Chapter 18, 19, 20 And 21

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Blood Pressure Quizzes & Trivia

Blood Pressure, Veins, and Arteries, Lymph nodes, Immune System


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The umbilical vein carries

    • A.

      Unoxygenated blood

    • B.

      Blood from the fetal lungs to the placenta

    • C.

      Oxygented blood from the placenta to the fetus

    • D.

      Oxygenated blood from the fetal aorta to the placenta

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygented blood from the placenta to the fetus
    Explanation
    The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. During fetal development, the placenta acts as the organ of respiration, providing oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The umbilical vein is responsible for transporting the oxygen-rich blood from the placenta to the developing fetus, ensuring its proper growth and development.

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  • 2. 

    What happens at the ductus arteriousus

    • A.

      Blood flows from the right atrium to the left atrium

    • B.

      Blood flows from the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Blood bypasses the fetal liver

    • D.

      Blood bypasses the fetal lungs by flowing from the pulmonary artery to the aorta

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood bypasses the fetal lungs by flowing from the pulmonary artery to the aorta
    Explanation
    The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta in a fetus. It allows blood to bypass the fetal lungs since they are not yet fully developed and not needed for oxygen exchange. Instead, the blood flows directly from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, supplying oxygenated blood to the rest of the fetal body. This redirection of blood helps to ensure that the developing fetus receives enough oxygen for its needs.

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  • 3. 

    Which part of the aorta is located in the abdominal cavity?

    • A.

      Ascending aorta

    • B.

      Arch of the aorta

    • C.

      Thoracic aorta

    • D.

      Descending aorta

    Correct Answer
    D. Descending aorta
    Explanation
    The descending aorta is located in the abdominal cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body and it carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. It begins at the top of the left ventricle of the heart and descends down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta starts at the level of the diaphragm, which separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, and continues down to the pelvis where it branches off into smaller arteries.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not descriptive of the celiac trunk?

    • A.

      A branch of the descending aorta

    • B.

      Gives rise to the gastric artery, splenic artery, and the hepatic artery

    • C.

      Is part of the hepatic portal system

    • D.

      A branch of the abdominal aorta

    Correct Answer
    C. Is part of the hepatic portal system
    Explanation
    The celiac trunk is not part of the hepatic portal system. The hepatic portal system is a specialized part of the circulatory system that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver for processing. The celiac trunk, on the other hand, is a major branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the stomach, spleen, and liver.

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  • 5. 

    The iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries

    • A.

      Nourish the lower extremities

    • B.

      Are part of the hepatic portal system

    • C.

      Arise from the arch of the aorta

    • D.

      Are unique to the fetal circulation

    Correct Answer
    A. Nourish the lower extremities
    Explanation
    The iliac, femoral, and popliteal arteries are responsible for supplying blood and nutrients to the lower extremities. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the circulation of oxygenated blood to the legs and feet, ensuring proper nourishment and oxygen supply to the tissues in that region.

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  • 6. 

    The tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia are

    • A.

      The names of capillaries located within the circle of Willis

    • B.

      Restricted to the hepatic portal system

    • C.

      Layers of the blood vessels

    • D.

      The names of the blood vessels that contain the baroreceptors (blood pressure)

    Correct Answer
    C. Layers of the blood vessels
    Explanation
    The tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia are the three layers that make up the walls of blood vessels. The tunica intima is the innermost layer, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth surface for blood flow. The tunica media is the middle layer, consisting of smooth muscle cells that control the diameter of the blood vessel and regulate blood pressure. The tunica adventitia is the outermost layer, made up of connective tissue that provides support and protection to the blood vessel. Together, these layers form the structure of blood vessels.

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  • 7. 

    Arterioles act as resistance vessels because they

    • A.

      Are small

    • B.

      Have thin walls with large pores

    • C.

      Have a lot of smooth muscle

    • D.

      Have valves

    Correct Answer
    C. Have a lot of smooth muscle
    Explanation
    Arterioles act as resistance vessels because they have a lot of smooth muscle. Smooth muscle is responsible for regulating the diameter of the arterioles, allowing them to constrict or dilate based on the body's needs. When the smooth muscle contracts, it narrows the arterioles, increasing resistance to blood flow. This helps regulate blood pressure and control the distribution of blood to different organs and tissues. Therefore, the presence of a significant amount of smooth muscle in arterioles allows them to effectively act as resistance vessels.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is least true of the hepatic portal system?

    • A.

      Delivers blood rich in digestive end-products to the liver

    • B.

      The portal vein is formed by the merger of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins

    • C.

      Carries venous blood

    • D.

      Portal pressure is normally as high as aortic pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Portal pressure is normally as high as aortic pressure
    Explanation
    The hepatic portal system delivers blood rich in digestive end-products to the liver, which is true. The portal vein is formed by the merger of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins, which is also true. The hepatic portal system carries venous blood, which is true as well. However, the statement that portal pressure is normally as high as aortic pressure is least true. The pressure in the hepatic portal system is generally much lower than the pressure in the aorta.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following veins carries oxygen-rich blood?

    • A.

      Portal

    • B.

      Jugular

    • C.

      Vena cava

    • D.

      Umbilical

    Correct Answer
    D. Umbilical
    Explanation
    The umbilical vein carries oxygen-rich blood. This vein is responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing fetus during pregnancy. Once the blood reaches the fetus, it is then distributed throughout the body, providing oxygen and nutrients essential for growth and development.

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  • 10. 

    Where is usual destination of an embolus that forms in the veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis)?

    • A.

      Foot

    • B.

      Circle of Willis

    • C.

      Pulmonary capillaries

    • D.

      Internal carotid artery

    Correct Answer
    C. Pulmonary capillaries
    Explanation
    An embolus that forms in the veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) typically travels through the bloodstream and eventually reaches the pulmonary capillaries. This is because the embolus is carried by the blood flow to the lungs where it can become lodged in the smaller blood vessels of the lung tissue. This can lead to a potentially serious condition known as pulmonary embolism, which can cause chest pain, difficulty breathing, and even death if not treated promptly.

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  • 11. 

    Arterioles spend most of their time

    • A.

      Contracting and relaxing

    • B.

      Filtering water and solute at one end and reabsorbing water and waste at the other end

    • C.

      Absorbing lymph from the interstitium

    • D.

      Filtering clots out of the blood entering the capillaries

    Correct Answer
    A. Contracting and relaxing
    Explanation
    Arterioles spend most of their time contracting and relaxing. This is because arterioles are responsible for regulating blood flow and blood pressure in the body. When arterioles contract, they constrict and narrow, reducing blood flow to the tissues. This helps to increase blood pressure. On the other hand, when arterioles relax, they dilate and widen, allowing for increased blood flow and lower blood pressure. This constant contracting and relaxing of arterioles helps to maintain the balance and control of blood flow throughout the body.

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  • 12. 

    The vertebral and carotid arteries

    • A.

      Merge to form the portal vein

    • B.

      Deliver oxygenated blood to the brain

    • C.

      Emerge from the abdominal aorta

    • D.

      Both asend in the anterior neck to the brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Deliver oxygenated blood to the brain
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the vertebral and carotid arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the brain. This is correct because these arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the brain. The carotid arteries, located in the neck, deliver oxygenated blood to the brain's anterior portion, while the vertebral arteries, situated in the spine, supply blood to the posterior part of the brain. Together, these arteries ensure that the brain receives a constant supply of oxygenated blood, which is essential for its proper functioning.

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  • 13. 

    The renal artery

    • A.

      Branches off the abdominal aorta

    • B.

      Supplies the diaphragm

    • C.

      Supplies oxygenated blood to the inguinal region

    • D.

      Is part of the hepatic portal system

    Correct Answer
    A. Branches off the abdominal aorta
    Explanation
    The renal artery is a blood vessel that branches off from the abdominal aorta. It supplies oxygenated blood to the kidneys, not the diaphragm or inguinal region. The hepatic portal system involves the liver and the veins that transport blood from the digestive organs to the liver, so the renal artery is not a part of it.

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  • 14. 

    The pulse is usually "taken" over the _____ artery

    • A.

      Radial

    • B.

      Brachial

    • C.

      Median cubital

    • D.

      Carotid

    Correct Answer
    A. Radial
    Explanation
    The pulse is usually "taken" over the radial artery. The radial artery is located on the inner side of the wrist, towards the thumb. It is easily accessible and commonly used to measure the pulse rate.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is due to the vibrations of the blood vessel walls and reflects heart rate?

    • A.

      Blood pressure

    • B.

      Pulse pressure

    • C.

      Pulse

    • D.

      Skin turgor

    Correct Answer
    C. Pulse
    Explanation
    Pulse is the correct answer because it is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of the arteries due to the vibrations of the blood vessel walls caused by the pumping action of the heart. It reflects the heart rate, meaning that the pulse rate corresponds to the number of times the heart beats per minute.

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  • 16. 

    Most of the blood is stored within the 

    • A.

      Arterioles

    • B.

      Aorta

    • C.

      Veins

    • D.

      Capillaries

    Correct Answer
    C. Veins
    Explanation
    Veins are the correct answer because they are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart from the body's organs and tissues. Veins have thin walls and contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood. They have a larger capacity to store blood compared to other blood vessels like arterioles, aorta, and capillaries. Therefore, the majority of the blood in the body is stored within the veins.

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  • 17. 

    The vertebral arteries

    • A.

      Merge to form the basilar artery

    • B.

      Merge with the portal vein as it enters the liver

    • C.

      Are located within the umbilical cord

    • D.

      Supply the vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    A. Merge to form the basilar artery
    Explanation
    The vertebral arteries are two major arteries that supply blood to the brain. They run along the spine and enter the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, the two vertebral arteries join together to form a single artery known as the basilar artery. The basilar artery then provides blood supply to the brainstem and cerebellum. This merging of the vertebral arteries is an important anatomical feature that ensures adequate blood flow to the brain.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following contains valves?

    • A.

      Coronary artery

    • B.

      Umbilical vein

    • C.

      Femoral vein

    • D.

      Pulmonary veins

    Correct Answer
    C. Femoral vein
    Explanation
    The femoral vein contains valves. Valves are structures that prevent the backflow of blood in veins, ensuring that blood flows in one direction. The femoral vein is located in the thigh and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities back to the heart. The presence of valves in the femoral vein helps to maintain the unidirectional flow of blood towards the heart, preventing any backward flow or pooling of blood in the legs.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following should be colored red?

    • A.

      Jugular

    • B.

      Saphenous

    • C.

      Umbilical artery

    • D.

      Umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Umbilical vein
    Explanation
    The umbilical vein should be colored red because it carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. In the fetal circulation, oxygen-rich blood is usually represented by the color red, while oxygen-poor blood is represented by blue. The jugular, saphenous, and umbilical artery do not carry oxygenated blood, so they should not be colored red.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not true?

    • A.

      The jugular vein drains blood from the brain

    • B.

      Both the vertebral arteries and the internal carotid arteries carry oxygenated blood to the brain

    • C.

      The portal vein drains the liver, emptying blood into the inferior vena cava

    • D.

      Both the superior and inferior vena cavae empty blood into the right atrium

    Correct Answer
    C. The portal vein drains the liver, emptying blood into the inferior vena cava
    Explanation
    The portal vein drains blood from the digestive organs, including the stomach, intestines, and spleen, and delivers it to the liver for processing. It does not drain the liver itself. The liver has its own separate system of veins called the hepatic veins, which empty blood into the inferior vena cava.

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  • 21. 

    The ability of the arterioles to contract and relax allows them to 

    • A.

      Regulate heart rate

    • B.

      Prevent the backflow of venous blood

    • C.

      Function as resistance vessels

    • D.

      Function as exchange vessels

    Correct Answer
    C. Function as resistance vessels
    Explanation
    Arterioles are small blood vessels that connect arteries to capillaries. They have the ability to contract and relax, which allows them to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. When arterioles constrict, they increase resistance to blood flow, which can help regulate blood pressure. This ability to function as resistance vessels is important in maintaining proper blood flow and distribution throughout the body. Therefore, the correct answer is that arterioles function as resistance vessels.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is not a consequence of sympathetic nerve stimulation?

    • A.

      Increased afterload

    • B.

      Peripheral vasoconstriction

    • C.

      Elevation of blood pressure

    • D.

      Decreased peripheral resistance

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased peripheral resistance
    Explanation
    Sympathetic nerve stimulation typically leads to increased peripheral resistance, as it causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels. This vasoconstriction narrows the blood vessels, making it harder for blood to flow through them, resulting in increased resistance. However, the given answer states that sympathetic nerve stimulation does not cause decreased peripheral resistance. Therefore, the correct answer is that decreased peripheral resistance is not a consequence of sympathetic nerve stimulation.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is an effect of the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system?

    • A.

      Secretion of a vasopressor hormone

    • B.

      Vasodilation and a decrease in vascular resistance

    • C.

      Decreased blood pressure

    • D.

      Sodium excretion and decreased blood volume

    Correct Answer
    A. Secretion of a vasopressor hormone
    Explanation
    The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leads to the secretion of a vasopressor hormone. This hormone causes vasoconstriction, which leads to an increase in blood pressure.

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  • 24. 

    Pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, and paralysis are caused by

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      Ischemia

    • C.

      Decreased oncotic pressure

    • D.

      Edema

    Correct Answer
    B. Ischemia
    Explanation
    Ischemia refers to a lack of blood supply to a particular area of the body, usually due to a blockage in the blood vessels. When there is ischemia, the affected area may experience pain, pallor (pale coloration), pulselessness (absence of pulse), paresthesia (tingling or numbness), and paralysis. This occurs because without adequate blood flow, the tissues do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, leading to cell damage and dysfunction. Therefore, ischemia is the most likely cause of the symptoms described.

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  • 25. 

    With regard to the baroreceptor reflex, indicate the event that occurs last.

    • A.

      Activation of the baroreceptors in response to a drop in blood pressure

    • B.

      Reflex tachycardia

    • C.

      Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves

    • D.

      Stimulation of the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and the vagus (CN X) nerves

    Correct Answer
    B. Reflex tachycardia
    Explanation
    The event that occurs last in the baroreceptor reflex is reflex tachycardia. This is because reflex tachycardia is a response to the activation of the baroreceptors and the subsequent stimulation of the sympathetic nerves. When the baroreceptors detect a drop in blood pressure, they send signals to the brain, which then activates the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to an increase in heart rate, resulting in reflex tachycardia. Therefore, reflex tachycardia occurs as the final step in the baroreceptor reflex pathway.

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  • 26. 

    The dehydrated state

    • A.

      Capillary oncotic pressure decreases; fluid accumulates in the tissue spaces

    • B.

      Capillary filtration pressure decreases; tissue fluid is absorbed

    • C.

      Capillary filtration rate increases, thereby increasing lymph formation

    • D.

      Plasma protein is filtered into the tissue spaces, thereby causing edema

    Correct Answer
    B. Capillary filtration pressure decreases; tissue fluid is absorbed
    Explanation
    When the capillary filtration pressure decreases, it means that less fluid is being pushed out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces. As a result, the tissue fluid is absorbed back into the capillaries, leading to a decrease in fluid accumulation in the tissue spaces. This process helps to prevent the development of edema or swelling in the tissues.

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  • 27. 

    If capillary pore size increases as in severe burns

    • A.

      Capillary filtration of water increases

    • B.

      Albumin is filtered and is deposited in the tissue space

    • C.

      Edema develops

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    When capillary pore size increases in severe burns, it allows for increased capillary filtration of water. This increased filtration also leads to the filtration of albumin, which is then deposited in the tissue space. As a result, edema develops. Therefore, all of the statements mentioned above are true.

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  • 28. 

    A decreased plasma oncotic pressure is due to 

    • A.

      Loss of plasma protein such as albumin

    • B.

      Leukocytosis

    • C.

      A hypoxia-induced polycythemia

    • D.

      Overhydration with IV normal saline

    Correct Answer
    A. Loss of plasma protein such as albumin
    Explanation
    A decreased plasma oncotic pressure is caused by the loss of plasma protein such as albumin. Albumin is an important protein that helps maintain the oncotic pressure in the blood vessels. When there is a loss of albumin, either through kidney disease, liver disease, or other factors, the oncotic pressure decreases. This can lead to fluid shifting out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues, causing edema. Therefore, the loss of plasma protein such as albumin is the most likely cause of decreased plasma oncotic pressure.

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  • 29. 

    A person who experiences the 5 cool Ps of the lower extremities is also likely to complain of 

    • A.

      Jaundice

    • B.

      Dyspnea and orthopnea

    • C.

      Intermittent claudication

    • D.

      Varicosities

    Correct Answer
    C. Intermittent claudication
    Explanation
    A person who experiences the 5 cool Ps of the lower extremities is also likely to complain of intermittent claudication. Intermittent claudication refers to the pain or cramping in the legs that occurs during physical activity and is relieved with rest. The 5 cool Ps are pulselessness, pallor, pain, paresthesia, and paralysis, which are symptoms associated with peripheral arterial disease. These symptoms occur due to the narrowing or blockage of arteries in the legs, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscles. Intermittent claudication is a common symptom of peripheral arterial disease and is often described as a cramping or aching pain in the legs that occurs with exercise.

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  • 30. 

    Digital pressure is exerted over the carotid sinus. You expect

    • A.

      The sympathetics fire, thereby increasing blood pressure

    • B.

      The medulla oblongata interprets the signal as high blood pressure and therefore fires the vagus nerve

    • C.

      No effect since the baroreceptors are "crushed"

    • D.

      Reflex tachycardia

    Correct Answer
    B. The medulla oblongata interprets the signal as high blood pressure and therefore fires the vagus nerve
    Explanation
    When digital pressure is exerted over the carotid sinus, it stimulates the baroreceptors located in the sinus. The baroreceptors send signals to the medulla oblongata, which is responsible for regulating blood pressure. In this case, the medulla oblongata interprets the signal as high blood pressure and activates the vagus nerve. The activation of the vagus nerve leads to a decrease in heart rate and a subsequent decrease in blood pressure, counteracting the initial increase caused by the pressure on the carotid sinus.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is true about the blood pressure?

    • A.

      The radial artery is most commonly used to monitor blood pressure

    • B.

      Blood pressure is higher in the capillaries than the large arteries

    • C.

      Blood pressure is higher in the veins than in the capillaries

    • D.

      Blood pressure is higher in the arteries than in the veins

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood pressure is higher in the arteries than in the veins
    Explanation
    Blood pressure is higher in the arteries than in the veins because arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The pressure in the arteries is higher because the heart pumps blood into them with force, while the veins rely on the contraction of surrounding muscles to push blood back to the heart.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is least true of vasoconstriction?

    • A.

      Caused by sympathetic nerve stimulation

    • B.

      Improves return of blood from the legs to the heart

    • C.

      Generally accompanied by hypotension

    • D.

      Increases afterload

    Correct Answer
    C. Generally accompanied by hypotension
    Explanation
    Vasoconstriction refers to the narrowing of blood vessels, which is primarily caused by sympathetic nerve stimulation. It helps to improve the return of blood from the legs to the heart by increasing vascular resistance. However, vasoconstriction generally leads to an increase in blood pressure, not hypotension. Therefore, the statement "generally accompanied by hypotension" is the least true of vasoconstriction.

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  • 33. 

    An increased vascular resistance is most associated with

    • A.

      Tachycardia

    • B.

      Vagal discharge

    • C.

      Arteriolar constriction

    • D.

      Vasodilation

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteriolar constriction
    Explanation
    Arteriolar constriction refers to the narrowing of the small blood vessels called arterioles. This narrowing increases vascular resistance, which is the force that the heart must overcome to pump blood through the blood vessels. When arterioles constrict, the diameter of the blood vessels decreases, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. This can lead to increased blood pressure and reduced blood flow to certain organs or tissues. Therefore, an increased vascular resistance is most associated with arteriolar constriction.

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  • 34. 

    The function of the nozzle on a garden hose most closely resembles the function of the 

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Parasympathetic nervous system

    • C.

      Arterioles

    • D.

      Venous valves

    Correct Answer
    C. Arterioles
    Explanation
    The function of the nozzle on a garden hose is to control the flow of water by narrowing or widening the opening. Similarly, arterioles in the body are small blood vessels that control the flow of blood by constricting or dilating. They regulate blood pressure and distribute blood to different organs and tissues. Both the nozzle and arterioles play a crucial role in controlling the flow of a fluid (water or blood) and ensuring it reaches its desired destination in an efficient manner.

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  • 35. 

    Epinephrine (adrenaline) and angiotensin II are

    • A.

      Antihypertensives

    • B.

      Vasopressors

    • C.

      Plasma proteins

    • D.

      Electrolytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Vasopressors
    Explanation
    Epinephrine (adrenaline) and angiotensin II are classified as vasopressors. Vasopressors are substances that constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure. They work by stimulating the smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to narrow and reduce the diameter of the vessels. This constriction increases the resistance to blood flow and raises blood pressure. Epinephrine and angiotensin II are commonly used in medical settings to treat conditions such as severe hypotension or shock, where there is a critical need to increase blood pressure quickly.

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  • 36. 

    The skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump, and vasoconstriction

    • A.

      Pump blood to the liver

    • B.

      Assist in the return of blood to the right heart

    • C.

      Primarily affect the arterial side of the circulation

    • D.

      Pump blood to the brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Assist in the return of blood to the right heart
    Explanation
    The skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump, and vasoconstriction all work together to assist in the return of blood to the right heart. The skeletal muscle pump refers to the contraction of muscles surrounding veins, which helps to push blood back towards the heart. The respiratory pump occurs during breathing, where changes in pressure within the thoracic cavity help to facilitate venous return. Vasoconstriction refers to the narrowing of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure and improves venous return. Collectively, these mechanisms aid in the movement of blood from the peripheral tissues back to the heart.

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  • 37. 

    Plasma albumin

    • A.

      Determines capillary filtration pressure

    • B.

      Creates the osmotic pressure necessary for the reabsorption of interstitial fluid

    • C.

      Is pumped out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces where it is used in protein synthesis

    • D.

      Is synthesized by the liver; its oncotic effects are restricted to the hepatic portal circulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Creates the osmotic pressure necessary for the reabsorption of interstitial fluid
    Explanation
    Plasma albumin plays a crucial role in creating the osmotic pressure needed for the reabsorption of interstitial fluid. Osmotic pressure is the force that draws fluid back into the capillaries from the surrounding tissues. As plasma albumin is a large protein molecule, it cannot easily pass through the capillary walls. This creates a concentration gradient, causing water to move from the interstitial fluid back into the capillaries, thus reabsorbing the fluid. This process helps maintain fluid balance and prevents the accumulation of excess fluid in the tissues.

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  • 38. 

    Baroreceptors

    • A.

      Are found in all arterioles and sense plasma levels of CO2

    • B.

      Affect respiratory rate

    • C.

      Monitor [H+] and therefore regulate blood pH

    • D.

      Are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch and sense changes in blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch and sense changes in blood pressure
    Explanation
    Baroreceptors are sensory receptors that are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These receptors are responsible for sensing changes in blood pressure. When blood pressure increases, the baroreceptors send signals to the brain to decrease heart rate and dilate blood vessels, which helps to lower the blood pressure. Conversely, when blood pressure decreases, the baroreceptors send signals to increase heart rate and constrict blood vessels, which helps to raise the blood pressure back to normal levels. Therefore, the statement that baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch and sense changes in blood pressure is correct.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is true? 

    • A.

      Cardiac output = heart rate vascular resistance

    • B.

      Blood pressure - heart rate stroke volume vascular resistance

    • C.

      Cardiac output = blood pressure stroke volume

    • D.

      Cardiac output = stroke volume vascular resistance

    Correct Answer
    B. Blood pressure - heart rate stroke volume vascular resistance
  • 40. 

    A decline in blood pressure causes a reflex 

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      Tachycardia

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Hematocrit

    Correct Answer
    B. Tachycardia
    Explanation
    A decline in blood pressure causes a reflex tachycardia. When blood pressure drops, the body initiates a compensatory mechanism to increase heart rate, known as tachycardia. This helps to maintain adequate blood flow and oxygen supply to the organs and tissues. Tachycardia is characterized by a rapid heart rate, which helps to counteract the decrease in blood pressure and prevent further complications.

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  • 41. 

    What kind of information is carried to the CNS by CN IX and CN X?

    • A.

      Changes in hematocrit

    • B.

      Changes in blood pressure

    • C.

      Changes in heart rate

    • D.

      Changes in oxygen saturation

    Correct Answer
    B. Changes in blood pressure
    Explanation
    CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve) and CN X (vagus nerve) are responsible for carrying sensory information from various organs to the central nervous system (CNS). These nerves play a crucial role in regulating autonomic functions. Both CN IX and CN X carry information related to changes in blood pressure to the CNS. This information helps the CNS in maintaining homeostasis by regulating blood pressure and ensuring adequate perfusion to different organs and tissues.

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  • 42. 

    An agent that is described as a vasopressor

    • A.

      Causes peripheral vasopressor

    • B.

      Elevates blood pressure

    • C.

      Decreases peripheral resistance

    • D.

      Decreases cardiac output

    Correct Answer
    B. Elevates blood pressure
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "elevates blood pressure". A vasopressor is a medication or agent that constricts or narrows the blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood pressure. By causing vasoconstriction, the agent reduces the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn increases the resistance to blood flow. This increased resistance causes an elevation in blood pressure. Therefore, a vasopressor is known for its ability to elevate blood pressure.

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  • 43. 

    A sudden elevation in blood pressure causes 

    • A.

      An increase in cardiac output

    • B.

      Reflex bradycardia

    • C.

      A racing heart

    • D.

      A reflex vascular vasoconstiction

    Correct Answer
    B. Reflex bradycardia
    Explanation
    A sudden elevation in blood pressure triggers a reflex response known as bradycardia, which is a decrease in heart rate. This response helps to counterbalance the increased blood pressure by reducing the heart's pumping rate. This reflex bradycardia helps to maintain a stable blood pressure and prevent further increases in blood pressure.

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  • 44. 

    An increase in systemic vascular resistance is most likely to

    • A.

      Increase cardiac output

    • B.

      Increase heart rate

    • C.

      Increase blood pressure

    • D.

      Decrease afterload

    Correct Answer
    C. Increase blood pressure
    Explanation
    An increase in systemic vascular resistance refers to the narrowing of blood vessels, which makes it harder for blood to flow through them. This increased resistance causes an increase in blood pressure as the heart has to work harder to pump blood against this resistance. Therefore, an increase in systemic vascular resistance is most likely to increase blood pressure.

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  • 45. 

    A blood pressure reading of 160/98 mm Hg

    • A.

      Is described as "shocky"

    • B.

      Should be treated with a vasopressor

    • C.

      Is usually caused by a severe hemorrhage

    • D.

      Is hypertensive

    Correct Answer
    D. Is hypertensive
    Explanation
    The given blood pressure reading of 160/98 mm Hg indicates hypertension. Hypertension refers to high blood pressure, and a reading above 140/90 mm Hg is generally considered hypertensive. This reading suggests that the individual has elevated blood pressure levels, which may require medical attention or management to prevent potential health complications associated with hypertension.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is least characteristic of adenoids?

    • A.

      Lymphoid organs

    • B.

      Tonsils

    • C.

      Pharyngeal location

    • D.

      Part of the spleen

    Correct Answer
    D. Part of the spleen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "part of the spleen". Adenoids are lymphoid organs located in the pharynx, specifically in the nasopharynx. They are a type of tonsils and are part of the immune system, helping to fight off infections. However, they are not a part of the spleen, which is a different organ located in the abdomen and involved in filtering blood and producing immune cells.

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  • 47. 

    Lymph 

    • A.

      Is pumped by the left heart into the systemic circulation

    • B.

      Is formed when fluid is filtered across the subclavian veins into the tissue spaces

    • C.

      Is formed from interstitial (tissue) fluid

    • D.

      Looks and acts like blood

    Correct Answer
    C. Is formed from interstitial (tissue) fluid
    Explanation
    Lymph is formed from interstitial (tissue) fluid. Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells in tissues. It is formed when blood plasma filters out of the capillaries and into the spaces between cells. This fluid then enters the lymphatic vessels and becomes lymph. Lymph plays a crucial role in the immune system as it carries immune cells and substances throughout the body, helping to fight infections and remove waste products.

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  • 48. 

    Why does lymph contain protein?

    • A.

      Protein is synthesized by the lymph nodes

    • B.

      Protein leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces and is absorbed into the lymphatic capillaries

    • C.

      The cells that line the lymphatic vessels synthesize protein

    • D.

      Adenoids transport plasma protein into the lymphatic vessels

    Correct Answer
    B. Protein leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces and is absorbed into the lymphatic capillaries
    Explanation
    Lymph contains protein because protein leaks out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces and is then absorbed into the lymphatic capillaries. This process occurs due to the increased permeability of the capillaries, allowing proteins to escape into the surrounding tissues. The lymphatic capillaries then collect this protein-rich fluid along with other waste products and transport it back into the bloodstream.

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  • 49. 

    An overly active spleen may prematurely remove platelets from the circulation, thereby predisposing the person to

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      Infection

    • C.

      Bleeding

    • D.

      Jaundice

    Correct Answer
    C. Bleeding
    Explanation
    An overly active spleen can lead to a condition called hypersplenism, where the spleen removes platelets from the bloodstream at a faster rate than normal. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, so when they are removed prematurely, it can result in a decreased platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, the correct answer is bleeding.

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  • 50. 

    Elephantiasis is 

    • A.

      A viral infection

    • B.

      Due to the destruction of valves within the lymphatic vessels

    • C.

      Caused by impaired lymphatic drainage

    • D.

      Removal of the spleen

    Correct Answer
    C. Caused by impaired lymphatic drainage
    Explanation
    Elephantiasis is caused by impaired lymphatic drainage. This condition occurs when the lymphatic system, which is responsible for draining excess fluid from tissues, is unable to function properly. As a result, fluid accumulates in the affected area, leading to swelling and enlargement of body parts, such as the limbs or genitals. Impaired lymphatic drainage can be caused by various factors, including parasitic infections, such as filariasis, or other conditions that damage the lymphatic vessels.

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