Brain Bee Challenge: Round IV

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Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 54,545
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 5,061

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Brain Bee Challenge: Round IV - Quiz

For those of you jumping in late in the game, the Brain Bee Challenge is based on questions from live Q&A competitions that test high school students’ knowledge of neuroscience. Regional and national competitions take place around the world during the winter and spring months, culminating in the International Brain Bee in July (this year in South Africa). Now that you know the context, let’s get to it! Same rules as Round III – you need to get eight out of ten questions correct.
Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Peripheral nerves from the thoracic region of the spinal cord serve what part of the body?

    • A.

      The trunk

    • B.

      The legs

    • C.

      The head and neck

    Correct Answer
    A. The trunk
    Explanation
    The peripheral nerves from the thoracic region of the spinal cord serve the trunk of the body. The trunk refers to the central part of the body, including the chest, abdomen, and back. These nerves transmit sensory information from the trunk to the spinal cord and brain, and also carry motor signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles in the trunk, allowing for movement and sensation in this region.

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  • 2. 

    The loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia is an important factor in what neurological disease?

    • A.

      Alzheimer’s disease

    • B.

      Parkinson’s disease

    • C.

      Hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Correct Answer
    B. Parkinson’s disease
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is caused by the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in motor control and coordination. When there is a depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia, it leads to the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement. This is why the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia is considered an important factor in the development of Parkinson's disease.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the two types of photo receptor cells conveys the sense of color?

    • A.

      Rods

    • B.

      Cones

    • C.

      Prisms

    Correct Answer
    B. Cones
    Explanation
    Cones are the type of photo receptor cells that convey the sense of color. Unlike rods, which are responsible for vision in low light conditions and detecting shades of gray, cones are responsible for color vision. Cones are concentrated in the central part of the retina and are sensitive to different wavelengths of light, allowing us to perceive colors.

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  • 4. 

    Functional MRI measures the changing levels of what in the blood?

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Functional MRI measures the changing levels of oxygen in the blood. This is because oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties compared to deoxygenated blood. By detecting these differences, functional MRI can map the areas of the brain that are active during specific tasks or cognitive processes.

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  • 5. 

    The tympanic membrane is another name for what part of the ear?

    • A.

      Cochlea

    • B.

      Malleus

    • C.

      Eardrum

    Correct Answer
    C. Eardrum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Eardrum". The tympanic membrane is commonly referred to as the eardrum. It is a thin, delicate membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. When sound waves enter the ear, they cause the eardrum to vibrate, which in turn, transmits the vibrations to the small bones in the middle ear. These vibrations are then transformed into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain, allowing us to perceive sound.

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  • 6. 

    Name the enzyme that normally breaks down catecholamines.

    • A.

      Monoamine oxidase, MAO

    • B.

      Nitric oxide, NO

    • C.

      Choline acetyltransferase

    Correct Answer
    A. Monoamine oxidase, MAO
    Explanation
    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is the enzyme that normally breaks down catecholamines. Catecholamines are a group of neurotransmitters that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. MAO plays a crucial role in the metabolism of these neurotransmitters by catalyzing their breakdown. This process helps maintain proper neurotransmitter levels in the brain and other tissues. Inhibition of MAO can lead to an increase in catecholamine levels, which can have various effects on mood, behavior, and overall physiology. Therefore, the correct answer is Monoamine oxidase, MAO.

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  • 7. 

    In the 1960’s, Parkinson’s patients were successfully treated for the first time using what drug?

    • A.

      Clozapine

    • B.

      Levodopa, L-dopa

    • C.

      Memantine

    Correct Answer
    B. Levodopa, L-dopa
    Explanation
    In the 1960s, Parkinson's patients were successfully treated for the first time using Levodopa, also known as L-dopa. This drug is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is deficient in Parkinson's disease. Levodopa is converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to alleviate the symptoms of the disease such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. It revolutionized the treatment of Parkinson's disease and remains one of the most effective medications for managing its symptoms.

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  • 8. 

    Name the two parts of the hindbrain that help control respiration and heart rhythm.

    • A.

      Pons and medulla oblongata

    • B.

      Hypothalamus and thalamus

    • C.

      Superior and inferior colliculi

    Correct Answer
    A. Pons and medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The pons and medulla oblongata are two parts of the hindbrain that help control respiration and heart rhythm. The pons is responsible for regulating the rate and depth of breathing, while the medulla oblongata controls the basic functions of the cardiovascular system, including heart rate and blood pressure. Together, these two structures play a crucial role in maintaining the body's vital functions and ensuring the proper functioning of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

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  • 9. 

    What do the letters stand for in the acronym SPECT?

    • A.

      Single positron emission computed tomography

    • B.

      Single photon emission computed tomography

    • C.

      Single photon eviction computed topography

    Correct Answer
    B. Single photon emission computed tomography
    Explanation
    The letters in the acronym SPECT stand for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. SPECT is a medical imaging technique that uses gamma rays emitted by a radioactive tracer to create 3D images of the internal structures of the body. It is commonly used in nuclear medicine to diagnose and monitor various conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, brain disorders, and cancer.

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  • 10. 

    Commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, this progressive disorder affects neurons that control voluntary muscle movements such as walking.

    • A.

      Hereditary spastic paraplegia

    • B.

      Multiple sclerosis

    • C.

      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Explanation
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive disorder that affects neurons responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. This disease leads to the degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death. The given explanation correctly identifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as the disorder that matches the description provided.

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