Chapter 20 Genes With Populations

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 267

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Chapter 20 Genes With Populations

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Natural selection as a mechanism of evolution that acts on variants within populations and ultimately  leads to the evolution of different species was proposed by
    • A. 

      Mendel

    • B. 

      Lyell.

    • C. 

      Malthus.

    • D. 

      Darwin.

    • E. 

      Founder.

  • 2. 
    Features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by an organism in a particular  environment are called
    • A. 

      Genes.

    • B. 

      Fitness.

    • C. 

      Mutations.

    • D. 

      Adaptations.

    • E. 

      Selection.

  • 3. 
    The gene pool includes
    • A. 

      All of the fitness within a population.

    • B. 

      All of the individuals within a population

    • C. 

      All of the mutations within a population.

    • D. 

      All of the adaptations within a population.

    • E. 

      All of the alleles of genes within a population.

  • 4. 
    The founder principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new
    • A. 

      Populations.

    • B. 

      Clines.

    • C. 

      Bottleneck areas.

    • D. 

      Migratory areas.

    • E. 

      Genomes.

  • 5. 
    A restriction in genetic variability caused by a drastic reduction in population size is called a
    • A. 

      Founder effect.

    • B. 

      Hardy-Weinberg effect.

    • C. 

      Bottleneck effect.

    • D. 

      Polymorphic effect.

    • E. 

      Adaptive effect.

  • 6. 
    The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, compared with that of other  individuals in the population, is known as
    • A. 

      Variation.

    • B. 

      Microevolution

    • C. 

      Macroevolution.

    • D. 

      Fitness.

    • E. 

      Adaptive makeup.

  • 7. 
    Darwin proposed that natural selection occurs in an environment by
    • A. 

      Favoring heritable features that make the organism better suited to survive and reproduce.

    • B. 

      Producing a constant number of offspring while in that environment.

    • C. 

      Surviving for a fixed amount of time.

    • D. 

      Resisting the environment and keeping the environment from changing

    • E. 

      Favoring those individuals with the most favorable acquired characteristics.

  • 8. 
    The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium
    • A. 

      When immigration in and out of the area are held constant.

    • B. 

      When changes only take place over long periods of time.

    • C. 

      When it includes episodes of extinction.

    • D. 

      When the population is designed to survive in new habitats.

    • E. 

      When all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.

  • 9. 
    In the Hardy-Weinberg equations, the frequencies of 2 alleles in a population (where there are only 2  alleles to consider) can be designated as
    • A. 

      (p + q) 2 .

    • B. 

      P and q

    • C. 

      P 2 and q 2

    • D. 

      2pq

    • E. 

      1 - p and 1 - q.

  • 10. 
    "The inheritance of acquired characteristics" proposal was put forward by
    • A. 

      Darwin

    • B. 

      Lamarck.

    • C. 

      Wallace.

    • D. 

      Founder.

    • E. 

      Hardy-Weinberg.

  • 11. 
    The frequency of a particular allele within a population can be changed, over time, by
    • A. 

      Genetic outflow.

    • B. 

      Large population size.

    • C. 

      Selection.

    • D. 

      Inheritance of acquired characteristics.

    • E. 

      Random mating.

  • 12. 
    The genetic preservation of the features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction of  some individuals within a population is called the process of
    • A. 

      Natural selection.

    • B. 

      Creation of new species.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Outcrossing.

    • E. 

      Increasing evolutionary resistance.

  • 13. 
    A locus with more variation than can be explained by mutation is referred to as
    • A. 

      Dominant.

    • B. 

      Polynomial.

    • C. 

      Polymorphic.

    • D. 

      Heterozygous

    • E. 

      Somatic.

  • 14. 
    Hardy-Weinberg pointed out that the original proportions of the genotypes in a population would  remain constant from generation to generation if certain assumptions are met. Which one of the  following is not a Hardy-Weinberg condition?
    • A. 

      (p+q) 2 (p+q)^2

    • B. 

      2pq.

    • C. 

      Q^2

    • D. 

      P^2

    • E. 

      2Aa.

  • 15. 
    For a gene with two alternative alleles, a (frequency p) and a (frequency q), the term in the algebraic  form of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the heterozygote genotype frequency is
    • A. 

      P^2

    • B. 

      Q^2

    • C. 

      2pq

    • D. 

      (p+q)^2

    • E. 

      2Aa

  • 16. 
    Which one of the following is not an agent of natural evolutionary change?
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Migration

    • C. 

      Genetic drift

    • D. 

      Non-random mating

    • E. 

      Artificial selection

  • 17. 
    The phenomenon in which rare alleles become more common in new populations is called
    • A. 

      Founder effect.

    • B. 

      Gene flow

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Mutation.

  • 18. 
    In small populations, frequencies of certain alleles may change by chance alone. Such random  change in the frequency of alleles is called
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Nonrandom mating.

    • E. 

      Selection.

  • 19. 
    The type of non-random mating that causes the frequencies of particular genotypes to differ greatly  from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is called
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Assortative mating

    • E. 

      Selection.

  • 20. 
    Sometimes a restriction in genetic variability is imposed on populations by natural catastrophes such  as flooding, earthquake, etc. The surviving individuals reflect only a small, random genetic sample  of the population affected. This process is termed
    • A. 

      Mutation.

    • B. 

      Migration.

    • C. 

      Genetic drift.

    • D. 

      Assortative mating.

    • E. 

      Bottleneck effect.

  • 21. 
    Gene flow, defined as the movement of genes from one population to another, can take place by  migration, as well as
    • A. 

      Mating with certain trait-containing individuals.

    • B. 

      Mating with dominant phenotypes.

    • C. 

      Hybridization between individuals of adjacent populations.

    • D. 

      Removing the barriers between the populations.

    • E. 

      Physical movement of genes within an individual by transposons.

  • 22. 
    In some populations the drive is to mate with individuals that are phenotypically different at a variety  of loci. This leads to large numbers of heterozygotes and is called
    • A. 

      Neutral theory

    • B. 

      Disassortative mating.

    • C. 

      Shifting balance theory

    • D. 

      Bottleneck effect.

    • E. 

      Founder effect.

  • 23. 
    Which one of the following is not an agent of evolutionary change?
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Gene flow

    • C. 

      Random mating

    • D. 

      Genetic drift

    • E. 

      Selection

  • 24. 
    About 80% of the alleles present in thoroughbred horses can be dated back to 31 known ancestors  from the late eighteenth century. As a result, one would expect
    • A. 

      Low rates of mutation.

    • B. 

      Many polymorphic alleles

    • C. 

      Little variation in physiology and behavior

    • D. 

      Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    • E. 

      Random mating.

  • 25. 
    When selection acts to eliminate one extreme from an array of phenotypes it is called
    • A. 

      Natural selection.

    • B. 

      Stabilizing selection.

    • C. 

      Disruptive selection

    • D. 

      Directional selection.

    • E. 

      Artificial selection.