Chapter 14: Eating And Weight

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Eating Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Health psychologists are LEAST likely to work with people who

    • A.

      Have anorexia nervosa

    • B.

      Over eat

    • C.

      Have bulimia

    • D.

      Have inadequate nutrition

    Correct Answer
    D. Have inadequate nutrition
    Explanation
    Health psychologists are least likely to work with people who have inadequate nutrition because their primary focus is on the psychological aspects of health and well-being. While anorexia nervosa, overeating, and bulimia are all eating disorders that can have psychological components, inadequate nutrition is a broader issue that may be caused by various factors such as poverty, lack of access to food, or medical conditions. Health psychologists typically work with individuals who have specific psychological issues or disorders, and inadequate nutrition may require a different type of intervention or treatment approach that falls outside their scope of practice.

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  • 2. 

    Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the circular muscles that propel food through the digestive system is known as

    • A.

      The esophagus

    • B.

      Peristalsis

    • C.

      Voluntary digestion

    • D.

      Acidic flow

    Correct Answer
    B. Peristalsis
    Explanation
    Peristalsis refers to the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the circular muscles that push food through the digestive system. It is a crucial process that allows for the movement of food from the esophagus to the stomach and through the intestines. The term "esophagus" refers to the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach and does not specifically describe the contraction and relaxation of circular muscles. "Voluntary digestion" is not a recognized term, and "acidic flow" does not accurately describe the process of moving food through the digestive system. Therefore, the correct answer is peristalsis.

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  • 3. 

    ______ levels fall when fat stores fall, which may provide a long-term signal to eat more.

    • A.

      Leptin

    • B.

      Grhelin

    • C.

      Cholecystokinin (CCK)

    • D.

      Ventromedial

    Correct Answer
    A. Leptin
    Explanation
    Leptin levels fall when fat stores fall, which may provide a long-term signal to eat more. Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that helps regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. When fat stores decrease, leptin levels decrease, signaling the brain to increase food intake and restore fat stores. This mechanism ensures that the body maintains a stable weight and prevents excessive weight loss.

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  • 4. 

    Production of the peptide hormone CCK results in

    • A.

      Feelings of satiation

    • B.

      Feeling of hunger

    • C.

      A need to engage in physical activity

    • D.

      Depression, anxiety, and loss of energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Feelings of satiation
    Explanation
    The production of the peptide hormone CCK results in feelings of satiation. CCK, or cholecystokinin, is released by cells in the small intestine in response to the presence of food. It acts as a signal to the brain to reduce appetite and increase feelings of fullness, thus promoting satiety. This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating food intake and can help prevent overeating.

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  • 5. 

    The relationships between eating and weight maintenance is best described by which of the following statements?

    • A.

      Weight gain is proportional to overeating

    • B.

      A person who eats more than 3,000 calories per day will gain weight

    • C.

      Metabolic rate is a factor in weight maintenance

    • D.

      Fat people eat fewer calories per day than do thin people

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolic rate is a factor in weight maintenance
    Explanation
    Metabolic rate refers to the rate at which our body burns calories to maintain basic bodily functions. This statement suggests that metabolic rate plays a role in weight maintenance, indicating that individuals with a higher metabolic rate may have an easier time maintaining their weight compared to those with a lower metabolic rate. It implies that weight gain or loss is not solely determined by the number of calories consumed but also by the body's ability to burn those calories efficiently.

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  • 6. 

    When the participants in the study on experimental starvation were re-fed at the end of the starvation phase of the experiment,

    • A.

      Many of them gained more weight than they had lost

    • B.

      Most of them were not able to regain lost weight

    • C.

      They became more cheerful and optimistic than they had been prior to the starvation phase

    • D.

      They no longer had much interest in food.

    Correct Answer
    A. Many of them gained more weight than they had lost
    Explanation
    During the starvation phase of the experiment, the participants were deprived of food, causing their bodies to enter a state of starvation. When they were re-fed at the end of this phase, their bodies may have experienced a rebound effect, leading to an increased appetite and a tendency to overeat. This could explain why many of them gained more weight than they had lost during the starvation phase.

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  • 7. 

    Carl is five feet, 10 inches tall, has a medium frame, and weights 154 pounds. In other words, Carl is about in the middle of the ideal weight range according to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's desirable weight charts. This means that Carl

    • A.

      Has a healthy waist-to-hip ratio

    • B.

      Needs to gain a few pounds

    • C.

      Should try to lose a few pounds

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The information provided about Carl's height, frame, and weight suggests that he falls within the ideal weight range according to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's desirable weight charts. Therefore, it can be inferred that Carl does not need to gain or lose weight, and his waist-to-hip ratio is not specified in the given information. Hence, the correct answer is "none of the above".

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  • 8. 

    The skinfold technique and bioelectrical impedance are ways to measure

    • A.

      Utilization of glucose by adipose tissue

    • B.

      Percentage of body fat

    • C.

      Metabolic activity of fat

    • D.

      Ratio of height to body weight

    Correct Answer
    B. Percentage of body fat
    Explanation
    The skinfold technique and bioelectrical impedance are both methods used to measure body composition. These methods estimate the percentage of body fat by measuring the thickness of skinfolds at various sites on the body or by analyzing the electrical conductivity of body tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is "percentage of body fat".

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  • 9. 

    Throughout most of history, being plump or fat

    • A.

      Was a sign of laziness

    • B.

      Was a mark of prosperity

    • C.

      Was a sign of poor health

    • D.

      Characterized working class people

    Correct Answer
    B. Was a mark of prosperity
    Explanation
    Being plump or fat being a mark of prosperity can be explained by historical context. In many cultures, especially in times of scarcity, having enough food to eat and being able to afford indulgence in rich, calorie-dense foods was a luxury that only the wealthy could afford. Therefore, being plump or fat was seen as a symbol of wealth and abundance. This perception changed over time as societal attitudes towards body image shifted, but historically, a larger body size was associated with prosperity.

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  • 10. 

    During the past 20 years, Americans have reduced the percent of calories obtained from dietary fat, and

    • A.

      They have become thinner

    • B.

      They have increased their sugar consumption

    • C.

      They have decreased their fast food consumption

    • D.

      Their average weight has remained the same

    Correct Answer
    B. They have increased their sugar consumption
    Explanation
    Americans have reduced the percent of calories obtained from dietary fat over the past 20 years. However, despite this decrease in fat consumption, they have not become thinner or decreased their fast food consumption. Additionally, the answer "their average weight has remained the same" contradicts the statement that Americans have become thinner. Therefore, the only logical explanation left is that Americans have increased their sugar consumption.

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  • 11. 

    How does setpoint influence metabolism during a period of severe food restriction?

    • A.

      It increases metabolism

    • B.

      It decreases metabolism

    • C.

      It does not influence metabolism

    • D.

      It increases metabolism in the beginning but decreases metabolism if the food restriction continues

    Correct Answer
    B. It decreases metabolism
    Explanation
    During a period of severe food restriction, the body enters a state of energy conservation to cope with the limited food supply. This is achieved by decreasing metabolism, as the body tries to conserve energy by slowing down various processes. This decrease in metabolism helps the body to survive with fewer calories and maintain essential functions.

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  • 12. 

    The results of the studies on experimental starvation and experimental overeating

    • A.

      Indicate that eating is a learned behavior

    • B.

      Suggest that eating is always pleasurable

    • C.

      Are consistent with the concept of setpoint

    • D.

      Show that eating is relatively unimportant in the lives of most people

    Correct Answer
    C. Are consistent with the concept of setpoint
    Explanation
    The results of the studies on experimental starvation and experimental overeating being consistent with the concept of setpoint means that they support the idea that our bodies have a natural weight range or setpoint that they strive to maintain. These studies suggest that when we deviate from this setpoint by either starving ourselves or overeating, our bodies will try to compensate and return to our original weight. This supports the notion that eating is regulated by our body's internal mechanisms rather than being solely driven by external factors.

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  • 13. 

    In general, the relationship between weight and poor health is

    • A.

      S-shaped

    • B.

      U-shaped

    • C.

      Direct-the heavier the person, the greater the risk for poor health

    • D.

      Inverse- the heavier the person, the lower the risk for poor health

    Correct Answer
    B. U-shaped
    Explanation
    The relationship between weight and poor health is U-shaped. This means that both being underweight and overweight can increase the risk for poor health. There is an optimal range of weight where the risk for poor health is lowest, and individuals who fall outside this range are more likely to experience health problems.

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  • 14. 

    Research has shown a positive relationships between obesity and

    • A.

      High blood pressure

    • B.

      Diabetes

    • C.

      Gallbladder disease

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Research has shown that there is a positive relationship between obesity and high blood pressure, diabetes, and gallbladder disease. This means that individuals who are obese are more likely to develop these health conditions. Obesity puts extra strain on the heart, leading to high blood pressure. It also increases the risk of developing insulin resistance, which can lead to diabetes. Additionally, obesity can contribute to the formation of gallstones, which can cause gallbladder disease. Therefore, all of these health conditions are associated with obesity.

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  • 15. 

    Which of these people has the GREATEST danger of developing a health problems?

    • A.

      A woman who is 15 lbs. overweight

    • B.

      A woman whose weight is 10% above the weight recommended by the weight charts

    • C.

      A man whose weight is a stable 12% above the weight recommended by the weight charts

    • D.

      A man who gains 20% above the ideal recommended weight

    Correct Answer
    D. A man who gains 20% above the ideal recommended weight
    Explanation
    A man who gains 20% above the ideal recommended weight has the greatest danger of developing health problems. This is because the weight gain is significantly higher than the recommended weight, indicating a more severe deviation from a healthy weight range. Excessive weight gain can increase the risk of various health issues, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and joint problems.

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  • 16. 

    A low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet

    • A.

      May produce weight loss

    • B.

      Is an attractive dieting choice for many people

    • C.

      Produces a higher drop out rate than some other programs

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    A low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet may produce weight loss, making it an attractive dieting choice for many people. However, this type of diet also produces a higher drop out rate than some other programs. Therefore, all of these statements are true.

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  • 17. 

    Both low-carbohydrate diets and low-fat diets share one drawback:

    • A.

      Neither produces weight loss

    • B.

      Both are unhealthy

    • C.

      Both produce high dropout rates

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Both produce high dropout rates
    Explanation
    Both low-carbohydrate diets and low-fat diets are known to produce high dropout rates. This means that many individuals who start these diets end up abandoning them before achieving their weight loss goals. This drawback is significant because it indicates that these diet approaches may not be sustainable or enjoyable for many people, leading them to give up on their weight loss efforts.

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  • 18. 

    Behavior modification programs for weight control usually

    • A.

      Punish unhealthy eating habits

    • B.

      Punish weight gain

    • C.

      Reinforce healthy eating habits

    • D.

      Reinforce weight loss

    Correct Answer
    C. Reinforce healthy eating habits
    Explanation
    Behavior modification programs for weight control typically focus on reinforcing healthy eating habits. This means that these programs aim to encourage and reward individuals for making healthier food choices and adopting better eating habits. By reinforcing positive behaviors, such as consuming nutritious foods and practicing portion control, individuals are more likely to maintain a healthy weight and overall lifestyle. Punishing unhealthy eating habits or weight gain may not be as effective in the long term, as it can lead to negative associations and potential disordered eating patterns. Therefore, reinforcing healthy eating habits is a more beneficial approach for weight control programs.

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  • 19. 

    Gastric bypass surgery

    • A.

      Usually produces massive weight loss

    • B.

      Carries health risks from the surgical procedure

    • C.

      Has replaced liposuction as the most common surgical approach to weight control

    • D.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and b
    Explanation
    Gastric bypass surgery is a surgical procedure that typically leads to significant weight loss. However, like any surgery, it also carries health risks. Therefore, the correct answer is that gastric bypass surgery both produces massive weight loss and carries health risks from the surgical procedure.

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  • 20. 

    Which of these is the most effective combination for substantial weight loss during dieting and maintaining weight loss after 1 year?

    • A.

      Fat suctioning and liquid protein diet

    • B.

      Prescription amphetamines and nonprescription phenylpropylaimine

    • C.

      Low-calorie diet and increased physical activity

    • D.

      High carbohydrate diet and psychoanalysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Low-calorie diet and increased physical activity
    Explanation
    A low-calorie diet and increased physical activity are the most effective combination for substantial weight loss during dieting and maintaining weight loss after 1 year. A low-calorie diet helps to create a calorie deficit, which is necessary for weight loss, while increased physical activity helps to burn more calories. This combination promotes both healthy eating habits and an active lifestyle, which are key factors in achieving and maintaining weight loss. Fat suctioning and liquid protein diet, prescription amphetamines and nonprescription phenylpropylaimine, and high carbohydrate diet and psychoanalysis are not supported by scientific evidence as effective methods for sustainable weight loss.

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  • 21. 

    Who is most likely to gain health benefits from dieting?

    • A.

      A person with a BMI of 26 who is able to lose weight but gains it back

    • B.

      A 55-year old. who has gained 15 lbs. over the past 5 years

    • C.

      A person who has 25 pounds over ideal weight but who has already lost 15 pounds

    • D.

      A person who is 40 pounds overweight and is able to lose 10% of her body weight

    Correct Answer
    D. A person who is 40 pounds overweight and is able to lose 10% of her body weight
    Explanation
    A person who is 40 pounds overweight and is able to lose 10% of their body weight is most likely to gain health benefits from dieting. Losing 10% of body weight can have significant positive effects on overall health, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. Additionally, losing a significant amount of weight can improve mobility, decrease joint pain, and improve overall quality of life.

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  • 22. 

    Anorexics

    • A.

      See themselves as being fat

    • B.

      Have no appetite

    • C.

      Are usually strongly motivated to change eating habits

    • D.

      Are more common in the US than are bulimics

    Correct Answer
    A. See themselves as being fat
    Explanation
    Anorexics have a distorted body image and perceive themselves as being overweight, even when they are significantly underweight. This distorted perception of their body leads them to engage in extreme behaviors such as severe calorie restriction and excessive exercise in order to lose weight. This belief that they are fat drives their strong motivation to change their eating habits and maintain a low body weight.

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  • 23. 

    Male anorexics are quite similar to female anorexics in terms of social class and family configuration, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. However, they differ from female anorexics in that their ideal body build is

    • A.

      Muscular

    • B.

      Tall

    • C.

      Short

    • D.

      Corpulent

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscular
    Explanation
    Male anorexics are similar to female anorexics in various aspects such as social class, family configuration, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. However, they differ from female anorexics in terms of their ideal body build, which is muscular. This implies that while both male and female anorexics may share many similarities, their perception of the ideal body image may vary.

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  • 24. 

    _____ are MOST likely to be described as lacking impulse control

    • A.

      Anorexics

    • B.

      Bulimics

    • C.

      Binge eaters

    • D.

      Both bulimics and binge eaters

    Correct Answer
    D. Both bulimics and binge eaters
    Explanation
    Both bulimics and binge eaters are most likely to be described as lacking impulse control. This is because both of these eating disorders involve episodes of uncontrollable and excessive eating, often followed by feelings of guilt and shame. The lack of impulse control is evident in the inability to stop oneself from engaging in these binge-eating behaviors, despite negative consequences.

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  • 25. 

    Which of these eating problems is MOST prevalent in the US?

    • A.

      Anorexia nervosa

    • B.

      Bulimia

    • C.

      Overeating

    • D.

      Experimental starvation

    Correct Answer
    C. Overeating
    Explanation
    Overeating is the most prevalent eating problem in the US because it refers to the act of consuming more food than necessary, often leading to weight gain and obesity. This issue is widespread due to various factors such as easy access to high-calorie foods, sedentary lifestyles, emotional eating, and cultural norms that promote large portion sizes. In contrast, anorexia nervosa and bulimia are eating disorders characterized by restrictive eating and unhealthy behaviors, affecting a smaller percentage of the population. Experimental starvation is not a commonly recognized eating problem, making overeating the most prevalent issue in the US.

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