Individual miners working independent claims took over claims abandoned by large corporations.
Large mines owned by corporations took over independent claims worked by individual miners.
As barbed wire became available, mines were pushed into smaller and smaller areas until they went out of business.
Mining became more profitable after Native Americans were restricted to living on reservations.
"I want to get my family away from the black codes and Jim Crow laws and find a better place for us to live."
"I owned a farm in Oregon Territory, but I've come to California to find gold."
"I had to leave my country to escape religious persecution. I hope to find to freedom in America."
"I came to California hoping to make my fortune in the gold rush. Now I work in an orchard in California's Central Valley."
Underground structures were more secure against Indian attack.
Native Americans taught settlers this labor saving construction method.
Wood was in limited supply.
They were more fashionable than wood structures.
The labor movement
The civil rights movement
He wanted black people to advance, but to do it without angering white people.
He called for armed revolt against white oppressors, even if it cost lives.
He wanted African Americans to strive for full rights immediately.
He recommended waiting until white people were ready to accept blacks in positions of leadership.
An 8-hour workday, the end of child labor, and equal pay for equal work.
Wage increases and shorter workweeks.
The right to use strikes as a negotiating tactic.
A 12-hour workday for adults, and an 8-hour workday for children.
Cities develop mass transportation systems.
Construction of skyscrapers becomes practical.
Construction worker deaths decrease.
Settlement houses are established in many cities.
Native Americans were restricted to reservations.
The Chisholm Trail finally reached the Kansas border.
The telegraph allowed for more accurate scheduling of trains.
The Bessemer process made production of steel faster and cheaper.
“conditions to which we much accommodate ourselves”
“great inequality of environment, the concentration of business”
“the law [of competition] may be . . . hard for the individual”
“it insures the survival of the fittest in every department”
Central Rail Holding Co.
Booker T. Washington
John D. Rockefeller
Here's an interesting quiz for you.