The IP address of a web server
A physical network address
The closest router interface to the source
The source IP address in the data transmission
UDP will not disrupt the game to retransmit dropped packets.
TCP provides extra acknowledgements that will ensure smooth video delivery.
Both TCP and UDP can be used simultaneously to ensure speed and guaranteed delivery.
Both TCP and UDP may slow transmission and disrupt game operation, so no transport protocol should be used.
Uniform Resource Locator
Network redirector server
The packet header identifies it as an HTTP or FTP packet.
The data in the segment is specially formatted for either HTTP or FTP.
The segment destination port number identifies the application that should handle it.
The source port number is associated with one of these well known server applications.
Source IP address
Source MAC addres
Destination IP address
Destination MAC address
Source and destination IP addresses
Source and destination MAC addresses
Only destination IP and MAC addresses
Both source and destination IP and MAC addresses
Removes the IP header
Removes the TCP header
Passes data to the application layer
Removes the Ethernet header and trailer
1) remove IP header 2) remove Ethernet header and trailer 3) remove TCP header 4) pass data to the application
1) add TCP header to data 2) add an IP header 3) add frame header and trailer 4) encode the frame into bits
1) remove Ethernet header and trailer 2) remove IP header 3) remove TCP header 4) pass data to the application
1) add TCP header to data 2) add Ethernet header and trailer 3) add an IP header 4) encode the frame into bits
It breaks network communications into larger parts.
It increases complexity.
It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers.
It requires the use of single-vendor equipment for hardware and software communications.
Data link, physical, transport, network, presentation, session, application
Physical, data link, network, session, transport, presentation, application
Physical, data link, network, transport, presentation, session, application
Physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, application
Application, session, presentation, transport, data link, network, physical