + CD —> AC + BD occurs spontaneously?
    • A. 

      The DG of the reaction must be negative.

    • B. 

      The reaction must be exergonic.

    • C. 

      The environment has adequate thermal energy to meet the activation energy requirement.

    • D. 

      The bonds must have absorbed enough energy to become unstable.

    • E. 

      All of the above are true.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following reactions would be endergonic?
    • A. 

      HCl —> H+ + Cl-

    • B. 

      C6H12O6 + 6 O2 —> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

    • C. 

      ATP —> ADP + Pi

    • D. 

      Maltose + fructose —> sucrose

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    Which one of the following tells us, without additional information, the way a process will go spontaneously?
    • A. 

      DG

    • B. 

      DH

    • C. 

      DS

    • D. 

      TDS

    • E. 

      All of these values tell us the direction in which a reaction will go.

  • 15. 
    If, during a process, the system becomes more ordered, then ____________.
    • A. 

      DG is negative

    • B. 

      DG is positive

    • C. 

      DH is negative

    • D. 

      DH is positive

    • E. 

      TDS is negative

  • 16. 
    An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that ____________.
    • A. 

      Occurs only when an enzyme is present

    • B. 

      Occurs within living cells but not in a test tube

    • C. 

      Releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction

    • D. 

      Occurs in all living cells

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, which one of the following is definitely true?
    • A. 

      Outside energy is needed.

    • B. 

      DG is positive.

    • C. 

      DH is negative

    • D. 

      DS is positive.

    • E. 

      DS is negative

  • 18. 
    When DG is positive, the reaction or process can be termed ___________. 
    • A. 

      Endergonic

    • B. 

      Exergonic

    • C. 

      Exothermic

    • D. 

      Endothermic

    • E. 

      Enthalpic

  • 19. 
    A reaction is designated as exergonic rather than endergonic when ___________.
    • A. 

      Activation energy is necessary

    • B. 

      No kinetic energy is released

    • C. 

      Activation energy exceeds net energy release

    • D. 

      The potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants

    • E. 

      It absorbs more energy

  • 20. 
    What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism?
    • A. 

      The release of free energy during the hydrolysis of ATP heats the surrounding environment.

    • B. 

      Its free energy is coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate.

    • C. 

      It is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water.

    • D. 

      The DG associated with its hydrolysis is positive.

    • E. 

      The polar phosphate groups assist in the alignment of polar substrates as they enter an enzyme's active site.

  • 21. 
    Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bonds between the phosphate groups. These bonds are unstable because _____.
    • A. 

      The valence electrons in the phosphorus atom have less energy on average than those of other atoms

    • B. 

      The negatively charged phosphate groups vigorously repel one another

    • C. 

      They are hydrogen bonds, which are only about 10% as strong as covalent bonds

    • D. 

      The phosphate groups are polar and are attracted to the water in the cell's interior

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 22. 
    Which monomer could be most easily modified to form ATP?
    • A. 

      The RNA nucleotide adenosine

    • B. 

      The amino acid tryptophan

    • C. 

      The DNA nucleotide adenosine

    • D. 

      Cholesterol

    • E. 

      The monosaccharide galactose

  • 23. 
    ___________ is an example of the cellular work accomplished with the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. 
    • A. 

      Mechanical work, such as the beating of cilia,

    • B. 

      Transport work, such as the movement of glucose into an adipose cell,

    • C. 

      Chemical work, such as the synthesis of new protein,

    • D. 

      Mechanical work, such as pumping blood through the circulatory system,

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 24. 
    The formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose is coupled to the reaction ____________.
    • A. 

      ATP —> ATP + Pi

    • B. 

      ADP —> ATP + Pi

    • C. 

      ATP —> ADP

    • D. 

      ADP —> ATP

    • E. 

      ADP + Pi —> ATP

  • 25. 
    In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by _____.
    • A. 

      Changing to ADP and phosphate

    • B. 

      Transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule

    • C. 

      Releasing heat

    • D. 

      Acting as a catalyst

    • E. 

      Lowering the free energy of the reaction