Botany Chapter 39 Practice Test

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Botany Quizzes & Trivia

This test is based on botany 200 class at wiu chapter 39


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A process where a muliticellular diploid generation alternates with a multicellular halploid generation is... 

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "alternation of generations." This term refers to a process in which a multicellular diploid generation alternates with a multicellular haploid generation. This means that the organism goes through two different stages, one with diploid cells (containing two sets of chromosomes) and one with haploid cells (containing one set of chromosomes). This cycle allows for reproduction and genetic diversity in certain organisms.

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  • 2. 

    Female gametophytes 

    • A.

      Megaametophytes

    • B.

      Megasporangia

    • C.

      Microgametopytes

    • D.

      Microsporangia

    Correct Answer
    A. Megaametophytes
    Explanation
    The term "female gametophytes" refers to the reproductive structures in plants that produce female gametes or eggs. These structures are typically found in the ovules of flowering plants. The term "megaametophytes" is not a commonly used term in biology and does not have a clear meaning. Therefore, the correct answer is "female gametophytes" as it accurately describes the reproductive structures in plants.

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  • 3. 

    Male gametophytes 

    • A.

      Megagametopytes

    • B.

      Megasporangia

    • C.

      Microgametophytes

    • D.

      Microsporangia

    Correct Answer
    C. Microgametophytes
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "microgametophytes." Microgametophytes refer to the male gametophytes in plants, which produce male gametes or sperm cells. These gametophytes are usually small and are responsible for fertilizing the female gametophytes or megagametophytes. In contrast, megagametophytes refer to the female gametophytes in plants, which produce female gametes or egg cells. Megasporangia are structures in plants where megagametophytes develop, while microsporangia are structures where microgametophytes develop. Therefore, microgametophytes are the correct answer in this context.

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  • 4. 

    Cross pollination is when pollen from an anther is transferred to a stigma of the same flower or plant 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cross pollination is when pollen from the anther of one flower or plant is transferred to the stigma of a different flower or plant. Therefore, the given statement that cross pollination is when pollen from an anther is transferred to a stigma of the same flower or plant is incorrect.

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  • 5. 

    A male gametophyte has one pollen tube and 2 sperm cells 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A male gametophyte, also known as a pollen grain, is the male reproductive structure in plants. It contains one pollen tube, which is responsible for delivering the sperm cells to the female reproductive structure, and two sperm cells. The pollen tube grows towards the ovule, allowing the sperm cells to fertilize the egg and the central cell, resulting in the formation of seeds. Therefore, the statement that a male gametophyte has one pollen tube and two sperm cells is true.

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  • 6. 

    A stigma allows all genotypes to germinate 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A stigma does not allow all genotypes to germinate. The stigma is a part of the female reproductive organ in plants and is responsible for receiving pollen. It plays a crucial role in the process of fertilization by selectively allowing compatible pollen with matching genotypes to germinate and grow. This ensures successful reproduction and genetic diversity. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 7. 

    A pollen tube grows to ______, and through micropyle. 

    Correct Answer
    ovary
    Explanation
    A pollen tube grows to the ovary, which is the female reproductive organ of a flower. The ovary contains the ovules, which are the structures that develop into seeds after fertilization. The pollen tube carries the male gametes (sperm cells) from the pollen grain to the ovary, allowing fertilization to occur. This process is essential for sexual reproduction in plants.

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  • 8. 

    Pollination and fertilization are separate events/processes 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pollination and fertilization are indeed separate events/processes in the reproductive cycle of plants. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (anther) to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of a flower. This can occur through various means, such as wind, insects, or other animals. Fertilization, on the other hand, is the fusion of the male gamete (sperm) with the female gamete (egg) to form a zygote, which develops into a new plant embryo. While pollination is necessary for fertilization to occur, they are distinct processes that can happen independently of each other.

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  • 9. 

    A pollen tube grows downward on the inside of a style until it reaches an ovule 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pollen tubes are structures that are formed by pollen grains during fertilization in plants. These tubes grow downwards through the style, which is a part of the female reproductive organ in plants, until they reach the ovule. The ovule is where fertilization occurs, and the pollen tube delivers the male gametes to the ovule for fertilization to take place. Therefore, the statement that a pollen tube grows downward on the inside of a style until it reaches an ovule is true.

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  • 10. 

    Pollen tubes  deliver 1 sperm cells to ovules 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    it delivers 2 to the ovules

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  • 11. 

    A ______ endosperm- nutritive tissue

    • A.

      Diplid

    • B.

      Haplid

    • C.

      Triploid

    Correct Answer
    C. Triploid
    Explanation
    In the given question, the term "endosperm" refers to the nutritive tissue found in seeds. The term "triploid" refers to a condition where an organism or cell has three sets of chromosomes instead of the usual two sets. In the context of the question, triploid endosperm would mean that the endosperm has three sets of chromosomes. This condition is significant because it can affect the development and growth of the endosperm, ultimately influencing the nourishment provided to the developing embryo in the seed.

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  • 12. 

    A micropyle opening becomes a _______ 

    Correct Answer
    seed coat
    Explanation
    The micropyle opening is a small pore in the seed coat through which the pollen tube enters during fertilization. It is essential for the successful pollination and subsequent development of the seed. Therefore, it makes sense that the correct answer is "seed coat" because the micropyle opening is a part of the seed coat structure.

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  • 13. 

    In eudicots, globular embryo takes on a characteristic _____ stage form, and further elongation fives rise to the _____ stage.

    Correct Answer
    heart torpedo
    Explanation
    In eudicots, the globular embryo undergoes a characteristic heart stage form. This stage is followed by further elongation, which gives rise to the torpedo stage.

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  • 14. 

    Large amounts of what accumulate in the endosperm during seed formation 

    • A.

      Starches

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    During seed formation, large amounts of starches, lipids, and proteins accumulate in the endosperm. Starches serve as a storage form of energy, lipids act as a concentrated source of energy, and proteins are essential for growth and development. Therefore, all of the above options are correct as they represent the different types of nutrients that accumulate in the endosperm during seed formation.

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  • 15. 

    Late in embryonic development the seed loses up to 75% of water content 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    95% is lost

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  • 16. 

    Seeds develop from ovules

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement "seeds develop from ovules" is true. Ovules are structures found in the ovary of a flower, and they contain the female reproductive cells. After fertilization occurs, the ovules develop into seeds. The seeds contain the embryo of the plant and are surrounded by a protective seed coat. The development of seeds from ovules is a crucial process in the reproduction of flowering plants.

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  • 17. 

    A ________ is the ovary wall or the surrounding of the seed 

    Correct Answer
    pericarp
    Explanation
    The pericarp is the correct answer because it refers to the ovary wall or the surrounding tissue of the seed. The pericarp is the outermost layer of a fruit and it develops from the ovary of the flower after fertilization. It protects the seed and helps in seed dispersal.

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  • 18. 

    What kind of flower possess all 4 types of whorls (calyx, corolla, stamen, and carpels) 

    • A.

      Perfect

    • B.

      Imperfect

    • C.

      Complete

    Correct Answer
    C. Complete
    Explanation
    A complete flower is a flower that possesses all four types of whorls - calyx, corolla, stamen, and carpels. The calyx is the outermost whorl, consisting of sepals. The corolla is the next whorl, consisting of petals. The stamen is the male reproductive organ, and the carpels are the female reproductive organs. A complete flower contains all of these structures, making it capable of both male and female reproduction.

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  • 19. 

    A flower that lacks only one of the whorls is what kind of flower 

    • A.

      Perfect

    • B.

      Incomplete

    • C.

      Imperfect

    Correct Answer
    B. Incomplete
    Explanation
    An incomplete flower is a flower that lacks one or more of the whorls, which are the sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. In this case, the question states that the flower lacks only one of the whorls, suggesting that it is incomplete.

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  • 20. 

    A flower that contains a stamen and carpels 

    • A.

      Complete

    • B.

      Perfect

    • C.

      Incomplete

    Correct Answer
    B. Perfect
    Explanation
    A flower that contains both stamen and carpels is considered perfect. In botany, a perfect flower is one that has both male and female reproductive organs, allowing it to self-pollinate or cross-pollinate with other flowers. The presence of both stamen (male reproductive organ) and carpels (female reproductive organ) indicates that the flower is capable of producing both pollen and ovules, making it perfect.

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  • 21. 

    A monoecious plant has different homes (reside on different plants) for each sex 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    a diecious plant has only one sex per plant (2 houses) a monoecious has both sexes on one plant

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  • 22. 

    Flavonoids are responsible for color variations in a flower 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Flavonoids are pigments found in plants that contribute to the color variations in flowers. These compounds are responsible for producing colors such as red, blue, purple, and yellow in petals. Different types and amounts of flavonoids present in a flower determine its color. Therefore, it is correct to say that flavonoids are responsible for color variations in a flower.

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  • 23. 

    Actinamorphia flowers have what kind of symmetry? 

    • A.

      Radial

    • B.

      Lateral

    • C.

      Bilateral

    Correct Answer
    A. Radial
    Explanation
    Actinomorphia flowers have radial symmetry. This means that the flower can be divided into multiple equal halves by any plane passing through the center. The petals of the flower are arranged in a circular pattern around the central axis, giving it a radial symmetry. This type of symmetry is commonly found in flowers and allows for equal distribution of resources and attraction of pollinators from all directions.

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  • 24. 

    Zygomoriphic flowers have what kind of symmetry? 

    • A.

      Radial

    • B.

      Lateral

    • C.

      Bilateral

    Correct Answer
    C. Bilateral
    Explanation
    Zygomorphic flowers have bilateral symmetry. This means that the flower can be divided into two equal halves along only one plane, resulting in a mirror image. In other words, if you draw a line through the center of the flower, one side will be the exact reflection of the other side. This is in contrast to radial symmetry, where the flower can be divided into multiple equal halves along different planes, and lateral symmetry, which is not a recognized form of symmetry in flowers.

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  • 25. 

    Flowers can occur singly or in clusters 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Flowers can occur singly or in clusters, which means that they can either be present individually or in groups. This statement is true because flowers have different growth patterns and arrangements, and some plants produce flowers that are solitary while others produce flowers in clusters.

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  • 26. 

    Inflorescences attract __________ from a distance 

    Correct Answer
    pollinators
    Explanation
    Inflorescences are structures that bear flowers, and they have evolved various mechanisms to attract pollinators. These mechanisms include producing bright colors, emitting enticing scents, and offering nectar as a reward. By attracting pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, and birds, inflorescences ensure the transfer of pollen from the male to the female parts of the flowers, enabling successful reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer is "pollinators."

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  • 27. 

    The endosperm is the food source in plants during photosynthesis 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    it is the food source in seeds before photosynthesis can occur

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  • 28. 

    What attaches below the cotledons

    • A.

      Epicotyl

    • B.

      Hypocotyl

    • C.

      Radicle

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypocotyl
    Explanation
    The hypocotyl attaches below the cotyledons. The hypocotyl is a part of the embryo in a seed and is located between the radicle (embryonic root) and the epicotyl (embryonic shoot). It is responsible for connecting the cotyledons to the root system of the plant. The hypocotyl plays a crucial role in the early growth and development of the seedling.

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  • 29. 

    The epicotyl is the embryonic stem that attaches to cotyledons that will become an apical meristem 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The epicotyl is indeed the embryonic stem that connects to the cotyledons. It is responsible for the growth and development of the plant's shoot system. The apical meristem, located at the tip of the epicotyl, is responsible for the growth of the plant in length. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 30. 

    An epicotyl is enclosed by what

    • A.

      Coleoptile

    • B.

      Coleorhiza

    Correct Answer
    A. Coleoptile
    Explanation
    The epicotyl is enclosed by the coleoptile. The coleoptile is a protective sheath found in monocot plants that covers and protects the emerging shoot (epicotyl) as it grows through the soil surface. It acts as a barrier against physical damage and helps guide the shoot towards the light. The coleoptile is typically longer and more rigid than the coleorhiza, which is another protective structure in monocots that encloses the emerging root.

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  • 31. 

    An embryo root is enclosed by what? 

    • A.

      Coleoptile

    • B.

      Coleorhiza

    Correct Answer
    B. Coleorhiza
    Explanation
    The correct answer is coleorhiza. The coleorhiza is a protective sheath that surrounds the embryonic root in a plant embryo. It helps to protect the delicate root as it grows and emerges from the seed. The coleorhiza is a common feature in monocotyledonous plants, such as grasses, and is an important adaptation for their successful germination and establishment.

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  • 32. 

    Abscisic acid helps to prevent what 

    • A.

      Water loss

    • B.

      Water stress

    • C.

      Water retention

    Correct Answer
    B. Water stress
    Explanation
    Abscisic acid is a plant hormone that helps in regulating various physiological processes, including the closure of stomata. Stomata are small pores on the surface of leaves that allow the exchange of gases, including water vapor. When plants are exposed to stressful conditions such as drought or high temperatures, abscisic acid levels increase, leading to the closure of stomata. This closure reduces the transpiration rate, thereby preventing excessive water loss from the plant and helping to alleviate water stress. Therefore, abscisic acid helps to prevent water stress.

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  • 33. 

    The endocarp is the skin of a fruit 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    the exocarp is the skin of a fruit

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  • 34. 

    What is the fleshy tissue in a fruit 

    • A.

      Exocarp

    • B.

      Mesocarp

    • C.

      Endocarp

    Correct Answer
    B. Mesocarp
    Explanation
    The mesocarp refers to the fleshy tissue in a fruit. It is the middle layer of the fruit's pericarp, which is the protective covering surrounding the seed. The mesocarp is typically juicy and contains the majority of the fruit's water content. It is responsible for providing the fruit with its flavor, texture, and nutritional value. Examples of fruits with a prominent mesocarp include apples, oranges, and watermelons.

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  • 35. 

    Is the endocarp the inner boundary around the seeds? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The endocarp is indeed the inner boundary around the seeds. It is the innermost layer of the pericarp, which is the protective layer surrounding the seeds of a fruit. The endocarp is often hard and woody, providing additional protection to the seeds.

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  • 36. 

    What type of fruit has a single seed enclosed by a hard stony endocarp/pit

    • A.

      Berry

    • B.

      Phome

    • C.

      Drupe

    Correct Answer
    C. Drupe
    Explanation
    A drupe is a type of fruit that has a single seed enclosed by a hard stony endocarp or pit. This means that the seed is protected by a tough outer layer, which is characteristic of drupes. Examples of drupes include peaches, plums, and cherries.

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  • 37. 

    What type of fruit has a fleshy pericarp and contains more than one seed 

    • A.

      Berry

    • B.

      Hesperidium

    • C.

      Pepo

    Correct Answer
    A. Berry
    Explanation
    A berry is a type of fruit that has a fleshy pericarp and contains more than one seed. This means that the outer layer of the fruit is soft and juicy, and inside there are multiple seeds. Examples of berries include grapes, tomatoes, and bananas.

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  • 38. 

    What kind of fruit is the pumpkin family in? 

    • A.

      Phome

    • B.

      Pepo

    • C.

      Hesperidium

    Correct Answer
    B. Pepo
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "pepo." Pepo is a type of fruit that belongs to the pumpkin family. It is a specific type of berry with a hard, thick rind and fleshy interior. Pumpkins, along with other fruits like cucumbers and melons, fall under the category of pepo fruits. These fruits typically have a similar structure and characteristics, making them part of the same family.

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  • 39. 

    What kind of fruits are berries with leathery skins with oils on them? 

    • A.

      Pepo

    • B.

      Drupe

    • C.

      Hesperidium

    Correct Answer
    C. Hesperidium
    Explanation
    Hesperidium is the correct answer because it refers to a type of fruit that has leathery skins with oils on them. Hesperidium fruits include citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits, which have a thick, leathery rind and are rich in essential oils. This distinguishes them from other types of fruits like pepo (e.g., pumpkins, cucumbers) and drupe (e.g., peaches, plums) that do not have the same characteristics.

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  • 40. 

    What is an example of a phome? 

    • A.

      A pear

    • B.

      An orange

    • C.

      A pumpkin

    Correct Answer
    A. A pear
    Explanation
    A phome is not a recognizable object or term. However, a pear is a fruit that is commonly known and identifiable. Therefore, it can be considered an example of a phome.

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  • 41. 

    What kind of fruit is derived from several to many pistols that are fused at maturity? 

    • A.

      Aggregate fruits

    • B.

      Multiple fruits

    Correct Answer
    A. Aggregate fruits
    Explanation
    Aggregate fruits are derived from several to many pistils that are fused at maturity. In these fruits, each pistil develops into a separate small fruit, and all of these small fruits are clustered together to form a larger fruit. Examples of aggregate fruits include strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries.

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  • 42. 

    What kind of fruit is derived from multiple flowers in a single inflorescence? 

    • A.

      Aggregate fruits

    • B.

      Multiple fruits

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiple fruits
    Explanation
    Multiple fruits are derived from multiple flowers in a single inflorescence. In this type of fruit, the ovaries of multiple flowers fuse together to form a single fruit. Each flower contributes to the development of the fruit, resulting in a cluster or group of fruits fused together. Examples of multiple fruits include pineapples, figs, and mulberries. Aggregate fruits, on the other hand, are derived from a single flower with multiple separate carpels, each of which forms a small fruit that is attached to a central receptacle.

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  • 43. 

    Nuts are a type of fruits

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    they are one seeded fruits, larger than achene with a thicker and harder pericarp

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  • 44. 

    What type of fruit splits when it is mature? ie beans 

    • A.

      Dehiscent

    • B.

      Indehiscent

    Correct Answer
    A. Dehiscent
    Explanation
    indehiscent seeds do not split at maturity they generally are attached to the pericarp

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  • 45. 

    Of the dehiscent fruits, what type splits along two sides/seams

    • A.

      Legumes

    • B.

      Siliques

    • C.

      Capsules

    Correct Answer
    A. Legumes
    Explanation
    Legumes are a type of dehiscent fruit that splits along two sides/seams. This means that when the fruit matures, it opens along two distinct lines, releasing the seeds inside. This characteristic is a distinguishing feature of legumes, making them the correct answer to the question. Siliques are another type of dehiscent fruit, but they split along one side, not two. Capsules, on the other hand, can have various modes of dehiscence, but they do not specifically split along two sides/seams.

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  • 46. 

    Of the dehiscent fruits, what type splits along 2 sides and has seeds on a central partition 

    • A.

      Legumes

    • B.

      Capsules

    • C.

      Siliques

    Correct Answer
    C. Siliques
    Explanation
    Siliques are a type of dehiscent fruit that split along two sides and have seeds on a central partition. This means that when the fruit matures and dries, it opens up along two seams, releasing the seeds. Legumes, on the other hand, split along one side, and capsules can have multiple openings or split in various ways. Therefore, siliques are the correct answer for this question.

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  • 47. 

    Of hte dehiscent fruits, what type splits along the partitions of the carpel's in various ways? 

    • A.

      Capsules

    • B.

      Siliques

    • C.

      Legumes

    Correct Answer
    A. Capsules
    Explanation
    Capsules are dehiscent fruits that split along the partitions of the carpels in various ways. This means that when the fruit matures, it opens up along specific lines or seams, allowing the seeds to be released. Capsules can have multiple openings or slits, and the partitions within the carpels help facilitate this splitting mechanism.

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  • 48. 

    The achene is the base of a seed that is attached to the pericarp 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The achene is indeed the base of a seed that is attached to the pericarp. An achene is a type of dry fruit that does not split open when it is mature. It consists of a single seed that is attached to the pericarp or the ovary wall. This arrangement allows for easy dispersal of the seed by wind, water, or animals, as the pericarp acts as a protective covering. Therefore, the statement "the achene is the base of a seed that is attached to the pericarp" is true.

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  • 49. 

    A maple leaf, like the ones dropped in lab, is an example of a samara 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    samara seeds have a pericarp that extends in to a wing/membrane

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  • 50. 

    What type of seed has a pericarp tightly fused with seeds that cannot be separated 

    • A.

      Schizocarp

    • B.

      Samara

    • C.

      Caryopsis

    Correct Answer
    C. Caryopsis
    Explanation
    A caryopsis is a type of seed where the pericarp, which is the outer layer of the seed, is tightly fused with the seed itself. This means that the pericarp cannot be separated from the seed. In other words, the seed and the pericarp are fused together and cannot be easily separated like in other types of seeds. Therefore, the correct answer is caryopsis.

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