# Catholic Central Ch. 3 Chemistry Review

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• 1.

### What Law Did Dalton incorporate into his theory by asserting that atoms are indivisible?

• A.

Law of conservation of mass

• B.

Law of multiple proportions

• C.

Law of definite proportions

• D.

Law of definite masses

A. Law of conservation of mass
Explanation
Dalton incorporated the Law of conservation of mass into his theory by asserting that atoms are indivisible. This law states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, but is instead conserved. Dalton's assertion that atoms are indivisible implies that the total mass of the reactants must be equal to the total mass of the products in a chemical reaction, thus aligning with the Law of conservation of mass.

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• 2.

### A molecule is composed of one atom of A and one atom of B. A has 10 mass units, and B has 20 mass units. What is the mass of the compound?

• A.

Unable to determine

• B.

15 mass units

• C.

30 mass units

• D.

A ratio of 1:2

C. 30 mass units
Explanation
The mass of the compound is determined by adding the masses of the individual atoms. In this case, atom A has a mass of 10 units and atom B has a mass of 20 units. Therefore, the total mass of the compound is 10 + 20 = 30 mass units.

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• 3.

### The evidence between H2O2 and H20, which is the fact that elements combine in simple whole number ratios supports what law?

• A.

Multiple ratios

• B.

Multiple proportions

• C.

Conservation of mass

• D.

Definite composition

B. Multiple proportions
Explanation
The evidence that elements combine in simple whole number ratios supports the law of multiple proportions. This law states that when two elements combine to form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers. In the case of H2O2 and H2O, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in H2O2 is 2:2, while in H2O it is 2:1. This demonstrates the law of multiple proportions, as the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is different in each compound.

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• 4.

### Who conceived the principles of atomic  theory?

• A.

Ms. Watson

• B.

Milikan

• C.

Rutherford

• D.

Dalton

D. Dalton
Explanation
Dalton is the correct answer because he is the scientist who conceived the principles of atomic theory. John Dalton, an English chemist, proposed the theory in the early 19th century. His theory stated that all matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms, which combine to form compounds in fixed ratios. Dalton's theory laid the foundation for modern atomic theory and greatly contributed to our understanding of the composition and behavior of matter.

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• 5.

### Who's theory AGREES with the law of definite proportions?

• A.

Rutherford

• B.

Dalton

• C.

Niels Bohr

• D.

Andy Dalton

B. Dalton
Explanation
Dalton's theory agrees with the law of definite proportions. This law states that a compound will always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass. Dalton's atomic theory, which he proposed in the early 19th century, also emphasized the idea that elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds. He believed that atoms were indivisible and that chemical reactions involved the rearrangement of atoms. This aligns with the law of definite proportions, making Dalton the correct answer.

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• 6.

### According to Dalton's atomic theory, atoms

• A.

Of the same element are the same in size, mass, and other properties

• B.

Of isotopes are the same in size, mass, and other properties

• C.

Of different elements are the same in size, mass, and other properties

• D.

Are extremely maleable

A. Of the same element are the same in size, mass, and other properties
Explanation
According to Dalton's atomic theory, atoms of the same element are the same in size, mass, and other properties. This means that all atoms of a particular element have identical characteristics and cannot be distinguished from one another based on their physical properties. This principle forms the basis for understanding the behavior and properties of elements in chemistry.

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• 7.

### In the experiments we talking about in class, the cathode ray specifically, what was in the glass tube?

• A.

Chili mac n cheese

• B.

Low pressure Cesium

• C.

High pressure gas

• D.

Low pressure gas

D. Low pressure gas
Explanation
In the experiments discussed in class, particularly the cathode ray experiment, the glass tube contained a low pressure gas. This is because a low pressure gas allows for the movement of charged particles, such as electrons, which are crucial for the observation of cathode rays. The low pressure gas creates an environment where the cathode rays can be produced and studied effectively.

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• 8.

### Why were the rays produced in a cathode tube deflected away from a negative plate?

• A.

The were negatively charged (electrons)

• B.

Because like forces attract

• C.

• D.

The cathode rays were positively charged protons

A. The were negatively charged (electrons)
Explanation
The rays produced in a cathode tube are deflected away from a negative plate because they are negatively charged (electrons). Like charges repel each other, so the negative electrons are repelled by the negative plate.

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• 9.

### Rutherford identified what part of the atom?

• A.

Nuclide

• B.

Nucleon

• C.

Nucleus

• D.

Nucleolus

C. Nucleus
Explanation
Rutherford identified the nucleus of the atom. The nucleus is the central part of the atom that contains protons and neutrons. Rutherford's famous gold foil experiment led him to discover that the positive charge and most of the mass of an atom are concentrated in a small, dense region at its center, which he called the nucleus. This discovery revolutionized our understanding of atomic structure and laid the foundation for the development of modern atomic theory.

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• 10.

### The central region of the atom is

• A.

Neutral

• B.

Positively charged

• C.

Negatively charged

• D.

Slimy and a dark

B. Positively charged
Explanation
The central region of the atom, known as the nucleus, is positively charged. It contains protons, which have a positive charge, and neutrons, which have no charge. The positive charge of the protons is balanced by the negatively charged electrons that orbit around the nucleus, resulting in an overall neutral charge for the atom.

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• 11.

### What makes the atom neutral?

• A.

The strong nuclear forces within the nucleus

• B.

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons

• C.

Dalton's atomic theory

• D.

Atoms are not neutral

B. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
Explanation
The correct answer is that the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. This is because protons have a positive charge, while electrons have a negative charge. In an atom, the positive charge of the protons in the nucleus is balanced by the negative charge of the electrons surrounding the nucleus. This balance of positive and negative charges makes the atom neutral overall.

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• 12.

### What forces exist in the nucleus due to the particles being so close together?

• A.

Nuclear Forces

• B.

Changes of state forces

• C.

Bonding

• D.

Pauli Exclusion forces

A. Nuclear Forces
Explanation
The correct answer is Nuclear Forces. The particles in the nucleus are so close together that they experience strong attractive forces called nuclear forces. These forces are responsible for holding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus, despite the repulsive electromagnetic forces between the positively charged protons. Nuclear forces are strong enough to overcome the electromagnetic forces and maintain the stability of the nucleus.

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• 13.

### What is the smallest unit of an element, that retains the identity of that element

• A.

The electron

• B.

The atom

• C.

I don't know because that was from chapter 1

• D.

The proton

B. The atom
Explanation
The atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains the identity of that element. It is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus, while electrons orbit around the nucleus. The number of protons in an atom determines its atomic number and identifies the element. Therefore, the atom is the fundamental building block of matter and is responsible for the unique properties and identity of each element.

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• 14.

### Isotopes have different

• A.

Amount of energy

• B.

Different isothermal properties

• C.

Atomic numbers

• D.

Mass numbers

D. Mass numbers
Explanation
Isotopes have different mass numbers. The mass number of an isotope is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Since isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons (atomic number), the only difference between them is the number of neutrons. This difference in the number of neutrons leads to different mass numbers for isotopes of the same element.

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• 15.

### What composes the mass number

• A.

Protons and neutrons

• B.

Protons and electrons

• C.

Neutrons and electrons

• D.

Undertermined

A. Protons and neutrons
Explanation
The mass number of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom, while neutrons have no charge and are also found in the nucleus. The mass number represents the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus. Electrons, on the other hand, have a negative charge and are found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus, but they do not contribute significantly to the mass of an atom. Therefore, the correct answer is protons and neutrons.

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• 16.

### How many isotopes did we talk about in class of Hydrogen atom?

• A.

1

• B.

2

• C.

10

• D.

3

D. 3
Explanation
In class, we discussed three isotopes of the hydrogen atom. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. The three isotopes of hydrogen are protium, deuterium, and tritium. Protium is the most common and has no neutrons, deuterium has one neutron, and tritium has two neutrons. These isotopes have different properties and are used in various scientific and industrial applications.

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• 17.

• A.

Yttrium

• B.

Tritium

• C.

Protium

• D.

Dueterium

A. Yttrium
• 18.

### What isotope of hydrogen contained one neutron and one proton

• A.

None of them

• B.

Protium

• C.

Dueterium

• D.

Tritium

C. Dueterium
Explanation
Deuterium is the correct answer because it is an isotope of hydrogen that contains one neutron and one proton. Unlike the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium, which has no neutrons, deuterium has one neutron in its nucleus. Tritium, on the other hand, contains two neutrons and one proton, making it a different isotope of hydrogen. Therefore, deuterium is the isotope of hydrogen that fits the given description.

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• 19.

### What is the atomic number?

• A.

Number of electrons

• B.

Number of protons

• C.

Number of neutrons

• D.

Number of times the Bengals have gone to the Superbowl

B. Number of protons
Explanation
The atomic number refers to the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. It is a unique identifier for each element on the periodic table, as elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Electrons and neutrons do not determine the atomic number. The number of times the Bengals have gone to the Superbowl is unrelated to atomic number and therefore not the correct answer.

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• 20.

### What is the standard we discussed when determining the atomic masses of the elements?

• A.

Dueterium

• B.

Um.... what standard?

• C.

The carbon- 12 atom

• D.

The carbon-14 atom

C. The carbon- 12 atom
Explanation
The correct answer is the carbon-12 atom. The atomic mass of elements is determined relative to the carbon-12 atom, which is assigned a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units. This is because carbon-12 is the most abundant and stable isotope of carbon, making it a suitable reference point for measuring atomic masses.

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• 21.

### What is the mass number of the carbon-14 atom?

• A.

12

• B.

6

• C.

7

• D.

14

D. 14
Explanation
The mass number of an atom is the sum of its protons and neutrons. Carbon-14 is a specific isotope of carbon, meaning it has 6 protons (as all carbon atoms do) and 8 neutrons. Adding these together gives a total of 14, which is the mass number of the carbon-14 atom.

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• 22.

### How many atoms are in one mole of 1-(2 5-dimethylphenyl)ethanone

• A.

6.022x10^32

• B.

6.022x10^23

• C.

6.042x10^32

• D.

12.022x10^23

B. 6.022x10^23
Explanation
One mole of a substance is defined as the amount of that substance that contains the same number of atoms, molecules, or ions as the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. This number is known as Avogadro's number, which is approximately 6.022x10^23. Therefore, the correct answer is 6.022x10^23, as it represents the number of atoms in one mole of 1-(2 5-dimethylphenyl)ethanone.

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• 23.

• A.

8

• B.

9

• C.

7

• D.

14

A. 8
• 24.

### What is the molar mass of H2O

• A.

30 tiny moles

• B.

16g/mol

• C.

18g/mol

• D.

32g/mol

C. 18g/mol
Explanation
The molar mass of a compound is the mass of one mole of that compound. In the case of H2O, the molar mass is calculated by adding the atomic masses of two hydrogen atoms (each with a molar mass of 1g/mol) and one oxygen atom (with a molar mass of 16g/mol). Therefore, the molar mass of H2O is 18g/mol.

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• 25.

### What are the red numbers on the periodic table in the classroom?

• A.

The average atomic mass

• B.

The atomic number (z)

• C.

The isotope mass

• D.

The elements telephone number

A. The average atomic mass
Explanation
The red numbers on the periodic table in the classroom represent the average atomic mass of the elements. The average atomic mass is the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element, taking into account their relative abundance. It is an important value because it helps to identify and compare elements based on their atomic masses.

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• 26.

### What is the mass of 10 moles of cesium? (atomic mass 132.9 amu)

• A.

Cannot be determined

• B.

132.9g

• C.

1329g

• D.

664.5g

C. 1329g
Explanation
The mass of 10 moles of cesium can be determined by multiplying the atomic mass of cesium (132.9 amu) by the number of moles (10). Therefore, the mass of 10 moles of cesium is 1329g.

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• 27.

### How many moles are in 18g of H2O?

• A.

4

• B.

1

• C.

2

• D.

3

B. 1
Explanation
The molar mass of H2O is approximately 18 g/mol. Therefore, if we have 18g of H2O, we have 1 mole of H2O.

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• 28.

### How many moles are in 36g of H2O?

• A.

1

• B.

4

• C.

3

• D.

2

D. 2
Explanation
The molar mass of water (H2O) is approximately 18 g/mol. To find the number of moles in 36g of H2O, we divide the given mass by the molar mass. Therefore, 36g รท 18 g/mol = 2 moles.

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• 29.

### How would you calculate the mass in grams of 2 moles of water?

• A.

Multiply 2 moles by the molar mass of water which is 36g/mole

• B.

Multiply 3 moles by the molar mass of water which is 18g/mole

• C.

Multiply 2 moles by the molar mass of water which is 18g/mole

• D.

C. Multiply 2 moles by the molar mass of water which is 18g/mole
Explanation
To calculate the mass in grams of 2 moles of water, you need to multiply 2 moles by the molar mass of water, which is 18g/mole. This is because the molar mass of water is the sum of the atomic masses of its constituent elements, which are hydrogen and oxygen. The molar mass of hydrogen is 1g/mole, and the molar mass of oxygen is 16g/mole. So, multiplying 2 moles by 18g/mole gives you the mass of 36 grams.

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• 30.

### How many atoms are in 2 moles of anything?

• A.

6.022x10^23 x 2

• B.

6.022x10^3 x 2

• C.

6.022x10^23 x 3

• D.

It DEPENDS on the compound

A. 6.022x10^23 x 2
Explanation
The Avogadro's number (6.022x10^23) represents the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of any substance. Therefore, if we have 2 moles of anything, we can multiply the Avogadro's number by 2 to find the total number of atoms. Hence, the correct answer is 6.022x10^23 x 2.

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• 31.

### How do we calculate the average atomic mass ?

• A.

Take the weighted average of the isotopes and their atomic masses

• B.

You add the number of protons and neutrons together

• C.

You add together all the isotopes' masses

• D.

You take the mass of one mole divided by the molar mass

A. Take the weighted average of the isotopes and their atomic masses
Explanation
To calculate the average atomic mass, we need to take the weighted average of the isotopes and their atomic masses. This means multiplying the atomic mass of each isotope by its relative abundance (percentage) and then adding up these values for all the isotopes. The weighted average accounts for the different abundances of each isotope, giving a more accurate representation of the average atomic mass of an element.

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