Campbell 6.3 - 6.4 Quiz

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Campbell 6.3 - 6.4 Quiz - Quiz

This quiz covers the readings found in Chapter 6.3 - 6.4 in your textbook. 6.3 covers the topics of the nucleus and ribosomes focusing on their structures and functions which 6.4 focuses on the 'endomembrane system' consisting of the ER (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    DNA is frequently described as having the structure of a 'coiled coil' although in reality it is more like a 'coiled coiled coil' because it has 3 stages of coiling to its structure. Please describe the coiling behavior of DNA - use Fig 6.9 on p.103 of your book for help...especially the lower right portion of that figure titled 'chromatin'.  

  • 2. 

    In an elegant example of the relationship between Structure and Function your book states that, "cells that have high rates of protein synthesis have particularly large numbers of ribosomes". Explain.

  • 3. 

    Structure and Function time!!  Please name 1 type of cell that would have a large amount of Smooth ER and explain why this would be the case. (p.105)

  • 4. 

    Use the 1st paragraph in the section titled "Functions of the Rough ER" and list the 3 steps that occur as/just after a protein is created by a ribosome bound to the Rough ER. 

  • 5. 

    Please describe steps 1-4 of Figure 6.12 which show the general flow of activity in the Golgi.  Use your own words, please!

  • 6. 

    Please describe the 3 numbered steps occuring in Fig. 6.13A and also include the name of the process shown. 

  • 7. 

    In the opening introductory paragraph of 6.3 it becomes clear why the nucleus and ribosomes are discussed together.  Your text discusses them jointly because they are both involved in: 

    • A.

      Creation of the cell's membrane system

    • B.

      Enzymatic control of the cell especially during macromolecular digestion

    • C.

      Creation of the cell's genetic components (DNA and RNA)

    • D.

      Genetic control of the cell - housing the DNA and using it to make proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Genetic control of the cell - housing the DNA and using it to make proteins
    Explanation
    The opening introductory paragraph of section 6.3 discusses the nucleus and ribosomes together because they are both involved in genetic control of the cell. The nucleus houses the DNA, which contains the genetic information, and the ribosomes use this DNA to make proteins. Therefore, these two components work together in controlling the cell's genetic functions and protein synthesis.

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  • 8. 

    Please check any possible places where genetic material can be found in a cell. 

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      ER

    • D.

      Chloroplasts

    • E.

      Golgi

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Nucleus
    B. Mitochondria
    D. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Genetic material can be found in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts of a cell. The nucleus contains the majority of the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA, which carries the instructions for the cell's functions and characteristics. Mitochondria also contain their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA, which is involved in energy production. Chloroplasts, found in plant cells, contain chlorophyll and also have their own DNA, known as chloroplast DNA, which is involved in photosynthesis. The ER and Golgi, on the other hand, are involved in protein synthesis and packaging, but do not contain genetic material.

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  • 9. 

    What is usually the most conspicuous or eye-catching organelle in an animal cell and plant cell respectively? 

    • A.

      Central vacuole and nucleus

    • B.

      Nucleus and central vacuole

    • C.

      Nucleolus and lysosome

    • D.

      ER in both types of cells

    • E.

      ER and central vacuole

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleus and central vacuole
    Explanation
    The nucleus is usually the most conspicuous or eye-catching organelle in an animal cell because it contains the genetic material and controls the cell's activities. On the other hand, the central vacuole is usually the most conspicuous or eye-catching organelle in a plant cell because it is a large, fluid-filled sac that takes up most of the space in the cell and provides structural support.

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  • 10. 

    The proteins that are stuck into membranes like the nuclear membranes and ER membranes and which create small, selective channels through which molecules can pass are called: 

    Correct Answer
    pore structures
    pore complexes
    pore structure
    pore complex
  • 11. 

    Molecues can only ENTER the nucleus through pore complexes...the nucleus is like the Hotel California in the famous song by the Eagles: "you can check out any time you like, but you can never leave...."

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Hope at least SOME of you have heard this song! It's a good one. And this answer is most definitely false. Tons of things have to exit the nucleus - for example, if mRNA molecules couldn't exit the nucleus to the cytoplasm then they could never get read by ribosomes to make proteins.

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  • 12. 

    Check any of the following places that ribosomes can be found. 

    • A.

      In the nucleus

    • B.

      Bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope

    • C.

      Floating free in the cytoplasm

    • D.

      Bound to the outermost layer of the cell membrane

    • E.

      Bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope
    C. Floating free in the cytoplasm
    E. Bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Explanation
    Ribosomes can be found in three different places: bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope, floating free in the cytoplasm, and bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. They are not found in the nucleus or bound to the outermost layer of the cell membrane.

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  • 13. 

    The individual pieces that DNA is organized into are called ______________________. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    chromosome
    chromosomes
    Explanation
    DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are long, thread-like structures made up of DNA molecules and proteins called histones. They contain all the genetic information necessary for the development and functioning of an organism. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell, with one set inherited from each parent. The term "chromosome" refers to a single piece of DNA, while "chromosomes" refers to multiple pieces of DNA.

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  • 14. 

    Chromatin is only truly visible in cell nuclei when cells are __________________. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    dividing
    preparing to divide
    preparing for division
    Explanation
    Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that form chromosomes. During cell division, the chromatin condenses and becomes visible as distinct chromosomes under a microscope. Therefore, chromatin is only truly visible in cell nuclei when cells are dividing or preparing to divide.

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  • 15. 

    Check the 2 things below that are synthesized (made) in the nucleolus. 

    • A.

      RRNA

    • B.

      Large and small ribosome subunits

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      MRNA

    • E.

      Chromatin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. RRNA
    B. Large and small ribosome subunits
    Explanation
    The nucleolus is responsible for synthesizing ribosomes, which are made up of rRNA and large and small ribosome subunits. This process occurs in the nucleolus, where rRNA is transcribed from DNA and combined with proteins to form the ribosome subunits. Therefore, rRNA and the large and small ribosome subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus.

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  • 16. 

    Using the last paragraph on p.102 of your text just before the title "Ribosomes: Protein Factories" fill in the following blanks with ONE space in between each answer: The nucleus synthesizes ____________ from ___________ and the mRNA is then used by the ribosomes to create  a _____________.  

    Correct Answer(s)
    mRNA DNA protein
    mRNA DNA polypeptide
    Explanation
    The nucleus synthesizes mRNA from DNA and the mRNA is then used by the ribosomes to create a protein.

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  • 17. 

    Free ribosomes generally make proteins that will stay in the cytoplasm. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Free ribosomes are not bound to any membrane and are found freely floating in the cytoplasm. They are responsible for synthesizing proteins that will stay within the cytoplasm and carry out their functions there. This is in contrast to ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, which produce proteins that are destined for secretion or insertion into membranes. Therefore, the statement that free ribosomes generally make proteins that will stay in the cytoplasm is true.

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  • 18. 

    Check any of the following that are included in the 'endomembrane system'. 

    • A.

      ER

    • B.

      Golgi

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    • E.

      Vesicles

    • F.

      Lysosomes

    • G.

      Plasma membrane

    • H.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. ER
    B. Golgi
    E. Vesicles
    F. Lysosomes
    G. Plasma membrane
    H. Vacuoles
    Explanation
    The endomembrane system is a network of organelles within a eukaryotic cell that work together to modify, package, and transport proteins and lipids. The organelles included in the endomembrane system are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicles, lysosomes, plasma membrane, and vacuoles. These organelles are interconnected and function in a coordinated manner to ensure proper cellular activities such as protein synthesis, modification, and transport, as well as membrane recycling and degradation of cellular waste.

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  • 19. 

    Fill in both blanks in the following sentence with ONE space separating the 2 answers: The tubules and sacs of the ER are called __________________ and the inside space of the ER is called the _______________.  

    Correct Answer(s)
    cisternae lumen
    cisternae cisternal space
    Explanation
    The tubules and sacs of the ER are called cisternae, and the inside space of the ER is called the lumen.

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  • 20. 

    The Smooth ER is named as such because it lacks _________________ and therefore appears smooth under a microscope. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    ribosome
    ribosomes
    Explanation
    The Smooth ER is named as such because it lacks ribosomes and therefore appears smooth under a microscope. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and their absence in the Smooth ER distinguishes it from the Rough ER, which is studded with ribosomes.

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  • 21. 

    Flashback to functional groups...I told you they would become important!  The Smooth ER helps detoxify drugs and poisons by frequently adding ____________ groups onto them.  These functional groups are polar and therefore increase a molecule's ability to dissolve in water and be flushed out of the body. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    hydroxyl
    Explanation
    The correct answer is hydroxyl. The Smooth ER helps detoxify drugs and poisons by frequently adding hydroxyl groups onto them. These hydroxyl groups are polar and therefore increase a molecule's ability to dissolve in water and be flushed out of the body.

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  • 22. 

    One of the Smooth ER's functions is to store _______ ions.  This function is especially important in muscle cells where the release of these ions causes the muscle cells to contract. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Ca
    calcium
    Explanation
    The Smooth ER stores calcium ions. In muscle cells, the release of these calcium ions is crucial for the contraction of the muscle cells.

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  • 23. 

    "After leaving the ER, many transport vesicles travel to the ____________________________" (2 words). 

    Correct Answer(s)
    golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    After leaving the ER, many transport vesicles travel to the golgi apparatus. The golgi apparatus is an organelle in the cell that plays a crucial role in processing, modifying, and packaging proteins and lipids. It receives the transport vesicles from the ER and further modifies their contents before sending them to their final destinations within the cell or outside of it. This process ensures that proteins and lipids are properly sorted and directed to their intended locations, allowing for the proper functioning of the cell.

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  • 24. 

    Just like the sacs of the ER, the sacs of the Golgi are called _________________. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    cisternae
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cisternae." The question is asking for the term used to describe the sacs of the Golgi, which are similar to the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Golgi apparatus is made up of a series of flattened, membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. These cisternae are involved in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport within the cell or secretion outside of the cell.

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  • 25. 

    The cis face of the Golgi is the receiving end and the trans face of the Golgi is the shipping out end. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The cis face of the Golgi is indeed the receiving end, where proteins and lipids enter the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, the trans face of the Golgi is responsible for shipping out processed proteins and lipids to their final destinations within or outside the cell. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 26. 

    Your textbook compares the molecular identification tags that can get added on to Golgi products to ensure that they are sent to the correct place in the cell to __________________. (2 words) 

    Correct Answer
    ZIP codes
    ZIP code
    ZIP codes on mailing labels
    mailing labels
    Explanation
    The textbook compares the molecular identification tags to ZIP codes or mailing labels. These tags ensure that Golgi products are sent to the correct place in the cell, similar to how ZIP codes or mailing labels ensure that mail is delivered to the correct address.

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  • 27. 

    All enzymes have an optimal temperature and pH at which they work - most are in the neutral or mid ranges, however lysosomal enzymes work best in ________________ environments. 

    Correct Answer
    acidic
    acid
    low pH
    Explanation
    Lysosomal enzymes work best in acidic environments because they are designed to function in the lysosomes, which are acidic organelles within cells. The low pH in the lysosomes helps to activate and stabilize these enzymes, allowing them to efficiently break down and digest cellular waste materials. Therefore, an acidic, acid, or low pH environment is necessary for optimal functioning of lysosomal enzymes.

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  • 28. 

    In the process called ______________ a cell's lysosomes will actually digest its own old/damaged materials in a process comparable to recycling.   

    Correct Answer
    autophagy
    Explanation
    Autophagy is a cellular process where a cell's lysosomes break down and recycle its own old or damaged materials. This process helps maintain cellular homeostasis by removing unnecessary or dysfunctional components. Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular health and has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging.

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  • 29. 

    In Tay-Sach's disease a person inherits a defective copy of a gene coding for a _________-digesting enzyme.  Therefore, these molecules begin to build up in their brain with disastrous results. 

    Correct Answer
    lipid
    fat
    Explanation
    In Tay-Sach's disease, a person inherits a defective copy of a gene coding for a lipid-digesting enzyme. As a result, lipids or fats are not properly broken down and begin to accumulate in the person's brain. This buildup of lipids in the brain leads to severe consequences and the development of the disease.

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  • 30. 

    Check any of the following that vacuoles can store: 

    • A.

      Food

    • B.

      Ions

    • C.

      Poisons

    • D.

      Pigments

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Food
    B. Ions
    C. Poisons
    D. Pigments
    Explanation
    Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants, fungi, and some protists. They serve various functions, including storage. Vacuoles can store food, such as sugars and amino acids, which are essential for the cell's energy and growth. They can also store ions, such as potassium and calcium, which are important for maintaining the cell's osmotic balance and regulating various cellular processes. Additionally, vacuoles can store poisons or toxic substances, helping to protect the cell from harm. Lastly, vacuoles can store pigments, which contribute to the coloration of flowers and fruits in plants.

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  • Current Version
  • Jan 29, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 09, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Mhagerty

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