# Chapter 1: An Introduction To Statistics And Research Design

47 Questions | Attempts: 1130  Settings  The Two Branches of Statistics How to Transform Observations into Variables Three Types of Variables Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

• 1.
What “branch” of statistics uses numerical observations and incorporates them into an organized and informative summary of the data?
• A.

Sample

• B.

Population

• C.

Inferential

• D.

Descriptive

• 2.
This "branch" of statistics uses sample data to make inferences about the broader population.
• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Inferential

• C.

Population

• D.

Sample

• 3.
Why are samples more commonly studied than populations?
• A.

Because most researchers are lazy

• B.

Because it is usually impossible to study an entire population

• C.

Because populations can only be studied if the data is continuous

• D.

Because samples are typically more accurate than populations

• 4.
Which type of variable could theoretically include an infinite number of possible values between any two consecutive numbers?
• A.

Ordinal

• B.

Continuous

• C.

Discrete

• D.

Nominal

• 5.
Measuring a person's height in inches would involve using a(n) ______________ variable.
• A.

Ordinal

• B.

Interval

• C.

Nominal

• D.

Ratio

• 6.
Both ________ variables and __________ variables can be classified as scale observations.
• A.

Nominal; ordinal

• B.

Interval; ratio

• C.

Ordinal; interval

• D.

Discrete; continuous

• 7.
Which of the following would make it difficult to determine if our independent variable truly had an effect on the dependent variable?
• A.

If our independent variable had too many levels

• B.

If our dependent variable was continuous

• C.

If we were using a between-groups research design

• D.

The presence of a confounding variable

• 8.
A reliable measure:
• A.

Measures what it was intended to measure.

• B.

Predicts actual behavior.

• C.

Is consistent.

• D.

Co-varies with the independent variable.

• 9.
If the results from a personality test are different when given to the same person on two different occasions the the test is:
• A.

Not valid.

• B.

Not reliable but probably valid.

• C.

Not reliable.

• D.

Neither reliable nor valid.

• 10.
In a research study it is important to specify exactly how we will measure the variables that will be studied. In other words, it is important that we use:
• A.

Operational definitions.

• B.

Hypothesis testing.

• C.

Specificity of measurement.

• D.

Continuous observations.

• 11.
If we made sure that each of our participants has an equal chance of being assigned to any condition in the experiment, we would be using:
• A.

Operational definitions.

• B.

A correlational study.

• C.

Random assignment.

• D.

Random selection.

• 12.
Suppose we are interested in how people would rate three new flavors of ice cream. We decide to have participants try each of the three flavors and then rate each of them on a scale of 1 (hated it) to 10 (loved it). What type of research design is being used in this example?
• A.

Between-groups

• B.

Within-groups

• C.

Correlation

• D.

Independent groups

• 13.
When your professor announces the average exam score for the class he is using:
• A.

Descriptive statistics.

• B.

Inferential statistics.

• C.

Nominal variables.

• D.

Ordinal variables.

• 14.
When researchers use descriptive statistics, they are:
• A.

Randomly assigning participants to conditions of an independent variable.

• B.

Drawing conclusions about the relationship between variables.

• C.

Using sample data to make general estimates about the larger population.

• D.

Organizing, summarizing, and communicating a group of numerical observations.

• 15.
A researcher is interested in the sleeping habits of first year college students. She selects 25 first year students from her college and asks them to complete a sleep survey. In this example the 25 students completing the survey would be the:
• A.

Independent variable.

• B.

Population.

• C.

Sample.

• D.

Dependent variable.

• 16.
If your professor reports exam score averages to two decimal places - e.g., 77.65 - this would be considered a(n) _____________ observations.
• A.

Continuous

• B.

Ordinal

• C.

Discrete

• D.

Nominal

• 17.
There are three different types of Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze. What kind of variable describes the different types of Olympic medals?
• A.

Ratio

• B.

Interval

• C.

Ordinal

• D.

Nominal

• 18.
Using numbers to simply identify or label different objects or events involves:
• A.

Nominal variables.

• B.

Ordinal variables.

• C.

Interval variables.

• D.

Ratio variables.

• 19.
A popular sports drink company sampled 20 people who drink its product regularly and found that they performed better during a physical test than those who do not drink the product regularly. What might be a possible confound in the study?
• A.

The sample is small.

• B.

It rained the day of the physical test.

• C.

The company funding the test was biased.

• D.

People who are regular sports drinkers may be more athletic than those who are not.

• 20.
Suppose that, as part of a larger survey, we classify participants according to their classification in school. Our designations of freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior would be considered:
• A.

Variables.

• B.

Operational definitions.

• C.

Levels or conditions.

• D.

Confounds.

• 21.
Psychologists studying infant memory want to determine at what age babies can remember specific events. An experimenter uses several puppets to demonstrate a series of actions while the infant watches. After a delay, the experimenter records how many of the actions the child imitates when playing with the puppets. The dependent variable is the:
• A.

Activity level of the child.

• B.

Type of puppet used by the experimenter.

• C.

Number of imitated actions.

• D.

Length of the experiment.

• 22.
A between-groups design:
• A.

Involves each participant participating in all levels of the experiment.

• B.

Includes only one condition.

• C.

Is sometimes referred to as a longitudinal design.

• D.

Involves each participant experiencing only one level of the experiment.

• 23.
Suppose a researcher randomly assigns participants to three groups and examines their ability to solve complex mathematical problems under conditions of no noise, continuous noise, or random noise. What type of research design is the researcher using?
• A.

Correlational

• B.

Repeated measures

• C.

Within-groups

• D.

Between-groups

• 24.
If we were interested in studying the effect of child abuse on academic achievement we would probably use a ___________ study because of ethical issues involved in employing random assignment.
• A.

Within-groups

• B.

Between-groups

• C.

Experimental

• D.

Correlational

• 25.
If a market research company studies the television viewing habits of 1,000 randomly selected families and uses the information to make inferences about the viewing habits of all families in the United States, they are utilizing:
• A.

Descriptive statistics.

• B.

A correlational research design.

• C.

A within-groups research design.

• D.

Inferential statistics.

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