The Ultimate Quiz On Human Reproductive Organs!

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The Ultimate Quiz On Human Reproductive Organs! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ___ is/are generally accepted as a secondary sex characteristic.

    • A.

      The enlargement of breasts

    • B.

      The presence of testes

    • C.

      The prostrate gland

    • D.

      The vagina

    • E.

      The uterus

    Correct Answer
    A. The enlargement of breasts
    Explanation
    The enlargement of breasts is generally accepted as a secondary sex characteristic because it is a visible and physical change that occurs during puberty in females. It is caused by an increase in estrogen levels and is a distinguishing feature between males and females. While other options such as the presence of testes, the prostate gland, the vagina, and the uterus are also related to secondary sex characteristics, they are specific to either males or females and may not be universally accepted as secondary sex characteristics.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are primary sex organs?

    • A.

      Ova

    • B.

      Uterine tubes

    • C.

      Breasts

    • D.

      Ovaries

    • E.

      Scent glands

    Correct Answer
    D. Ovaries
    Explanation
    The primary sex organs, also known as gonads, are responsible for producing gametes (ova in females and sperm in males) and sex hormones. In females, the primary sex organs are the ovaries, as they produce ova and female sex hormones like estrogen and progesterone. The uterine tubes, breasts, and scent glands are not primary sex organs, as they do not directly produce gametes. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus, the breasts produce milk for breastfeeding, and scent glands produce pheromones for communication.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a secondary sex organ?

    • A.

      Testis

    • B.

      Ovary

    • C.

      Vagina

    • D.

      Facial hair

    • E.

      Distribution of body fat

    Correct Answer
    C. Vagina
    Explanation
    The vagina is considered a secondary sex organ because it is directly involved in sexual reproduction. It is a muscular canal that connects the uterus to the external genitalia and serves as a passageway for sperm to enter the reproductive system during intercourse. The vagina also plays a crucial role in childbirth by allowing the passage of the baby from the uterus to the outside world.

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  • 4. 

    Gonads begin to develop:

    • A.

      2 to 3 weeks after fertilization

    • B.

      5 to 6 weeks after fertilization

    • C.

      8 to 9 weeks after fertilization

    • D.

      20 to 24 weeks after fertilization

    • E.

      At birth

    Correct Answer
    B. 5 to 6 weeks after fertilization
    Explanation
    Gonads begin to develop 5 to 6 weeks after fertilization. This is the time when the reproductive organs, such as the testes in males and ovaries in females, start to form. During this period, the gonads differentiate and begin to take on their specific functions in the development of the reproductive system.

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  • 5. 

    ___ determine/s wether an organism will be genetically male or female.

    • A.

      Hormonal, genetic and environmental factors

    • B.

      Prenatal hormone exposure

    • C.

      The egg

    • D.

      The sperm

    • E.

      Both egg and sperm equally

    Correct Answer
    E. Both egg and sperm equally
    Explanation
    Both the egg and the sperm contribute equally to determining whether an organism will be genetically male or female. This is because the sex of an organism is determined by the combination of sex chromosomes present in the fertilized egg. The egg carries one X chromosome, while the sperm can carry either an X or a Y chromosome. If the sperm carrying an X chromosome fertilizes the egg, the resulting organism will be female (XX). If the sperm carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes the egg, the resulting organism will be male (XY). Therefore, both the egg and the sperm play an equal role in determining the genetic sex of an organism.

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  • 6. 

    The gene that codes for the testis-determining factor (TDF) is found in or on:

    • A.

      The Y chromosome

    • B.

      The X chromosome

    • C.

      The gonadal ridges

    • D.

      The fetal testes

    • E.

      The mesonephros

    Correct Answer
    A. The Y chromosome
    Explanation
    The gene that codes for the testis-determining factor (TDF) is found on the Y chromosome. This gene is responsible for the development of testes in males. The presence of the Y chromosome and the expression of TDF leads to the differentiation of the gonadal ridges into testes during fetal development. The X chromosome does not contain this gene, and the presence of the X chromosome alone leads to the development of ovaries. The fetal testes and mesonephros are involved in the development and function of the male reproductive system, but they do not specifically contain the gene for TDF.

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  • 7. 

    The penis is homologous to:

    • A.

      The appendix

    • B.

      A finger

    • C.

      The urethra

    • D.

      The vagina

    • E.

      The clitoris

    Correct Answer
    E. The clitoris
    Explanation
    The penis is homologous to the clitoris because both structures develop from the same embryonic tissue, the genital tubercle. During fetal development, the genital tubercle can differentiate into either a penis or a clitoris, depending on the presence or absence of certain hormones. Both the penis and clitoris have similar structures, including a shaft and a glans, and they both contain erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal. Additionally, both structures play a role in sexual pleasure and are sensitive to stimulation.

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  • 8. 

    The ___ is the gonad and the ___ is the gamete.

    • A.

      Testis;ovary

    • B.

      Testis;semen

    • C.

      Testis;sperm

    • D.

      Sperm;semen

    • E.

      Semen;sperm

    Correct Answer
    C. Testis;sperm
    Explanation
    The testis is the gonad, which refers to the organ that produces gametes. In this case, the testis produces sperm, which is the gamete.

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  • 9. 

    ___ stimulates the descent of the testes.

    • A.

      The presence of the Y chromosome

    • B.

      The presence of the X chromosome

    • C.

      The absence of the X chromosome

    • D.

      Testosterone

    • E.

      Estrogens

    Correct Answer
    D. Testosterone
    Explanation
    Testosterone stimulates the descent of the testes. During fetal development, the testes initially develop near the kidneys and then descend into the scrotum. Testosterone, a male sex hormone produced by the testes, plays a crucial role in this process. It triggers the development of the structures necessary for the descent, such as the gubernaculum, which helps guide the testes into the scrotum. Without sufficient levels of testosterone, the testes may not descend properly, leading to a condition called undescended testes or cryptorchidism. Therefore, testosterone is responsible for stimulating the descent of the testes.

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  • 10. 

    The ___ is an example of the female external genitalia.

    • A.

      Scrotum

    • B.

      Clitoris

    • C.

      Uterine tube

    • D.

      Seminal vesicle

    • E.

      Vagina

    Correct Answer
    E. Vagina
    Explanation
    The vagina is an example of the female external genitalia.

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  • 11. 

    From the formation to ejaculation, sperm cells take the following pathway:

    • A.

      Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, rete testis, urethra, ejaculatory duct, ductus derferens

    • B.

      Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, rete testis, ejaculatory duct, ductus derferens, urethra

    • C.

      Seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra

    • D.

      Seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, urethra, ductus deferens

    Correct Answer
    C. Seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
    Explanation
    Sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. From there, they move to the rete testis, which is a network of tubules that connects the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis. The epididymis is a long, coiled tube where the sperm cells mature and become capable of movement. After leaving the epididymis, the sperm cells enter the ductus deferens, also known as the vas deferens. The ductus deferens carries the sperm cells from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Finally, the sperm cells pass through the ejaculatory duct and enter the urethra, which is the tube that carries semen out of the body during ejaculation.

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  • 12. 

    When it is cold, the ___ contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm.

    • A.

      Cremaster muscle

    • B.

      Pampiniform plexus

    • C.

      Corpus spongiosum

    • D.

      Perinium

    • E.

      Corpus cavernosum

    Correct Answer
    A. Cremaster muscle
    Explanation
    The cremaster muscle is responsible for contracting and drawing the testes closer to the body when it is cold. This helps to keep the testes warm and maintain the optimal temperature for sperm production. The contraction of the cremaster muscle is a reflex response to cold temperatures and is part of the body's thermoregulation mechanism.

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  • 13. 

    The countercurrent heat exchanger that prevents arterial blood from overheating the testes is:

    • A.

      The rete testis

    • B.

      The epididymis

    • C.

      The pampiniform plexus

    • D.

      The blood-testis barrier

    • E.

      The scrotal portal system

    Correct Answer
    C. The pampiniform plexus
    Explanation
    The pampiniform plexus is a network of veins that surround the testicular artery in the spermatic cord. This network acts as a countercurrent heat exchanger, meaning that it allows for the exchange of heat between the arterial blood supplying the testes and the venous blood returning from the testes. This allows for the transfer of heat from the arterial blood to the venous blood, cooling down the arterial blood before it reaches the testes. Thus, the pampiniform plexus prevents arterial blood from overheating the testes.

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  • 14. 

    The blood-testis barrier:

    • A.

      Prevents antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells

    • B.

      Prevents heat loss from the testes

    • C.

      Prevents blood from getting to the testes

    • D.

      Maintains testis temperature at 35*C

    • E.

      Maintains testis temperature at 37*C

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevents antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells
    Explanation
    The blood-testis barrier is a physiological barrier that prevents antibodies in the blood from reaching the germ cells in the testes. This barrier is important for protecting the developing sperm cells from potential immune system attacks. It helps to maintain the integrity and functionality of the testes by preventing the entry of harmful substances, including antibodies, that could potentially damage or disrupt the sperm production process.

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  • 15. 

    By volume, most of the semen is produced in the:

    • A.

      Testes

    • B.

      Penis

    • C.

      Prostrate gland

    • D.

      Seminal vesicles

    • E.

      Bulbourethral glands

    Correct Answer
    D. Seminal vesicles
    Explanation
    The seminal vesicles are responsible for producing the majority of the semen. Semen is a fluid that contains sperm and other substances that nourish and protect the sperm. The seminal vesicles contribute to the volume of the semen by producing a fluid rich in fructose, which provides energy for the sperm. This fluid also contains other substances that help to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract, creating a more favorable environment for the sperm to survive and fertilize an egg. Therefore, the seminal vesicles play a crucial role in the production and composition of semen.

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  • 16. 

    ___ are not found in the seminiferous tubules.

    • A.

      Interstitial (Leydig) cells

    • B.

      Germ cells

    • C.

      Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells

    • D.

      Spermatids

    • E.

      Corpus cavernosum cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Corpus cavernosum cells
    Explanation
    Corpus cavernosum cells are not found in the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are responsible for the production and maturation of spermatozoa, which are formed from germ cells. Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells are also present in the seminiferous tubules and provide support and nourishment to the developing sperm cells. Interstitial (Leydig) cells are found in the connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules and produce testosterone. Spermatids are the immature sperm cells that undergo further maturation to become spermatozoa. However, corpus cavernosum cells are not involved in the process of spermatogenesis and are not found in the seminiferous tubules.

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  • 17. 

    The penile urethra is enclosed by the:

    • A.

      Corpus cavernosum

    • B.

      Corpus spongiosum

    • C.

      Trabecular muscle

    • D.

      Prepuce

    • E.

      Frenulum

    Correct Answer
    B. Corpus spongiosum
    Explanation
    The penile urethra is enclosed by the corpus spongiosum. The corpus spongiosum is a sponge-like tissue that surrounds the urethra and helps to keep it open during erection. It also helps to protect the urethra during sexual intercourse. The corpus cavernosum, on the other hand, is responsible for the erection of the penis. The trabecular muscle is not directly involved in enclosing the penile urethra. The prepuce and frenulum are parts of the foreskin and are not directly related to the enclosure of the penile urethra.

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  • 18. 

    Men have only ___ but have two of all the rest of these.

    • A.

      Bulbourethral gland(s)

    • B.

      Prostrate gland(s)

    • C.

      Ejaculatory duct(s)

    • D.

      Seminal vesicle(s)

    • E.

      Corpus(ora) cavernosum(a)

    Correct Answer
    B. Prostrate gland(s)
  • 19. 

    Why would an enlarged prostrate interfere with urination?

    • A.

      It inhibits urine production

    • B.

      It develops calcified deposits that block the urethra

    • C.

      It produces thicker prostatic secretions that block the urethra

    • D.

      It inhibits the micturition reflex

    • E.

      It compresses the urethra

    Correct Answer
    E. It compresses the urethra
    Explanation
    An enlarged prostate can interfere with urination because it compresses the urethra. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. When the prostate becomes enlarged, it can squeeze or compress the urethra, making it more difficult for urine to pass through. This can lead to symptoms such as weak urine flow, frequent urination, difficulty starting or stopping urination, and feeling like the bladder is not completely empty after urinating.

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  • 20. 

    The ___ is/are the site(s) of sperm maturation and storage.

    • A.

      Seminiferous tubules

    • B.

      Rete testis

    • C.

      Prostrate

    • D.

      Epididymides

    • E.

      Seminal vesicles

    Correct Answer
    D. Epididymides
    Explanation
    The epididymides are the site of sperm maturation and storage. They are coiled tubes located on the back of each testicle where sperm produced in the testes are transported and stored. Within the epididymides, the sperm undergo a maturation process that allows them to become motile and gain the ability to fertilize an egg. The epididymides also provide a suitable environment for sperm storage until they are ejaculated during sexual intercourse.

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  • 21. 

    All of the following play a role in thermoregulation of the testes except:

    • A.

      Bulbospongiosus muscle

    • B.

      The cremaster muscle

    • C.

      The pampiniform plexus

    • D.

      The countercurrent heat exchanger

    • E.

      The dartos muscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Bulbospongiosus muscle
    Explanation
    The bulbospongiosus muscle is not involved in thermoregulation of the testes. The other options listed, such as the cremaster muscle, pampiniform plexus, countercurrent heat exchanger, and dartos muscle, all play a role in regulating the temperature of the testes. The cremaster muscle helps to raise or lower the testes closer to or further away from the body to adjust temperature. The pampiniform plexus is a network of veins that helps cool the arterial blood supplying the testes. The countercurrent heat exchanger allows heat to be transferred from the arterial blood to the venous blood, further cooling the testes. The dartos muscle helps to regulate the position and tension of the scrotum to aid in temperature regulation.

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  • 22. 

    When do the testes start secreting testosterone?

    • A.

      In the first trimester of fetal development

    • B.

      In the first trimester after birth

    • C.

      In the first three years after birth

    • D.

      In the first three years of adolescense

    • E.

      After the first ejaculation

    Correct Answer
    A. In the first trimester of fetal development
    Explanation
    During fetal development, the testes start secreting testosterone in the first trimester. This hormone plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics. It is responsible for the growth of the penis, scrotum, and prostate gland, as well as the deepening of the voice and the development of facial and body hair during puberty. Testosterone also influences sperm production and libido in adult males. Therefore, the secretion of testosterone in the first trimester is essential for the proper development of the male reproductive system.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following hormones directly stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics?

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Inhibin

    • C.

      Luteinizing hormone

    • D.

      Follicle stimulating hormone

    • E.

      Testosterone

    Correct Answer
    E. Testosterone
    Explanation
    Testosterone is the hormone that directly stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics. It is responsible for the growth of facial and body hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass in males. Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone, inhibin regulates the production of sperm, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone are involved in the regulation of reproductive processes but do not directly stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is an androgen?

    • A.

      Estrogen

    • B.

      Progesterone

    • C.

      Testosterone

    • D.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH)

    • E.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    Correct Answer
    C. Testosterone
    Explanation
    Testosterone is an androgen because it is a male sex hormone that is primarily produced in the testes. It plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and characteristics. Androgens are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males, such as facial hair growth, deepening of the voice, and muscle growth. In females, small amounts of testosterone are also produced in the ovaries, but at much lower levels compared to males.

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  • 25. 

    ___ stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete ___.

    • A.

      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); LH

    • B.

      Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); androgen-binding protein (ABP)

    • C.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH); androgen-binding protein (ABP)

    • D.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH); testosterone

    • E.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH); estrogen

    Correct Answer
    D. Luteinizing hormone (LH); testosterone
    Explanation
    Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete testosterone.

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  • 26. 

    The ___ has/have no androgen receptors and do not respond to it.

    • A.

      Germ cells

    • B.

      Muscular tissue

    • C.

      Sustentacular cells

    • D.

      Hypothalmus

    • E.

      Pituitary gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Germ cells
    Explanation
    Germ cells do not have androgen receptors and therefore do not respond to androgens. Androgens are a group of hormones that play a role in the development and function of male reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics. Germ cells are the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs and are not directly involved in the response to androgens.

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  • 27. 

    Testosterone inhibits:

    • A.

      Libido

    • B.

      Development of secondary sex organs

    • C.

      Development of secondary sex characteristics

    • D.

      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion

    • E.

      Sperm production

    Correct Answer
    D. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion
    Explanation
    Testosterone inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. These hormones play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. Testosterone acts as a negative feedback mechanism, suppressing the secretion of GnRH and subsequently reducing the release of FSH and LH. This helps to maintain a balance in hormone levels and prevent excessive stimulation of the reproductive system.

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  • 28. 

    Changes called male climacteric are a consequence of:

    • A.

      Increased secretion of estrogens

    • B.

      Increased secretion of progesterone

    • C.

      Increased secretion of testosterone

    • D.

      Increased secretion of FSH and LH

    • E.

      Increased secretion of GnRH

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased secretion of FSH and LH
    Explanation
    The male climacteric refers to the changes that occur in men as they age, similar to the female menopause. These changes are primarily caused by a decrease in the production of testosterone, which is regulated by the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Therefore, an increased secretion of FSH and LH would result in a higher level of testosterone production, which is not characteristic of the male climacteric. Thus, the correct answer is not increased secretion of FSH and LH.

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  • 29. 

    In the process of spermiogenesis, ___ become ___.

    • A.

      Spermatocytes; spermatozoa

    • B.

      Spermatozoa; spermatids

    • C.

      Spermatogonia; spermatocytes

    • D.

      Spermatocytes; spermatids

    • E.

      Spermatids; spermatozoa

    Correct Answer
    E. Spermatids; spermatozoa
    Explanation
    In the process of spermiogenesis, spermatids undergo further maturation and differentiation to become spermatozoa. This process involves the development of a tail, the formation of a head with a nucleus, and the shedding of excess cytoplasm. Spermatocytes, on the other hand, are the cells that undergo meiosis to produce spermatids. Therefore, the correct answer is spermatids become spermatozoa.

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  • 30. 

    In meiosis, each parent cell produces:

    • A.

      Two haploid cells

    • B.

      Four haploid cells

    • C.

      Two diploid cells

    • D.

      Four diploid cells

    • E.

      Haploid cells identical to the parent cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Two haploid cells
    Explanation
    During meiosis, each parent cell undergoes two rounds of cell division, resulting in the formation of four haploid cells. These haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is necessary for sexual reproduction as it ensures the formation of gametes with the correct number of chromosomes. The statement "two haploid cells" accurately describes the outcome of meiosis.

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  • 31. 

    In spermatogenesis, only the final cells are called ___, but they and all the stages leading up to them can be called ___.

    • A.

      Sperm cells; interstituial cells

    • B.

      Sperm cells; sustentacular cells

    • C.

      Secondary spermatocytes; spermatocytes in general

    • D.

      Secondary spermatocytes; germ cells

    • E.

      Gametes; germ cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Gametes; germ cells
    Explanation
    In spermatogenesis, the final cells produced are called gametes, specifically sperm cells. However, all the stages leading up to the formation of sperm cells can be referred to as germ cells.

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  • 32. 

    At the end of meiosis I there are ___, whereas at the end of meiosis II there is/are ___.

    • A.

      Two diploid cells; one diploid cell

    • B.

      Two diploid cells; one haploid cell

    • C.

      Two diploid cells; for haploid cells

    • D.

      Two haploid cells; four haploid cells

    • E.

      Two haploid cells; one diploid cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Two haploid cells; four haploid cells
    Explanation
    At the end of meiosis I, there are two haploid cells formed. This is because during meiosis I, the homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, resulting in two cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.

    At the end of meiosis II, there are four haploid cells formed. This is because during meiosis II, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate, resulting in four cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Each of these cells is haploid because they contain only one set of chromosomes.

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  • 33. 

    The most important role of meiosis in sexual reproduction is:

    • A.

      That it reduces the size of gametes

    • B.

      That it produces at least one gamete that is mobile

    • C.

      That it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation

    • D.

      That it ensures that each daughter cell doubles the number of chromosomes

    • E.

      That it changes the genetic compostion of each chromosome

    Correct Answer
    C. That it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This is important because it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation. If the chromosome number continued to double with each generation, the offspring would have an excessive number of chromosomes, leading to genetic abnormalities and instability. By halving the chromosome number through meiosis, sexual reproduction maintains the stability of the chromosome number across generations, ensuring the proper functioning of genes and maintaining the genetic diversity within a species.

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  • 34. 

    At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail?

    • A.

      Spermatozoon

    • B.

      Spermatid

    • C.

      Primary spermatocyte

    • D.

      Secondary spermatocyte

    • E.

      Spermatogonium

    Correct Answer
    B. Spermatid
    Explanation
    A developing sperm cell begins to grow a tail at the stage of spermatid. Spermatids are formed from the process of spermiogenesis, which involves the transformation of round spermatids into mature sperm cells. During this stage, the spermatid undergoes structural changes, including the development of a tail or flagellum, which allows for motility and enables the sperm cell to swim towards the egg for fertilization.

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  • 35. 

    Sperm cells get energy to power their movement from ___ contributed by the ___.

    • A.

      Prostaglandins; prostrate gland

    • B.

      Sucrose; bulbourethral gland

    • C.

      Fructose; seminal vesicle

    • D.

      Seminogelin; prostrate gland

    • E.

      Semen; seminiferous gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Fructose; seminal vesicle
    Explanation
    Sperm cells get energy to power their movement from fructose contributed by the seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle is responsible for producing and secreting seminal fluid, which contains various nutrients to support the sperm cells' survival and motility. Fructose, a type of sugar, is one of the main nutrients found in seminal fluid and serves as an energy source for the sperm cells.

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  • 36. 

    Male infertility (sterility) refers to:

    • A.

      The inability to fertilize an egg

    • B.

      Low sperm count

    • C.

      A lack of seminal fluid during ejaculation

    • D.

      Low levels of testosterone

    • E.

      The inability to have an erection

    Correct Answer
    A. The inability to fertilize an egg
    Explanation
    Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to fertilize an egg. This can be caused by various factors such as low sperm count, a lack of seminal fluid during ejaculation, or low levels of testosterone. It is important to note that male infertility does not necessarily mean the inability to have an erection, as this can be a separate issue.

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  • 37. 

    The acrosome contains enzymes used to:

    • A.

      Dissolve the mucosa of the vagina

    • B.

      Dissolve the mucosa of the uterus

    • C.

      Dissolve the stickiness of the semen

    • D.

      Penetrate the vagina

    • E.

      Penetrate the egg

    Correct Answer
    E. Penetrate the egg
    Explanation
    The acrosome contains enzymes that are used to penetrate the egg. These enzymes help to break down the protective layers surrounding the egg, allowing the sperm to enter and fertilize the egg. This process is essential for successful fertilization and the formation of a new organism.

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  • 38. 

    ___ have 46 chromosomes, where as ___ have 23.

    • A.

      Spermatids; spermatozoa

    • B.

      Primary spermatocytes; spermatids

    • C.

      Secondary spermatocytes

    • D.

      Spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes

    • E.

      Type A spermatogonia; type B spermatogonia

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary spermatocytes; spermatids
    Explanation
    Primary spermatocytes are diploid cells that undergo meiosis I to produce two haploid secondary spermatocytes. These secondary spermatocytes then undergo meiosis II to form spermatids, which are also haploid cells. Therefore, primary spermatocytes have 46 chromosomes (diploid) and spermatids have 23 chromosomes (haploid).

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  • 39. 

    A sperm count any lower than ___ million sperm per mL of semen is usually associated with infertility (sterility).

    • A.

      250 to 500

    • B.

      200 to 250

    • C.

      100 to 200

    • D.

      50 to 100

    • E.

      20 to 25

    Correct Answer
    E. 20 to 25
    Explanation
    A sperm count any lower than 20 to 25 million sperm per mL of semen is usually associated with infertility (sterility). This means that if a man's sperm count falls below this range, it is likely that he will have difficulty in fathering a child. It is important for a man's sperm count to be within a normal range in order to increase the chances of successful fertilization.

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  • 40. 

    Dilation of the ___ causes lacunae to fill with blood and the penis to become erect.

    • A.

      Helicine arteries

    • B.

      Internal pudendal (penile) arteries

    • C.

      Dorsal arteries

    • D.

      Dorsal veins

    • E.

      Deep arteries

    Correct Answer
    E. Deep arteries
    Explanation
    The deep arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the lacunae in the penis. When these arteries dilate, blood fills the lacunae, resulting in an erection.

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  • 41. 

    The orgasm-emission phase of the male sexual response is stimulated by:

    • A.

      Efferent sympathetic signals from the sacral region of the spinal cord

    • B.

      Efferent sympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord

    • C.

      Efferent parasympathetic signals from the sacral region of the spinal cord

    • D.

      Efferent parasympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord

    • E.

      Efferent somatic signals from the thoracic region of the spinal cord.

    Correct Answer
    D. Efferent parasympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord
    Explanation
    The orgasm-emission phase of the male sexual response is stimulated by efferent parasympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord. These signals are responsible for the contraction of smooth muscles in the reproductive system, including the vas deferens and prostate gland, which helps propel semen through the urethra during ejaculation.

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  • 42. 

    Erection is:

    • A.

      An autonomic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers

    • B.

      An autonomic reflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers

    • C.

      A somatic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers

    • D.

      A somatic reflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers

    • E.

      An exclusively voluntary action mediated by the cortex

    Correct Answer
    A. An autonomic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers
    Explanation
    Erection is an autonomic reflex that is predominantly mediated by parasympathetic nerve fibers. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for promoting relaxation and increasing blood flow to the erectile tissues, leading to the erection. This reflex is not under conscious control and can occur in response to sexual stimulation or other physiological factors. While sympathetic nerve fibers also play a role in the process, the parasympathetic system is the primary mediator of the erection reflex.

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  • 43. 

    Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate peak during the:

    • A.

      Excitement phase

    • B.

      Erection of the penis

    • C.

      Climax (orgasm)

    • D.

      Plateau phase

    • E.

      Resolution phase

    Correct Answer
    C. Climax (orgasm)
    Explanation
    During the climax (orgasm) phase, there is a release of endorphins and other chemicals in the brain that cause intense pleasure and physical sensations. This heightened state of arousal leads to an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate as the body prepares for and experiences orgasm.

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  • 44. 

    Sildenafil (Viagra) prolongs erection by:

    • A.

      Activating nitric oxide (NO) production

    • B.

      Inactivating guanylate cyclase

    • C.

      Stimulating production of cGMP

    • D.

      Inhibiting degradation of cGMP

    • E.

      Inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production

    Correct Answer
    D. Inhibiting degradation of cGMP
    Explanation
    Sildenafil (Viagra) prolongs erection by inhibiting the degradation of cGMP. cGMP is a molecule that relaxes smooth muscle cells in the blood vessels of the penis, allowing for increased blood flow and erection. Normally, cGMP is broken down by an enzyme called phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). Sildenafil works by inhibiting PDE5, preventing the breakdown of cGMP and thus maintaining higher levels of cGMP in the penis. This leads to prolonged relaxation of smooth muscle cells and sustained erection.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 09, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Grindler
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