It occurs only in plants, algae and some bacteria
It requires chlorophyll
It involves the conversion of chemical energy into light
It involves a flow of electrons between molecules
It makes energy available to all living organisms
Energy consumers; energy producers
The atmosphere became aerobic
The ozone layer was formed
Prokaryotic cells evolved from eukaryotic cells
The process of respiration could take place
The oxygen content of the atmosphere increased
Lack genetic material
Evolved from eukaryotic cells
Lack a nuclear envelope
Are larger than eukaryotic cells
Growth in height
Growth of the root into the soil
Growth in thickness
Growth of the cuticle
Lengthwise growth of the leaf
An alternative name for the protoplast
The portion of the protoplast outside the nucleus
The portion of the ground substance in which actin filaments and the microtubules are suspended
The membrane surrounding the vacuole
An association of actin filaments and microtubules
Mobility within the cell
Two surrounding membranes
Circular DNA molecules
Chlorophyll in the cristae
Ribosomes in the liquid matrix
The endoplasmic reticulum
They are storage sites for metabolites
They are filled with cell sap
They have functions comparable to those of lysosomes
They often fill much of the interior of a mature plant cell
They contain deposits of carotenoid pigments
A lipid droplet
A starch grain
An ATP molecule
Primary wall, secondary wall, middle lamella
Secondary wall, primary wall, middle lamella
Primary wall, middle lamella, secondary wall
Secondary wall, middle lamella, primary wall
Middle lamella, primary wall, secondary wall.
Photosynthesis occurs in two phases
Water is the source of oxygen in photosynthesis
Plants evolve oxygen during photosynthesis
Purple sulfur bacteria evolve oxygen during photosynthesis
The light-dependent reactions are carried out by enzymes
The light–dependent reaction
It is merely one part of a continuous spectrum of radiation
It is composed of photons
It has the properties of both a wave and a particle.
The longer the wavelength, the higher the energy of light
Visible light accounts for most of the radiation reaching the surface of the earth.
Chlorophyll and water.
Electrons and protons.
Sugar and oxygen.
Sugar and water.
Chlorophyll and oxygen.
Blue and green
Green and violet
Violet and green
Green and red
Lumen of the thylakoid; thylakoid
Chloroplast stroma; outer chloroplast
Chloroplast stroma; thylakoid
Chloroplast matrix; inner chloroplast
Cytosol; inner mitochondrial
The photosynthetic electron transport chain.
Cyclic electron flow.
The water-splitting enzyme.
Lumen of the thylakoid.
Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; C5
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; C3
An unstable six-carbon compound.
Uses O2 as a substrate.
Uses CO2 as a substrate.
Operates inefficiently when the CO2 concentration is low.
Is active only in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells.
Catalyzes the formation of oxaloacetate.
Not all CAM plants are succulent.
All CAM plants are flowering plants.
They use both C3 and C4 pathways.
They are dependent on nighttime accumulation of CO2 for photosynthesis.
Their water-use efficiency is higher than that of C3 and C4 plants.
They are heterotrophic organisms.
Most are multicellular.
They are more closely related to plants than to animals.
The largest living organism may be a fungus.
Only the insects have a greater number of species.
Cell wall components
They lack membrane-bounded organelles.
They have a single, circular chromosome in the nucleoid.
They have a simple cytoskeleton.
They may contain extra chromosomal DNA as plasmids.
They lack a nuclear envelope.
Xylem and phloem.
Differentiate more quickly.
Are located in the shoot apical meristem.
Are located in the root apical meristem.
Undergo cell division.
Give rise to more initials and derivatives.
Companion cells only.
Sieve cells only.
Sieve-tube elements only.
Sieve cells and sieve-tube elements only.
Companion cells, sieve cells, and sieve-tube elements.
Cells; subsidiary cells
Cells; guard cells
Pores; guard cells
Pores; subsidiary cells
Conduction and protection.
Storage and conduction.
Anchorage and storage.
Anchorage and absorption.
Anchorage and conduction.
Support and photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis and conduction.
Conduction and support.
Photosynthesis and storage.
Storage and absorption.
It results from the activity of the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.
It is responsible for the increase in girth of a plant.
It can occur simultaneously with primary growth.
Most monocots exhibit considerable secondary growth.
Herbaceous plants undergo little or no secondary growth.
Localized death of tissues.
Yellowing of leaves.
Loss of chlorophyll.
Development of tumors.
Healing of wounds.
Cations are more crucial to the plant than anions.
Cations can exchange with anions that are used by the plant.
Cations prevent anions from binding to colloidal particles.
Exchangeable ions are not lost with leaching water.
Potential harmful exchangeable ions are leached away from the roots.
Dead organic material.
Conversion of nitrite to ammonium
Ammonifying bacteria and fungi.
Water moves out of guard cells.
Water moves into guard cells.
Guard cell turgor pressure decreases.
Guard cell solute concentration declines.
Guard cell water potential increases.
Bogs and closed environmental niches
None of the above