Pharm Autonomics W Exp Part 1

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| By Chachelly
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Pharm Autonomics W Exp Part 1 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Match each effect with the activation of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Mydriasis

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha-1
  • 2. 

    Match each effect with the activation of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Increased gluconeogenesis

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta-2
    Explanation
    The activation of the Beta-2 receptor leads to increased gluconeogenesis.

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  • 3. 

    Match each effect with the activation of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Selective dilation of renal vessels

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    F. D-1
    Explanation
    Activation of the D-1 receptor leads to selective dilation of renal vessels.

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  • 4. 

    Match each effect with the activation of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Constriction of bladder internal sphincter

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha-1
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Alpha-1. The constriction of the bladder internal sphincter is mediated by the activation of the Alpha-1 receptors. These receptors are found in smooth muscle cells and their activation leads to vasoconstriction and contraction of smooth muscles. In the case of the bladder internal sphincter, the activation of Alpha-1 receptors causes its constriction, preventing the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra.

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  • 5. 

    Match each effect with the activation of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Decreased AV conduction

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    H. M2
    Explanation
    Activation of the M2 receptor leads to decreased AV conduction.

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  • 6. 

    Directions: questions 6-10 Match each effect with the blockade of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Mydriasis

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    I. M3
  • 7. 

    Match each effect with the blockade of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Decreased aqueous humor outflow

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    I. M3
    Explanation
    Blockade of the M3 receptor can lead to decreased aqueous humor outflow.

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  • 8. 

    Match each effect with the blockade of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Tachycardia

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    H. M2
  • 9. 

    Match each effect with the blockade of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Relaxation of bladder external sphincter

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    J. Nm
  • 10. 

    Match each effect with the blockade of the appropriate receptor (each lettered option can be selected once, more than once, or not at all): Decreased intestinal peristalsis

    • A.

      Alpha-1

    • B.

      Alpha-2

    • C.

      Beta-1

    • D.

      Beta-2

    • E.

      Beta-3

    • F.

      D-1

    • G.

      D-2

    • H.

      M2

    • I.

      M3

    • J.

      Nm

    • K.

      Nn

    Correct Answer
    I. M3
    Explanation
    Blockade of the M3 receptor would result in decreased intestinal peristalsis. The M3 receptor is primarily found in smooth muscle, including the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the M3 receptor promotes contraction of smooth muscle, including the muscles responsible for peristalsis in the intestines. Therefore, blocking the M3 receptor would lead to a decrease in intestinal peristalsis.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following fibers of the peripheral nervous system are short and unmyelinated?

    • A.

      Postganglionic parasympathetic

    • B.

      Postganglionic sympathetic

    • C.

      Preganglionic parasympathetic

    • D.

      Preganglionic sympathetic

    • E.

      A alpha motor

    • F.

      A beta sensory

    Correct Answer
    A. Postganglionic parasympathetic
    Explanation
    Answer: A
    Postganglionic fibers of the ANS are all unmyelinated. Those of the parasympathetic nervous
    system are short.
    B) Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are usually long.
    C, D, E, F) All these fibers are myelinated

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  • 12. 

    Fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that utilize acetylcholine as postganglionic neurotransmitter innervate which of the following tissues/organs?

    • A.

      Ciliary muscle

    • B.

      Skeletal muscle

    • C.

      Sweat glands

    • D.

      Adrenal medulla

    • E.

      Gastrointestinal sphincters

    • F.

      Salivary glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Sweat glands
    Explanation
    Answer: C
    The vast majority of sweat glands in the body are innervated by sympathetic cholinergic
    neurons, i.e. sympathetic postganglionic neurons that happen to release acetylcholine instead
    of norepinephrine.
    B, C, D, E , F) All these tissues/organs do not have sympathetic cholinergic innervation.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is the predominant mechanism that terminates the action of the main neurotransmitter released by postganglionic adrenergic nerve endings?

    • A.

      Metabolism by catechol-O-methyl-transferase

    • B.

      Metabolism by monoamine oxidase

    • C.

      Diffusion away from the synaptic cleft

    • D.

      Metabolism by acetylcholinesterase

    • E.

      Reuptake into the nerve ending

    • F.

      Uptake by effector cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Reuptake into the nerve ending
    Explanation
    Answer: E
    The termination of action of norepinephrine released from the adrenergic nerve ending, mainly
    occurs by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into the adrenergic terminal.
    A, B, C) These mechanisms may contribute to the termination of action, but are secondary
    mechanisms.
    D, F) These mechanisms are not involved in the termination of action of norepinephrine.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is a site where autonomic receptors are primarily Nn cholinergic?

    • A.

      Celiac ganglion

    • B.

      Gall bladder

    • C.

      Sinoatrial node

    • D.

      Vascular smooth muscle

    • E.

      Lower esophageal sphincter

    Correct Answer
    A. Celiac ganglion
    Explanation
    Answer: A
    The celiac ganglion is a sympathetic ganglion. In all autonomic ganglia receptors are primarily
    Nn.
    B) Autonomic receptors in gall bladder are primarily M3.
    C) Autonomic receptors in sinoatrial node are primarily M2.
    D) Autonomic receptors in vascular smooth muscle are primarily alpha-1 and beta-2.
    E) Autonomic receptors in the lower esophageal sphincter are primarily M3.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following effects is most likely mediated by the activation of peripheral postsynaptic beta-1 receptors?

    • A.

      Coronary vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Increased synthesis of angiotensin II

    • C.

      Increased intestinal peristalsis

    • D.

      Increased gluconeogenesis

    • E.

      Decreased blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Increased synthesis of angiotensin II
    Explanation
    Answer: B
    Activation of beta-1 receptors increases renin secretion. Renin is the enzyme that catalyzes the
    biosynthesis of angiotensin II.
    A) Activation of beta-1 receptors increases heart contractility and rate. This would cause
    coronary vasodilation, not vasoconstriction.
    C) The increase in intestinal peristalsis is mainly mediated by the activation of M3 receptors.
    D) The increase in gluconeogenesis is mediated by the activation of beta-2 receptors
    E) The beta-1 receptor mediated increase in heart contractility and rate would increase, not
    decrease, the blood pressure.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is the predominant mechanism that terminates the action of the main neurotransmitter released by preganglionic nerve endings?

    • A.

      Metabolism by choline acetyltransferase

    • B.

      Metabolism by monoamine oxidase

    • C.

      Diffusion away from the synaptic cleft

    • D.

      Metabolism by acetylcholinesterase

    • E.

      Reuptake into the nerve ending

    • F.

      Uptake by effector cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Metabolism by acetylcholinesterase
    Explanation
    Answer: D
    The main neurotransmitter released by preganglionic nerve endings (both sympathetic and
    parasympathetic) is acetylcholine which, when released into the synaptic cleft, is quickly
    metabolized by acetylcholinesterase. This is the main mechanism that terminates the action of
    acetylcholine.
    A) This enzyme catalyze the synthesis, not the metabolism, of acetylcholine.
    B) This enzyme catalyze the metabolism of catecholamines.
    C, E) These mechanisms are not involved in the termination of the action of acetylcholine. .

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following actions most likely results from the activation of autonomic autoreceptors?

    • A.

      Modulation of neurotransmitter release

    • B.

      Inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake

    • C.

      Stimulation of enzyme synthesis

    • D.

      Inhibition of enzyme synthesis

    • E.

      Modulation of neurotransmitter storage

    Correct Answer
    A. Modulation of neurotransmitter release
    Explanation
    Answer: A
    A receptors is defined “autoreceptor” when it modulates the release of the neurotransmitter
    that activates it. In most cases this modulation results in an inhibition of the release (alpha-2
    autoreceptors inhibit the release of norepinephrine, M2 autoreceptors inhibit the release of
    acetylcholine) but in a few cases there is a stimulation of the release (beta-2 autoreceptors
    stimulate the release of norepinephrine, Nn autoreceptors stimulate the release of
    acetylcholine).
    B, C, D, E) Autonomic autoreceptors are not involved in the synthesis, storage or reuptake of a
    neurotransmitter

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a site where autonomic receptors are primarily alpha-1 adrenergic?

    • A.

      Bronchial muscle

    • B.

      Sphincter muscle of iris

    • C.

      Atrioventricular node

    • D.

      Purkinje’s fibers

    • E.

      Skin vessels

    Correct Answer
    E. Skin vessels
    Explanation
    Answer: E
    The vascular system has both alpha-1 and beta-2 receptors. Alpha-1 receptors predominate in
    the vessels of the skin, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system. Beta-2 receptors
    predominate in the vessels of skeletal muscle and liver. Parasympathetic receptors are not
    widely represented in the vascular system.
    A) Autonomic receptors in the bronchial muscle are primarily M3 and beta-2.
    B) Autonomic receptors in the sphincter muscle of iris the are primarily M3.
    C) Autonomic receptors in the atrioventricular node are primarily M2 and beta-1.
    D) Autonomic receptors in Purkinje’s fibers are primarily beta-1.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is a site where autonomic receptors are primarily alpha-2 adrenergic?

    • A.

      Salivary gland cells

    • B.

      Ciliary muscle

    • C.

      Detrusor muscle

    • D.

      Skeletal muscle

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    E. Platelets
    Explanation
    Answer: E
    Platelets have alpha-2 receptors that can stimulate platelet aggregation. These receptors are
    not innervated but the increased plasma concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine
    during the activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases the aggregation of platelet so
    improving the hemostasis. This is a good outcome in emergency situations since it helps
    limiting bleeding from wounds.
    A, B, C,) The autonomic receptors in these locations are primarily M3.
    D) Somatic receptors in skeletal muscle are primarily Nm. Autonomic receptors in skeletal
    muscle are primarily alpha-1 and beta-2.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is a site where autonomic receptors are primarily beta-1 adrenergic?

    • A.

      Gastric parietal cells

    • B.

      Radial muscle of iris

    • C.

      Internal sphincter of the bladder

    • D.

      Juxtaglomerular cells

    • E.

      Beta cells of the pancreas

    Correct Answer
    D. Juxtaglomerular cells
    Explanation
    Answer: D
    Beta-1 receptors are abundant in juxtaglomerular cells and the activation of these receptors
    increases renin secretion.
    A) Autonomic receptors in gastric parietal cells are primarily M 3.
    B) Autonomic receptors in the radial muscle of iris are primarily alpha-1.
    C) Autonomic receptors in the internal sphincter of the bladder are likely peptide receptors
    E) Autonomic receptors in the beta cells of the pancreas are primarily alpha-2.

    Rate this question:

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 03, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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