Chapter 16: Control Of Gene Expression

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 2076

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Chapter 16: Control Of Gene Expression

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The most common form of regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes is
    • A. 

      Transcriptional control.

    • B. 

      Translational control.

    • C. 

      Promotor control.

    • D. 

      Repressor control.

    • E. 

      Operator control.

  • 2. 
    Transcriptional control-proteins increase the rate of transcription by binding to
    • A. 

      MRNA sequences within the DNA.

    • B. 

      TRNA sequences within the DNA.

    • C. 

      Operator sequences within the DNA.

    • D. 

      Promotor sequences within the DNA.

    • E. 

      Enhancer sequences within the DNA.

  • 3. 
    All regulatory proteins have common DNA binding motifs, which are particular bends in their protein chains that permit them to interlock with the
    • A. 

      Minor groove of the DNA helix.

    • B. 

      Major groove of the DNA helix.

    • C. 

      Outside groove of the DNA helix.

    • D. 

      Inside groove of the DNA helix.

    • E. 

      Hydrogen bonding groove of the DNA helix.

  • 4. 
    Vertebrate cells apparently possess a protein that by binding to clusters of 5-methylcytosine ensures that the bound gene will stay in the "off" position. This control on the role of gene regulation is a result of
    • A. 

      Translation.

    • B. 

      Enhancer expression.

    • C. 

      Methylation.

    • D. 

      Promotor expression.

    • E. 

      Operator suppression.

  • 5. 
    Regulatory proteins shut off transcription by binding to a site immediately in front of the promoter and often even overlapping the promotor. This site is referred to as the
    • A. 

      Suppressor site.

    • B. 

      Operator site.

    • C. 

      Repressor site.

    • D. 

      Regulatory site.

    • E. 

      Transcriptional control site.

  • 6. 
    Histones are tightly packed into ______, which are located within the DNA.
    • A. 

      Operons

    • B. 

      Nucleosomes

    • C. 

      Clusters of proteins

    • D. 

      Repressor genes

    • E. 

      Facilitators sites

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is the hallmark of multicellular organisms?
    • A. 

      Grow and divide rapidly

    • B. 

      Cells adjust quickly to outside environment

    • C. 

      Homeostasis

    • D. 

      Quickly synthesize amount and type of enzymes according to available nutrients

    • E. 

      Respond by gene action to oxygen availability

  • 8. 
    Enhancers are the binding sites for the
    • A. 

      Promotors of DNA synthesis.

    • B. 

      Suppressor factors.

    • C. 

      Co-activation factors.

    • D. 

      Mediator factors.

    • E. 

      Specific transcription factors.

  • 9. 
    The most common form of control of gene expression in both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms is
    • A. 

      RNA processing control.

    • B. 

      Translational control.

    • C. 

      Protein phosphorylation control.

    • D. 

      Transcriptional control.

    • E. 

      MRNA degradation control.

  • 10. 
    A nucleosome contains ____ histones within its core.
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      6

    • D. 

      8

    • E. 

      64

  • 11. 
    The basic tool of genetic regulation is the ability of certain proteins to bind to specific
    • A. 

      Regulatory RNA sequences.

    • B. 

      Regulatory DNA sequences.

    • C. 

      Repressor parts of the gene.

    • D. 

      Promoter parts of the gene.

    • E. 

      Enzymes of the cell.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is not true about control of gene expression?
    • A. 

      In bacteria it allows them to adapt to changing environments.

    • B. 

      In multicellular organisms it is critical for development.

    • C. 

      In bacteria it allows them to replicate without control.

    • D. 

      In multicellular organisms it allows them to maintain homeostasis.

    • E. 

      In multicellular organisms it allows them to function as a whole.

  • 13. 
    RNA polymerase binds to a site on DNA called the
    • A. 

      Operator.

    • B. 

      Repressor.

    • C. 

      Footprint.

    • D. 

      Promoter.

    • E. 

      Operon.

  • 14. 
    Proteins that bind to regulatory sequences have shapes that fit into the
    • A. 

      Promoter.

    • B. 

      Operator.

    • C. 

      Operon.

    • D. 

      Minor groove of DNA.

    • E. 

      Major groove of DNA.

  • 15. 
    The DNA-binding proteins of almost all regulatory proteins employ one of a small set of shapes that enable them to fit into the major groove of DNA. These shapes are called
    • A. 

      Structural motifs.

    • B. 

      DNA prints.

    • C. 

      Operons.

    • D. 

      Repressors.

    • E. 

      Transcriptional domains.

  • 16. 
    All of the following are examples of shapes in regulatory proteins which are used to bind to DNA except the
    • A. 

      Zinc finger.

    • B. 

      TATA box.

    • C. 

      Helix-turn-helix.

    • D. 

      Leucine zipper.

  • 17. 
    In gene regulation, negative control is exerted by a(n)
    • A. 

      Activator.

    • B. 

      Operon.

    • C. 

      Promoter.

    • D. 

      Regulator.

    • E. 

      Repressor.

  • 18. 
    In gene regulation, a gene is "turned on" by a(n)
    • A. 

      Activator.

    • B. 

      Stimulator.

    • C. 

      Promoter.

    • D. 

      Regulator.

    • E. 

      Repressor.

  • 19. 
    A bacterial gene regulatory system is likely to have all of the following except
    • A. 

      A coding sequence.

    • B. 

      An operator.

    • C. 

      A promoter.

    • D. 

      One of more introns.

    • E. 

      A ribosome recognition site.

  • 20. 
    Small RNAs can regulate gene expression. One type, called micro RNA (miRNA), acts by binding directly to
    • A. 

      MRNA to prevent translation.

    • B. 

      TRNA to prevent transcription.

    • C. 

      MRNA to prevent transcription.

    • D. 

      TRNA to prevent translation.

  • 21. 
    Which of the following must happen for transcription to be initiated?
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • B. 

      RNA polymerase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase must have access to the RNA and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • D. 

      DNA ligase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

    • E. 

      DNA kinase must have access to the DNA double helix and also must be capable of binding to the gene's promoter.

  • 22. 
    When E. coli cells produce the amino acid tryptophan, a cluster of five genes is transcribed together. This cluster of genes is referred to as the
    • A. 

      Trp transcriptional operator.

    • B. 

      Trp regulator.

    • C. 

      Trp suppressor.

    • D. 

      Trp operon.

    • E. 

      Trp promoter.

  • 23. 
    The proteins necessary for the use of lactose in E. coli are collectively called the
    • A. 

      Lac regulator.

    • B. 

      Lac suppressor.

    • C. 

      Lac operon.

    • D. 

      Lac promoter.

    • E. 

      Lac transcriptional operator.

  • 24. 
    Eukaryotic organisms
    • A. 

      Have their transcription occurring in the cytoplasm and translation in the nucleus.

    • B. 

      Have their transcription occurring in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm.

    • C. 

      Have only operons to assist in gene expression.

    • D. 

      Carry out protein synthesis only in the presence of the cAMP molecule.

    • E. 

      Use the leucine zipper primarily for the production of the amino acid tryptophan.

  • 25. 
    Which of the following statements regarding primary transcripts in eukaryotes is correct?
    • A. 

      The primary transcript is composed of RNA polymerase and associated histones.

    • B. 

      The primary transcript has the exons removed and the introns retained for translation.

    • C. 

      The primary transcript is a faithful copy of the entire gene including exons and introns.

    • D. 

      The primary transcript is a faithful copy of the gene, but the introns have been removed.

    • E. 

      The primary transcript is a faithful copy, but the exons have been removed.

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