# Chapter 5 Burton

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• 1.

### __________ refers to the researcher's efforts to ensure that changes in the dependent variable are directly related to maniplations of the independent variable.

• A.

Baseline

• B.

Exerpimental control

• C.

Repeated measurement

• D.

None of the above

B. Exerpimental control
Explanation
Experimental control refers to the researcher's efforts to ensure that changes in the dependent variable are directly related to manipulations of the independent variable. This involves carefully designing and conducting the experiment in a way that minimizes the influence of extraneous variables and confounding factors, allowing for a clear understanding of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. By implementing experimental control, researchers can increase the internal validity of their study and confidently attribute any observed changes in the dependent variable to the manipulation of the independent variable.

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• 2.

### When Dolores screams, her mother picks her up and holds her close. "Picking up and holding Dolores close is considered the:

• A.

Independent variable

• B.

Dependent variable

• C.

Uncontrolled variable

• D.

Confounding variable

A. Independent variable
Explanation
The action of picking up and holding Dolores close is considered the independent variable because it is the variable that is deliberately manipulated or controlled by Dolores' mother. The outcome or effect of this action, which is Dolores stopping screaming or feeling comforted, would be the dependent variable.

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• 3.

### If you were to bake seventeen pies and someone were to eat four of them, how many pies would you have to bake to get a total of seventeen pies again?

• A.

Seven

• B.

Thirteen

• C.

Five

• D.

Four

D. Four
Explanation
If you were to bake seventeen pies and someone were to eat four of them, you would have to bake four more pies to get a total of seventeen pies again. This is because if you initially bake seventeen pies and someone eats four, you would be left with thirteen pies. In order to reach seventeen pies again, you would need to bake four more.

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• 4.

### Ana consistently increases the number of baskets she makes each game. If the number of baskets she made over the last seven games were plotted on a graph, a _____ tread would be evident

• A.

Descending

• B.

Variable

• C.

Ascending

• D.

None of the above

C. Ascending
Explanation
The correct answer is ascending. This means that the number of baskets Ana makes each game is consistently increasing over the last seven games. If the data were plotted on a graph, the trend would show a rising pattern, indicating that Ana is improving and making more baskets with each game.

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• 5.

### Mr. Mason is working to Jacy to increase the number of pizza boxes she folds during her first thirty minutes at the pizza shop during her vocational instruction. She currently folds an average of 15 boxes during a 30-minute period. Mr. Mason would like to increase this number to 100. What would be most appropriate research design to use?

• A.

Changing criterion design

• B.

Multiple baseline design

• C.

Alternating treatment design

• D.

Changing conditions design

A. Changing criterion design
Explanation
The most appropriate research design to use in this scenario would be a changing criterion design. This design allows for the systematic manipulation of the criteria for success in order to increase the desired behavior. In this case, Mr. Mason wants to increase the number of pizza boxes Jacy folds in a 30-minute period from 15 to 100. By gradually increasing the criterion over time, Jacy can work towards reaching the desired goal. This design would allow for clear measurement and evaluation of Jacy's progress as the criterion is changed.

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• 6.

### Ms. Markham is concerned about Peter's arithmetic computation and work completion behaviors. The appropriate design for use in this instance is:

• A.

Changin criterion design

• B.

Changing conditions design

• C.

Reversal design

• D.

Multiple baseline design

D. Multiple baseline design
Explanation
A multiple baseline design would be the most appropriate design to use in this instance. This design involves starting interventions at different times for different behaviors or individuals, allowing for a comparison of the effects of the interventions. In this case, Ms. Markham can implement interventions for Peter's arithmetic computation and work completion behaviors at different times and observe the effects of each intervention separately. This design would provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the interventions and help identify which interventions are most effective for Peter's specific needs.

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• 7.

### Michael counts on his fingers in order to answer arithmetic computation problems. The teacher wants to wean him off this crutch. She gives him, consecutively, various assistance stategies of lessening the concrete nature of his prompt. The most appropriate design for this example is:

• A.

Changing criterion design

• B.

AB design

• C.

Reversal design

• D.

Changing conditions design

D. Changing conditions design
Explanation
In the given scenario, the teacher is trying to gradually reduce Michael's reliance on counting on his fingers by providing different assistance strategies. This approach of gradually changing the conditions and prompts to help Michael become less dependent on concrete methods aligns with the changing conditions design. This design allows for the systematic manipulation of variables to observe the effect on behavior. In this case, the teacher is manipulating the conditions and prompts to help Michael develop alternative strategies for arithmetic computation.

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• 8.

### Fractionation is used to evaluate performance change when using:

• A.

A reversal design

• B.

A multiple baseline design

• C.

A changing conditions design

• D.

An alternating treatments design

D. An alternating treatments design
Explanation
Fractionation is used to evaluate performance change when using an alternating treatments design. In an alternating treatments design, two or more interventions are alternated rapidly to determine their effectiveness. Fractionation involves dividing the observation period into smaller segments, allowing for a more detailed analysis of the effects of each intervention. By comparing the performance within each segment, researchers can determine which intervention is more effective in producing the desired outcome. This method helps to identify the specific factors contributing to performance changes and provides valuable information for decision-making in intervention selection.

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• 9.

### One disadvantage of an AB design is:

• A.

It cannot evaluate performance over time

• B.

It does not require a baseline

• C.

It has only a nondescriptive function

• D.

It does not allow for determining a functional relation

D. It does not allow for determining a functional relation
Explanation
The AB design is a type of single-case research design that involves measuring a behavior before and after an intervention. One disadvantage of this design is that it does not allow for determining a functional relation. This means that it does not provide enough evidence to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the intervention and the change in behavior. Without a control condition or comparison group, it is difficult to determine whether the observed change in behavior is truly a result of the intervention or due to other factors. Therefore, the AB design may not be sufficient for making strong causal claims.

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• 10.

### David can currently read 12 sight words. The curriculum criterion states that he must be able to read 50 sight words. His teachers plans to systematically introduce 4 new sight words at a time as David masters each new set. David's teacher should employ a:

• A.

Multiple baseline design

• B.

ABAB design

• C.

Reversal design

• D.

None of the above