Chapter 10: Behavioral Factors In Cancer

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Cancer Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The main difference between benign and malignant tumors is

    • A.

      Malignant cells can invade surrounding tissues

    • B.

      The ability of benign tumors to metastasize

    • C.

      The size of the tumor each produces

    • D.

      That benign tumors attack nearly any tissue, whereas malignancies are specific to animal (including human) tissue cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Malignant cells can invade surrounding tissues
    Explanation
    Malignant tumors are characterized by the ability of their cells to invade and spread into surrounding tissues. This invasion can lead to the destruction and damage of nearby organs and structures. Benign tumors, on the other hand, do not have the ability to invade surrounding tissues and are usually localized to one area. Therefore, the main difference between benign and malignant tumors lies in the invasive nature of malignant cells.

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  • 2. 

    Which of these hypotheses best explains the recent drop in cancer death rates in the US?

    • A.

      Better treatment procedures

    • B.

      Better techniques for diagnosing cancer

    • C.

      Changes in lifestyle

    • D.

      Both a and c contributed to the drop

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and c contributed to the drop
    Explanation
    Both better treatment procedures and changes in lifestyle likely contributed to the recent drop in cancer death rates in the US. Improved treatment procedures, such as advancements in chemotherapy and targeted therapies, have increased survival rates for many types of cancer. Additionally, changes in lifestyle, such as a decrease in smoking rates and increased awareness of the importance of regular screenings, have also played a role in reducing cancer deaths. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that both factors have contributed to the drop in cancer death rates.

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  • 3. 

    About 2/3rd of cancer deaths in the US are associated with

    • A.

      Diet

    • B.

      Sedentary lifestyle

    • C.

      Cigarette smoking

    • D.

      A combination of all the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A combination of all the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a combination of all the above. This is because cancer deaths in the US are often caused by multiple factors, including diet, sedentary lifestyle, and cigarette smoking. These factors can interact and increase the risk of developing cancer. Therefore, it is important to address all of these factors in order to reduce the number of cancer deaths.

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  • 4. 

    ____ cancer has the highest incidence (but not the highest mortality) of any cancer in the US

    • A.

      Lung

    • B.

      Cervical

    • C.

      Leukemia

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer
    D. Skin
    Explanation
    Skin cancer has the highest incidence in the US, meaning it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. However, it does not have the highest mortality rate. This suggests that while many people are diagnosed with skin cancer, it is often successfully treated and does not result in death as frequently as other types of cancer.

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  • 5. 

    For women, death rates are highest for _____ cancer

    • A.

      Lung

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Uterine

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer
    A. Lung
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lung because lung cancer has the highest death rates among women. This is due to various factors such as smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and environmental pollutants. Lung cancer is often diagnosed at later stages when it is more difficult to treat, leading to higher mortality rates. Additionally, women who smoke are more susceptible to developing lung cancer compared to non-smokers.

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  • 6. 

    Cancer deaths of the lungs, breast, prostrate, and colon/rectum account for about 50% of all cancer deaths in the US. Cancer deaths form which of these sites continue to rise

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Breast

    • C.

      Prostate

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "none of these." The explanation for this is that the question asks which of these sites continue to have rising cancer deaths, but none of the given options specify that they have increasing cancer deaths. Therefore, the correct answer is that none of these sites have rising cancer deaths.

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  • 7. 

    For men, death rates are highest for _____ cancer

    • A.

      Lung

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Prostate

    • D.

      Colon and rectal

    Correct Answer
    A. Lung
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lung cancer. This is because lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, making it difficult to treat effectively. Risk factors for lung cancer include smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants. Early detection through screenings and avoiding tobacco smoke can help reduce the risk of developing lung cancer.

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  • 8. 

    Which of these ethnic groups has the strongest risk for cancer deaths?

    • A.

      Hispanic Americans

    • B.

      European Americans

    • C.

      African Americans

    • D.

      Asian Americans

    Correct Answer
    C. African Americans
    Explanation
    African Americans have the strongest risk for cancer deaths compared to the other ethnic groups mentioned. This can be attributed to various factors such as disparities in access to healthcare, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of certain risk factors like obesity and smoking within this population. Additionally, genetic factors may also contribute to the higher cancer mortality rates among African Americans.

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  • 9. 

    The factor LEAST likely to explain why people of different ehtnicities have different rates of cancer deaths is

    • A.

      Biological

    • B.

      Knowledge about cancer and its treatment

    • C.

      Access to medical care

    • D.

      Level of ahderence ot health recommendatios

    Correct Answer
    A. Biological
    Explanation
    Biological factors refer to genetic predispositions, inherited traits, and biological processes that may increase the risk of developing cancer. While biological factors can contribute to differences in cancer rates among different ethnicities, the question asks for the factor LEAST likely to explain these differences. Therefore, the correct answer is biological, as it implies that biological factors are less influential compared to other factors such as access to medical care and adherence to health recommendations.

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  • 10. 

    Testicular cancer

    • A.

      Has age-related risks similar to other canacers

    • B.

      Varies from the age-related risk of other cancers, striking middle-aged men more often than older men

    • C.

      Varies from the age-related risk of other cancers, striking young men more often than older ones

    • D.

      Has higher mortaility rate than lung or prostate cancer

    Correct Answer
    C. Varies from the age-related risk of other cancers, striking young men more often than older ones
    Explanation
    Testicular cancer varies from the age-related risk of other cancers, striking young men more often than older ones. This means that the incidence of testicular cancer is higher in younger men compared to older men, unlike most other types of cancer where the risk increases with age. This is an important distinction to note when considering the demographics and risk factors for testicular cancer.

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  • 11. 

    Women whose mothers developed breast cancer befor age 40, compared with those whose mothers did not have cancer, are

    • A.

      About 2X more likely to develop breast cancer

    • B.

      About 5-10X more likely to develop breast cancer

    • C.

      No more likely to have breast cancer

    • D.

      Much less likely to have breast cancer

    Correct Answer
    A. About 2X more likely to develop breast cancer
    Explanation
    Women whose mothers developed breast cancer before age 40 are about 2X more likely to develop breast cancer. This means that their risk of developing breast cancer is twice as high compared to women whose mothers did not have cancer. This suggests that there may be a genetic component to the development of breast cancer, as having a close family member with the disease increases the risk. However, it is important to note that this does not guarantee that these women will definitely develop breast cancer, as there are other factors that can influence individual risk.

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  • 12. 

    The BRCA gene is related to breast cancer:

    • A.

      Women with this gene are about 20X as likely to develop breast cancer as women without this gene

    • B.

      Women with a mutated form of this gene are vulnerable to breast cancer

    • C.

      This gene is responsible for about 50% of breast cancer cases

    • D.

      Women with this gene will develop breast cancer,and about 40% of them will do so before age 35

    Correct Answer
    B. Women with a mutated form of this gene are vulnerable to breast cancer
    Explanation
    The BRCA gene is related to breast cancer because women with a mutated form of this gene are vulnerable to breast cancer. This means that having a mutation in the BRCA gene increases a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. It is important to note that not all women with the BRCA gene mutation will develop breast cancer, but their vulnerability to the disease is significantly higher compared to women without the mutation.

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  • 13. 

    With regard to radiation and cancer, evidence suggests that

    • A.

      Any exposure to radiation greatly increases one's risk for cancer

    • B.

      Any exposure to radiation slightly increases one's risk for cancer

    • C.

      Dental and medical personnel who work with X-rays have significantly greater risk of cancer

    • D.

      Long-time employment in a nuclear power plant increases cancer death rates for men

    Correct Answer
    D. Long-time employment in a nuclear power plant increases cancer death rates for men
    Explanation
    Long-time employment in a nuclear power plant increases cancer death rates for men. This suggests that prolonged exposure to radiation in a nuclear power plant environment leads to an increased risk of cancer and ultimately, higher mortality rates for male workers. The answer implies that the risk of cancer is not just slightly increased, but significantly elevated in this specific occupational setting.

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  • 14. 

    The number one preventable cause of death in the United States is

    • A.

      High serum cholesterol

    • B.

      Cigarette smoking

    • C.

      AIDS

    • D.

      Accidents

    Correct Answer
    B. Cigarette smoking
    Explanation
    Cigarette smoking is the number one preventable cause of death in the United States because it is directly linked to various serious health conditions such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases. Smoking tobacco exposes the body to harmful chemicals and toxins, leading to the development of these life-threatening illnesses. By quitting smoking or never starting in the first place, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of premature death and improve their overall health.

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  • 15. 

    Some evidence indicates that being ____ is positively related to colon and rectal cancer

    • A.

      Overweight

    • B.

      Female

    • C.

      Male

    • D.

      European American

    Correct Answer
    A. Overweight
    Explanation
    Being overweight is positively related to colon and rectal cancer. This means that there is evidence suggesting that individuals who are overweight have a higher risk of developing these types of cancer. This could be due to various factors, such as increased inflammation, hormonal changes, and insulin resistance, which are commonly associated with being overweight. It is important for individuals who are overweight to be aware of this increased risk and take steps to maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise.

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  • 16. 

    One reason that consuming red meat may raise the risk for cancer is

    • A.

      The methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks

    • B.

      The high protein content is a risk

    • C.

      The high carbohydrate content of the meast is a risk

    • D.

      Meat is more likely to be contaminated than grains, nuts, or vegetables

    Correct Answer
    A. The methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks. Grilling and smoking red meat can lead to the formation of harmful chemicals such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemicals have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. HCAs are formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures, while PAHs are produced when fat and juices from the meat drip onto the hot coals or grill surface, causing flames and smoke. Therefore, the methods of preparation can contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with consuming red meat.

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  • 17. 

    As a risk factor for ancer, alochol has

    • A.

      Approximately the same risk as cigarette smoking

    • B.

      Approximately the same risk as improper diet

    • C.

      A synergistic effect with smoking

    • D.

      A synergistic effect with ultraviolet light

    Correct Answer
    C. A synergistic effect with smoking
    Explanation
    Alcohol has a synergistic effect with smoking, meaning that the combination of alcohol and smoking together increases the risk of cancer more than either one alone. This suggests that the harmful effects of alcohol and smoking on the body are amplified when they are used together, potentially leading to a higher risk of developing cancer.

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  • 18. 

    Current evidence for a link between alcohol consumption and breast cancer is

    • A.

      Convincing, with studies showing that higher consumption creates higher risk

    • B.

      Strong, with all studies showing a causal relationships

    • C.

      Weak, with most studies showing no link

    • D.

      Nonexistent, because no studies have yet investigated this link

    Correct Answer
    A. Convincing, with studies showing that higher consumption creates higher risk
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the current evidence for a link between alcohol consumption and breast cancer is convincing. This is supported by studies that have shown that higher consumption of alcohol is associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Therefore, the available research provides strong evidence to support the claim that alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer.

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  • 19. 

    Physical activity seems to offer some protection against

    • A.

      Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    • B.

      Colon cancer

    • C.

      Bone cancer

    • D.

      Lung cancer

    Correct Answer
    B. Colon cancer
    Explanation
    Physical activity has been shown to have a protective effect against colon cancer. Regular exercise can help to reduce the risk of developing this type of cancer by promoting healthy bowel movements, reducing inflammation in the colon, and improving the immune system's ability to fight off cancer cells. Additionally, physical activity can help to maintain a healthy body weight, which is also associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. Therefore, engaging in regular physical activity can be beneficial in reducing the risk of colon cancer.

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  • 20. 

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancer that occurs most frequently in the US as a result of

    • A.

      Ultraviolet light

    • B.

      HIV infection

    • C.

      Supression of emotion

    • D.

      Type A behavior pattern

    Correct Answer
    B. HIV infection
    Explanation
    Kaposi's sarcoma is a type of cancer that is most commonly seen in individuals who are infected with HIV. HIV weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to developing certain types of cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma. This cancer is caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), which is more likely to cause cancer in individuals with a weakened immune system. Therefore, HIV infection is the primary cause of Kaposi's sarcoma in the US.

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  • 21. 

    Women who have had children early in life, compared with those with alter pregnancies or with no chidlren, tend to have

    • A.

      Increased risk for stomach cancer

    • B.

      Decreased risk for breast cancer

    • C.

      Decreased risk for cerivcal cancer

    • D.

      Increased risk for ovarian cancer

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased risk for breast cancer
    Explanation
    Women who have had children early in life have a decreased risk for breast cancer. This may be due to the fact that pregnancy and breastfeeding can have a protective effect on breast tissue. During pregnancy, breast cells undergo changes that make them less susceptible to cancer development. Additionally, breastfeeding helps to further reduce the risk of breast cancer by causing hormonal changes and reducing the number of menstrual cycles a woman has over her lifetime. Therefore, women who have had children early in life are less likely to develop breast cancer compared to those with later pregnancies or no children.

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  • 22. 

    Cervical cancer is related to

    • A.

      Sexual behavior of women

    • B.

      Reproductive history of women

    • C.

      Sexual behavior of women's sex partners

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Cervical cancer is related to all of these factors because it is primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is transmitted through sexual activity. The sexual behavior of women, including the number of sexual partners and engaging in unprotected sex, increases the risk of HPV infection. Additionally, the reproductive history of women, such as early age at first intercourse, multiple pregnancies, and long-term use of oral contraceptives, can also contribute to the development of cervical cancer. Finally, the sexual behavior of women's sex partners, particularly if they have a history of HPV infection, can also increase the risk.

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  • 23. 

    Which of these cancer treatments has serious and painful side effects?

    • A.

      Radiation

    • B.

      Surgery

    • C.

      Chemotherapy

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All of these cancer treatments have serious and painful side effects. Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, but it can also damage healthy cells and tissues nearby. Surgery involves removing the tumor or affected organs, which can cause pain, infection, and other complications. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells, but it can also harm healthy cells, leading to nausea, hair loss, fatigue, and other side effects. Therefore, all three treatments can cause serious and painful side effects.

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  • 24. 

    Leo has been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Leo is least likely to experience high levels of stress if

    • A.

      He is unmarried

    • B.

      His wife makes a "big show" of her concern

    • C.

      His wife demonstrates an obvious high level of social support

    • D.

      His wife provides social support, but Leo does not notice her efforts.

    Correct Answer
    D. His wife provides social support, but Leo does not notice her efforts.
    Explanation
    Leo is least likely to experience high levels of stress if his wife provides social support, but Leo does not notice her efforts. This is because social support can help individuals cope with stress and reduce its negative effects. However, if Leo is unaware of his wife's efforts, he may not feel the pressure to reciprocate or feel overwhelmed by her concern, which could contribute to lower stress levels.

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  • 25. 

    If a person does not smoke or drink alcohol, eats a high-fiber diet, and avoids overexposure to the sun,

    • A.

      The person will probably get cancer anyway

    • B.

      The person will not get cancer

    • C.

      The person's risk of getting cancer will be decreased

    • D.

      The person might as well die of cancer as live such a miserable life.

    Correct Answer
    C. The person's risk of getting cancer will be decreased
    Explanation
    The given information states that the person does not smoke or drink alcohol, eats a high-fiber diet, and avoids overexposure to the sun. These are all factors that are known to decrease the risk of getting cancer. Therefore, it can be inferred that the person's risk of getting cancer will be decreased.

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