Botany Lab Exam

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Botany Lab Exam

BOTANY LAB EXAM This test will take test your skills on laboratory information. You will need to know structures, taxonomy, adaptations found on all organisms observed under microscope or models.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The endosperm is the food source in plants during photosynthesis 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    What kind of fruit is derived from several to many pistols that are fused at maturity? 
    • A. 

      Aggregate fruits

    • B. 

      Multiple fruits

  • 3. 
    What kind of fruit is derived from multiple flowers in a single inflorescence? 
    • A. 

      Aggregate fruits

    • B. 

      Multiple fruits

  • 4. 
    Nuts are a type of fruits
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    What type of fruit splits when it is mature? ie beans 
    • A. 

      Dehiscent

    • B. 

      Indehiscent

  • 6. 
    Of the dehiscent fruits, what type splits along two sides/seams
    • A. 

      Legumes

    • B. 

      Siliques

    • C. 

      Capsules

  • 7. 
    The endocarp is the skin of a fruit 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    What is the fleshy tissue in a fruit 
    • A. 

      Exocarp

    • B. 

      Mesocarp

    • C. 

      Endocarp

  • 9. 
    What type of fruit has a single seed enclosed by a hard stony endocarp/pit
    • A. 

      Berry

    • B. 

      Phome

    • C. 

      Drupe

  • 10. 
    What type of fruit has a fleshy pericarp and contains more than one seed 
    • A. 

      Berry

    • B. 

      Hesperidium

    • C. 

      Pepo

  • 11. 
    What kind of fruit is the pumpkin family in? 
    • A. 

      Phome

    • B. 

      Pepo

    • C. 

      Hesperidium

  • 12. 
    In Coniferophyta the male gametophyte has one pollen tube and 2 sperm cells 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    A ______ endosperm- nutritive tissue
    • A. 

      Diplid

    • B. 

      Haplid

    • C. 

      Triploid

  • 14. 
    A monoecious plant has different homes (reside on different plants) for each sex 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Flowers can occur singly or in clusters 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Cross pollination is when pollen from an anther is transferred to a stigma of the same flower or plant 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Sporophylls are highly modified leaves 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    An ovule contains a _______which contains nucellus and a megasporocyte.  
  • 19. 
    Ginkophyta trees are monoecious 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Ginkophyta mature seed enclosed with a fleshy seed coat give off what kind of odor? 
    • A. 

      Fruity odor

    • B. 

      Vomit odor

    • C. 

      Perfume odor

  • 21. 
    What phylum is closely related to angiosperms 
    • A. 

      Ginkophyta

    • B. 

      Cycadophyta

    • C. 

      Gnetophyta

  • 22. 
    Red algae is used in soups, carrageenan, and agar 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Red algae is unicellular 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Diatomaceous earth is sedimentary rock made from algae skeletons 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    All Euglena species are heterotrophic 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 26. 
    ________ Euglena become ________ in the dark, and they resume their __________ behavior when returned to light 
    • A. 

      Autotrophic, heterotrophic, autotrophic

    • B. 

      Heterotrophic, autotrophic, heterotrophic

    • C. 

      Autotrophic, heterotrophic, heterotrophic

  • 27. 
    What part of a euglenoid propels it? 
    • A. 

      Contractile vacuole

    • B. 

      Polysaccharides

    • C. 

      Flagella

  • 28. 
    Archegonia 
    • A. 

      Male

    • B. 

      Female

  • 29. 
    Antheridia
    • A. 

      Male

    • B. 

      Female

  • 30. 
    In ferns ____ is the dominant phase 
    • A. 

      Sporophyte

    • B. 

      Gametophyte

  • 31. 
    Sporangia are found on top surface of the fronds
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    What is the name of the knoblike tissue that anchors the sporophyte to the gametophyte? 
    • A. 

      Seta

    • B. 

      Foot

    • C. 

      Capsule

  • 33. 
    Marchantia need what for fertilization
    • A. 

      Air

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Animals/insects

  • 34. 
    What characteristic do all angiosperms have in common?
    • A. 

      They contain naked seeds.

    • B. 

      They contain a protected seed within a flower.

    • C. 

      They need water for the sperm to swim to the egg.

    • D. 

      They do not have a vascular system.

  • 35. 
    If the seed has two distinct cotyledons, is this considered a monocot or a dicot?
    • A. 

      Dicot

    • B. 

      Monocot

  • 36. 
    Which gymnosperm division has the most economically useful species?
    • A. 

      Gnetophytes

    • B. 

      Conifers

    • C. 

      Cycads

    • D. 

      Ginko

  • 37. 
    Pine trees fall into which gymnosperm division?
    • A. 

      Ginko

    • B. 

      Cycads

    • C. 

      Conifers

    • D. 

      Gnetophytes

  • 38. 
    How does a moss differ from a fern.
    • A. 

      Moss roots grow vertically as well as horizontally. Fern roots only grow horizontally.

    • B. 

      Moss has vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) whereas ferns do not.

    • C. 

      Ferns have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) whereas moss does not.

    • D. 

      There is no difference between the two- they are actually synonyms.

  • 39. 
    Angiosperms are broken down further into two groups: monocots and ______________.
    • A. 

      Diatoms

    • B. 

      Diamonds

    • C. 

      Diagonals

    • D. 

      Dicots

  • 40. 
    Which is older (in terms of evolutionary discent)? Gymnosperms or angiosperms? (choose one)
    • A. 

      Gymnosperms

    • B. 

      Angiosperms

  • 41. 
    Which division of plants causes horrible symptoms for allergy sufferers?
    • A. 

      Cycads

    • B. 

      Ginkos

    • C. 

      Gnetophytes

    • D. 

      Conifers

  • 42. 
    Root hairs are extensions of which of the following kinds of cells?
    • A. 

      Cortical

    • B. 

      Xylem

    • C. 

      Phloem

    • D. 

      Epidermal

    • E. 

      Meristematic

  • 43. 
    During germination in most angiosperm seeds, food for the growing embryo is provided by the
    • A. 

      Microgametophyte

    • B. 

      Female gametophyte

    • C. 

      Endosperm

    • D. 

      Hypocotyl

    • E. 

      Ovary

  • 44. 
    Phototropism in plants is mediated by what plant growth substance?
    • A. 

      Auxin

    • B. 

      Colchicine

    • C. 

      Chlorophyll

    • D. 

      Ethylene

    • E. 

      Lenticels

  • 45. 
    Flowering plants are capable of fertilization in the absence of water because the
    • A. 

      Process of pollination and fertilization occur in the soil

    • B. 

      Pollen tubes deliver the sperm to the eggs

    • C. 

      Eggs develop without sperm by parthenogenesis

    • D. 

      Eggs have a structure that aids in their dispersal by wind

    • E. 

      Sperm contain large amounts of cytoplasm

  • 46. 
    In plants, the cells in which the greatest quantity of soil nutrients are translocated by
    • A. 

      Companion cells

    • B. 

      Tracheids

    • C. 

      Trichomes

    • D. 

      Sieve-tube elements

    • E. 

      Vessel elements

  • 47. 
    Which of the following most directly controls the flowering response in short-day plants?
    • A. 

      Length of the light period

    • B. 

      Length of the dark period

    • C. 

      Relative amount of blue light available during the light period

    • D. 

      Intensity of light during the light period

    • E. 

      Air temperature during the dark period

  • 48. 
    The result of meiosis in angiosperms is the production of
    • A. 

      Gametes

    • B. 

      A haploid sporophyte

    • C. 

      A diploid sporophyte

    • D. 

      A diploid gametophyte

    • E. 

      Haploid megaspores and microspores

  • 49. 
    Sieve cells differ from tracheids in that only sieve cell are
    • A. 

      Considered living cells

    • B. 

      Involved in transporting water and ions

    • C. 

      Found in vascular plants

    • D. 

      Found in the outer cortex of the stem

    • E. 

      Found in the center of the stem

  • 50. 
    Which of the following tissue types gives rise to all other plant tissue?
    • A. 

      Parenchyma

    • B. 

      Sclerenchyma

    • C. 

      Collenchyma

    • D. 

      Xylem

    • E. 

      Phloem

  • 51. 
    Only female gametes are produced in which of the following structures?
    • A. 

      Antheridia

    • B. 

      Stamens

    • C. 

      Protonemata

    • D. 

      Flowers

    • E. 

      Archegonia

  • 52. 
    In angiosperms, the endosperm functions in
    • A. 

      Pollen formation

    • B. 

      Fruit formation

    • C. 

      Seed coat formation

    • D. 

      Nourishment of the embryo

    • E. 

      Direction of the growth of the pollen tube

  • 53. 
    The fruit produced by angiosperms is an evolutionary adaptation that most often
    • A. 

      Nourishes the seeds within the fruit on ripening

    • B. 

      Aids in seed dispersal

    • C. 

      Attracts pollinators

    • D. 

      Inhibits seed germination until favorable environmental conditions occur

    • E. 

      Provides an energy source for the plant egg cell prior to fertilization

  • 54. 
    Plant stems bend toward a light source as a result of increased
    • A. 

      Chlorophyll synthesis on the side of the stem near the light source

    • B. 

      Cell division on the side of the stem near the light source

    • C. 

      Cell division on the side of the stem away from the light source

    • D. 

      Cell elongation on the side of the stem near the light source

    • E. 

      Cell elongation on the side of the stem away from the light source

  • 55. 
    In plants, the initiation of flowering in response to photoperiod is triggered by changes in
    • A. 

      Ethylene

    • B. 

      Auxin

    • C. 

      Gibberellic acid

    • D. 

      Phytochrome

    • E. 

      Cytokinin

  • 56. 
    Which of the following describes the mechanism by which a plant stem grows toward light?
    • A. 

      The plant seeks light in order to maximize photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Nervelike impulses stimulate contractile cells on the lighted side of the stem.

    • C. 

      Cells on the dark side of the stem elongate more than those on the lighted side.

    • D. 

      The plant grows into an open area where its leaves will not be shaded by competing plants.

    • E. 

      The greater energy supply on the lighted side of the stem stimulates metabolism and growth on that side.

  • 57. 
    Fruits often ripen faster when placed in closed paper bags because of the effect of
    • A. 

      Cytokinin

    • B. 

      Abscisic acid

    • C. 

      CO2

    • D. 

      Gibberellin

    • E. 

      Ethylene

  • 58. 
    A major function of the Casparian strip of the endodermal cells of a root is to
    • A. 

      Protect the meristem as the root tip grows through the abrasive soil particles

    • B. 

      Allow for expansion of the vascular cambium as the root grows laterally

    • C. 

      Control the movement of materials into the vascular cylinder of the root

    • D. 

      Initiate lateral root growth

    • E. 

      Serve as a site for the storage of excess sugars in the form of starch

  • 59. 
    Which of the following is primarily responsible for cell elongation, gravitropism, and apical dominance in plants?
    • A. 

      Auxin

    • B. 

      Gibberellin

    • C. 

      Cytokinin

    • D. 

      Phytochrome

    • E. 

      Ethylene

  • 60. 
    Is the loss of water vapor through stomata
    • A. 

      Root pressure

    • B. 

      Transpiration

    • C. 

      Translocation

    • D. 

      Adhesion

    • E. 

      Guttation

  • 61. 
    + and - nuclei fuse
  • 62. 
    Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei
  • 63. 
    Type of Fungi: coenocytic(no septa). produce sporangiospores and zygospores pathogens are present in this group
  • 64. 
    Type of Fungi: Sac fungi, have septate, produce ascospores, and conidiospores ex: pcn
  • 65. 
    Club fungi/ septate/ prdouce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores. ex: mushrooms and pathogens
  • 66. 
    Move by flagella phot/autotrophs can be parasitic
  • 67. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify B
  • 68. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and Sepal Identify C
  • 69. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify D
  • 70. 
    Word Bank:  Pistil/Carpel, Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and Sepal Identify E
  • 71. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify F
  • 72. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify G
  • 73. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify H
  • 74. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and SepalIdentify I
  • 75. 
    Which labeled structure shown in Figure 24-4 receives pollen during pollination?
  • 76. 
    Which labeled part of the flower in Figure 24-4 produces pollen grains?
  • 77. 
    Word Bank:  Stamen, Filament, Petal, Anther, Stigma, Style, Ovary, Ovule, and Sepal Identify J
  • 78. 
    Which Labeled structure in Figure 24-4 is most likely to be brightly colored?
  • 79. 
    Which structures labeled shown in Figure 24-4 are the male parts?
  • 80. 
    Which labeled parts are the female parts?
  • 81. 
    Flagellated motile colonial form contailing 1000 cells
    • A. 

      Volvox

    • B. 

      Ulothrix

  • 82. 
    In sexual reproduction, opposite mating types align side by side and form projections that grow toward each other to form a conjugation tube
    • A. 

      Ulothrix

    • B. 

      Eudorina

    • C. 

      Spirogyra

    • D. 

      Volvox

    • E. 

      Chlaydomonas

  • 83. 
    Amoeboid male gamete moves through conjugation tube to fuse with passive female gamete which results in a zygospore
    • A. 

      Spirogyra

    • B. 

      Liverwort

    • C. 

      Volvox

    • D. 

      Ulothrix

  • 84. 
    In mosses and liverworts, male antheridia produce______ and female archegonia produce_____.
    • A. 

      - mating strain, + mating strain

    • B. 

      Gamete, gamete

    • C. 

      Swimming sperm, eggs

    • D. 

      Mosses do not have antheridia or archegonia

    • E. 

      Liverworts do not have antheridia or archegonia

  • 85. 
    Choose all true of ferns
    • A. 

      Tracheophyte

    • B. 

      Vascular system of xylem and phloem

    • C. 

      Gametophyte is dominant stage

    • D. 

      Male cones are pollen cones

    • E. 

      Sori found on the underside of fronds that produce spores through meiosis

  • 86. 
    Sori are found in
    • A. 

      Conifers

    • B. 

      Horsetails

    • C. 

      Ferns

    • D. 

      Lycophytes

  • 87. 
    Fronds are found in
    • A. 

      Horsetails

    • B. 

      Ferns

    • C. 

      Conifers

    • D. 

      Lycophytes

  • 88. 
    Leaves that arise from rhizome
    • A. 

      Rhizoids

    • B. 

      Sorus

    • C. 

      Phloem

    • D. 

      Fronds

    • E. 

      Endosymbiont

  • 89. 
    Pollen is
    • A. 

      Haploid

    • B. 

      Diploid

  • 90. 
    Pollen grains are also called
    • A. 

      Pollen

    • B. 

      Microspores

    • C. 

      Microsporangia

    • D. 

      Microgametophytes

  • 91. 
    Microsporangia are present in
    • A. 

      Microspores

    • B. 

      Microgametophytes

    • C. 

      Ovaries

    • D. 

      Ovules

    • E. 

      Microsporophyll

  • 92. 
    Microspores are produced by
    • A. 

      Microsporangia

    • B. 

      Microgametophytes

    • C. 

      Microsporophyll

  • 93. 
    Microspores divide by mitosis to form
    • A. 

      Microsporangia

    • B. 

      Microsporophylls

    • C. 

      Pollen grains

    • D. 

      Microgametophytes

    • E. 

      C and D

  • 94. 
    When pollen reached female cones, it germinates and grows into the ovule and releases two sperm nuclei
    • A. 

      Conifer

    • B. 

      Cycad

    • C. 

      Ginkgo biloba

    • D. 

      Gnetales

  • 95. 
    When female cone is fertilized, one sperm disintegrates; the other fuses with egg to form a zygote
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 96. 
    Seeds of cones
    • A. 

      Haploid

    • B. 

      Diploid

  • 97. 
    ------ occurs when pollen is transferred from stamens to the carpel by wind, animals, or insects
  • 98. 
    The plant cells that most directly affect the rate of transpiration are
    • A. 

      Sclerenchyma cells.

    • B. 

      Parenchyma cells.

    • C. 

      Sieve tube members.

    • D. 

      Guard cells.

  • 99. 
    Water moves throughout a plant through
    • A. 

      Phloem tissue.

    • B. 

      Xylem tissue.

    • C. 

      Cork cambium.

    • D. 

      Casparian strip.

  • 100. 
    Which of the following is involved in the control of water movement into a plant vascular cylinder?
    • A. 

      cortex

    • B. 

      Epidermis

    • C. 

      Casparian strip

    • D. 

      Apical meristem

  • 101. 
    Which of these is a mutualistic association of plant roots and fungi?
    • A. 

      Mushrooms

    • B. 

      Mycorrhizae

    • C. 

      Lichens

    • D. 

      Hyphae

    • E. 

      Sporangia

  • 102. 
    Sugar movement through a plant is best described as going from a _____________ to a ______________.
    • A. 

      Hypotonic environment; isotonic environment

    • B. 

      Source; sink

    • C. 

      Sink; source

    • D. 

      Isotonic environment; hypertonic environment

  • 103. 
    The primary purpose of root hairs is to
    • A. 

      Fight off infections.

    • B. 

      Increase absorption of sugars.

    • C. 

      Increase absorption of water.

    • D. 

      Anchor the plant to the soil.

  • 104. 
    Are Fungi Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic? 
    • A. 

      Eukaryotic

    • B. 

      Prokaryotic

  • 105. 
    Fungi Cell walls are made of chitin and NOT cellulose 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 106. 
    Coenocytic means that the nuclei in the hyphae are not separated from one another by crosswalls
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 107. 
    Which of the following is true about Zygomycota's Asexual reproduction?
    • A. 

      Certain hyphae grow upward and develop sporangia at their tips

    • B. 

      Each sporangium produces black spores that are released

  • 108. 
    Which Phylum is known as the "sac" fungi?
    • A. 

      Basidiomycota

    • B. 

      Ascomycota

    • C. 

      Deuteromycota

  • 109. 
    Which of the following are characteristics of Sexual reproduction in Ascomycota's?
    • A. 

      A male antheridia is formed by one and female ascogonia by the other

    • B. 

      The antheridia and ascognia grow together

    • C. 

      The male nuclei migrate into the ascogonia but does not unite with the female nuclei

    • D. 

      New hypahe whose cells each contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from the ascogonium

    • E. 

      The nuclei of the terminal cell of the ascogenous hyphae fuse together to form a zygote nucleus

  • 110. 
    Which of the following are Harmful Ascomycota?
    • A. 

      Dutch elm disease

    • B. 

      Chestnut blight

    • C. 

      Morels

    • D. 

      European truffles

    • E. 

      Yeast

  • 111. 
    Which of the following are club fungi? (Phylum Basidiomycota)
    • A. 

      True mushrooms

    • B. 

      Death Angel

    • C. 

      Puffballs

    • D. 

      Parasitic fungi such as rusts and smuts

  • 112. 
    Hyphae in Basidiomycota's have crosswalls
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 113. 
    Asexual reproduction in Basidiomycota's is very common
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 114. 
    Fungi are made up of filaments called
  • 115. 
    Organisms that must obtain their food from sources outside themselves
    • A. 

      Scavangers

    • B. 

      Saprophytes

    • C. 

      Autotrophs

    • D. 

      Heterotrophs

  • 116. 
    Edible algae cultivated by the japanese culture
    • A. 

      Diatoms

    • B. 

      Volvox

    • C. 

      Agar

    • D. 

      Nori

  • 117. 
    Organisms that manufacture its own food
    • A. 

      Scavangers

    • B. 

      Saprophytes

    • C. 

      Autotrophs

    • D. 

      Heterotrophs

  • 118. 
    Organisms that obtain their nutrition from dead organisms
    • A. 

      Scavangers

    • B. 

      Saprophytes

    • C. 

      Autotroph

    • D. 

      Heterotroph

  • 119. 
    Organisms that produce red tides
    • A. 

      Red algae

    • B. 

      Dinoflagellates

    • C. 

      Shrimps

    • D. 

      Sea grapes

    • E. 

      Jenae

  • 120. 
    Generally classified as bacteria
    • A. 

      Green algae

    • B. 

      Dinoflagellates

    • C. 

      Blue-green algae

    • D. 

      Red algae

  • 121. 
    The volvox is one example of
    • A. 

      Green algae

    • B. 

      Yellow algae

    • C. 

      Red algae

    • D. 

      Blue algae

  • 122. 
    A fruit is a mature _______.
  • 123. 
    A fruit in which some additional parts are retained.
  • 124. 
    What is the name given to the ovary wall? This structure thickens and becomes differentiated into distinct layers.
  • 125. 
    Most fruits develop from one flower with only one pistil. What is this general fruit type?
  • 126. 
    Some fruits develop from one flower that has several pistils. What is the name of this general fruit type?
  • 127. 
    In a few species the ovaries of several distinct flowers fuse and form one fruit. Name this general fruit type.
  • 128. 
    Type of fleshy fruit that has one to several carpels, each of which is typically many seeded.
  • 129. 
    Type of fleshy fruit where there may be one to several carpels, but each carpel usually contains only a single seed.
  • 130. 
    Highly specialized fleshy fruit that is derived from a compound inferior ovary in which the fleshy portion comes largely from the enlarged base of the perianth.
  • 131. 
    Type of fruit in which the tissues of the mature ovary wall break open, freeing the seeds.
  • 132. 
    Fleshy tissue between the exocarp and endocarp.
  • 133. 
    The three regions of a fruit are collectively called the