Ch 3 Unit 1 The Rock Cycle

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This quiz will cover all concepts associated with the Rock Cycle.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Because of the processes that take place within the ___________________, rocks can change from one type to another.

    Explanation
    The rock cycle refers to the continuous process of how rocks can transform from one type to another. This cycle involves various geological processes such as weathering, erosion, deposition, and lithification. These processes can cause rocks to undergo changes in their composition, texture, and structure, leading to the formation of different types of rocks such as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the rock cycle is responsible for the transformation and interchangeability of rocks in the Earth's crust.

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  • 2. 

    Rocks are made ...

    • A.

      Only of organic substances that contain carbon

    • B.

      Always of quartz and silicon

    • C.

      Of one or more minerals

    Correct Answer
    C. Of one or more minerals
    Explanation
    Rocks are composed of one or more minerals. This means that rocks can be made up of different combinations of minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, or mica. The minerals in a rock are typically bonded together, forming a solid structure. It is important to note that rocks can also contain non-mineral substances, such as organic matter or even fragments of other rocks. Therefore, the correct answer is that rocks are made of one or more minerals.

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  • 3. 

    What are sedimentary rocks made of?

    • A.

      Molten rock that has cooled

    • B.

      Pieces of other rocks that have collected and cemented together

    • C.

      Petrified trees

    Correct Answer
    B. Pieces of other rocks that have collected and cemented together
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and cementation of sediment particles. Over time, weathering and erosion break down existing rocks into smaller pieces called sediment. These sediments then settle and accumulate in layers, and as more sediments are deposited, the weight and pressure cause them to become compacted and cemented together. This process forms sedimentary rocks, which are composed of fragments of other rocks that have collected and solidified over time.

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  • 4. 

    What are the 3 types of rocks involved in the rock cycle?

    • A.

      Sandstone, shale, basalt

    • B.

      Dactylic, iambic, spondaic

    • C.

      Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    C. Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
    Explanation
    The rock cycle involves the continuous transformation of rocks from one type to another. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and lithification of sediment, and metamorphic rocks are formed from the alteration of pre-existing rocks through heat and pressure. These three types of rocks represent the different stages in the rock cycle, with each type being transformed into another type through various geological processes.

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  • 5. 

    What kind of rock most often contains fossils?

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Sedimentary

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    B. Sedimentary
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rock is the correct answer because it is formed from layers of sediment that accumulate over time. These sediments often contain the remains of plants and animals, which can become fossilized within the rock. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are formed through different processes that do not typically preserve fossils.

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  • 6. 

    What often leads to the creation of metamorphic rocks?

    • A.

      Volcanic eruption

    • B.

      Movement of Earth's tectonic plates

    • C.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    B. Movement of Earth's tectonic plates
    Explanation
    The movement of Earth's tectonic plates often leads to the creation of metamorphic rocks. This is because when the plates collide or slide past each other, immense pressure and heat are generated. This pressure and heat cause the existing rocks to undergo changes in their mineralogy, texture, and structure, resulting in the formation of metamorphic rocks. These rocks are typically found in regions where tectonic activity, such as mountain building or the formation of fault lines, is occurring.

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  • 7. 

    Which statement is TRUE about the rock cycle?

    • A.

      It involves heat, pressure and cooling

    • B.

      It stops after metamorphic rocks form

    • C.

      Weathering only occurs in igneous rocks

    Correct Answer
    A. It involves heat, pressure and cooling
    Explanation
    The rock cycle involves heat, pressure, and cooling because these are the processes that transform one type of rock into another. Heat and pressure can cause rocks to undergo metamorphism, changing their structure and composition. Cooling can lead to the solidification of molten rock, forming igneous rocks. Therefore, all three processes are essential components of the rock cycle.

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  • 8. 

    What are igneous rocks made from?

    • A.

      Molten rock that has cooled

    • B.

      Pieces of other rocks that have collected and cemented together

    • C.

      Mountains that have weathered away

    Correct Answer
    A. Molten rock that has cooled
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks are formed from molten rock that has cooled. When magma or lava, which is molten rock, cools and solidifies, it forms igneous rocks. This process can occur either beneath the Earth's surface or on its surface. As the molten rock cools, it crystallizes and hardens, forming different types of igneous rocks with distinct textures and compositions. This process can take thousands or even millions of years, depending on the cooling rate and the composition of the molten rock.

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  • 9. 

    _______________________ is molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface.

    Correct Answer
    magma
    Explanation
    Magma is the correct answer because it refers to molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface. Magma is composed of a mixture of molten rock, suspended crystals, and dissolved gases. It is formed through the process of partial melting of rocks in the Earth's mantle and can eventually rise to the surface through volcanic activity, where it becomes lava.

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  • 10. 

    Magma that reaches the surface is called _______________________ .

    Correct Answer
    lava
    Explanation
    When magma, which is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, reaches the surface through volcanic activity, it is called lava. Lava is typically hot and fluid, flowing out of the volcano and spreading across the surrounding area. It cools and solidifies to form various volcanic landforms such as lava flows, lava domes, and volcanic cones. Lava can have different compositions and viscosities, resulting in different types of eruptions and volcanic features.

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  • 11. 

    ______________________ is a process in which rocks are broken down by water, air, and living things.

    Correct Answer
    weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering is a natural process that occurs when rocks are broken down and altered by various factors such as water, air, and living organisms. Water can cause physical weathering through processes like freeze-thaw cycles and erosion, while air can cause chemical weathering through reactions with minerals in the rocks. Living organisms, such as plants and animals, can also contribute to weathering through their physical actions or by releasing substances that break down rocks. Overall, weathering plays a crucial role in the continuous transformation of rocks over time.

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  • 12. 

    Weathered pieces of Earth elements are defined as _______________________ .

    Correct Answer
    sediment
    sediments
    Explanation
    Weathered pieces of Earth elements are referred to as sediment or sediments. Sediment is the collective term used to describe the particles of rock, minerals, and organic matter that have been eroded, transported, and deposited by natural processes such as wind, water, or ice. These weathered fragments can vary in size, ranging from tiny grains of sand to larger rocks. Sediments can accumulate in various environments, such as riverbeds, lakes, and oceans, eventually forming sedimentary rocks through compaction and cementation.

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  • 13. 

    Processes driven by heat from the Earth's  ______________ are responsible for forming both igneous and metamorphic rocks.

    • A.

      Interior

    • B.

      Sun

    • C.

      Hurricanes

    • D.

      Tornadoes

    Correct Answer
    A. Interior
    Explanation
    Processes driven by heat from the Earth's interior are responsible for forming both igneous and metamorphic rocks. The Earth's interior is extremely hot, with temperatures reaching up to 6000 degrees Celsius in the inner core. This heat causes rocks to melt and form magma, which can then cool and solidify to form igneous rocks. Additionally, the heat and pressure from the Earth's interior can cause existing rocks to undergo metamorphism, resulting in the formation of metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the Earth's interior plays a crucial role in the formation of both igneous and metamorphic rocks.

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  • 14. 

    Weathering of rocks and the movement of weathered materials are processes powered by the shift of dark matter in space....

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. Weathering of rocks and the movement of weathered materials are not processes powered by the shift of dark matter in space. Weathering is the breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces due to exposure to the elements, while the movement of weathered materials is usually driven by gravity, water, wind, or ice. Dark matter, on the other hand, is a hypothetical form of matter that does not interact with light and is not directly involved in these processes.

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  • 15. 

    External processes such as water, air and living things produces sedimentary rocks.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    External processes such as water, air, and living things contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks. Water erodes rocks and carries sediments, which can then accumulate and lithify into sedimentary rocks. Air can weather rocks, breaking them down into smaller particles that can also become sedimentary rocks. Living things, such as plants and animals, can also contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks through processes like the accumulation of organic matter or the formation of shells and skeletons. Therefore, the statement is true.

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