Block 7 Repro Kalli Questions Prt 3

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Block 7 Repro Kalli Questions Prt 3 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During the proliferation phase of the menstrual cycle, which hormone influences the endometrial lining of the uterus?

    • A.

      Progesterone

    • B.

      Luteinizing hormone (LH)

    • C.

      Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • D.

      Estrogen

    • E.

      Relaxin

    Correct Answer
    D. Estrogen
    Explanation
    Estrogen is the hormone that influences the endometrial lining of the uterus during the proliferation phase of the menstrual cycle. This hormone is responsible for thickening the endometrium, preparing it for potential implantation of a fertilized egg. Estrogen also promotes the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium, ensuring a rich blood supply to support the potential pregnancy. Additionally, estrogen stimulates the production of cervical mucus, which aids in the transport of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus.

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  • 2. 

    During the menstrual cycle

    • A.

      The follicular cells of growing follicles secrete primarily progesterone

    • B.

      Follicle stimulating hormone causes the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen

    • C.

      Luteinizing hormone stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete primarily progesterone

    • D.

      B. luteinizing hormone stimulates several primordial follicles to develop

    • E.

      The pituitary gland secretes progesterone

    Correct Answer
    D. B. luteinizing hormone stimulates several primordial follicles to develop
  • 3. 

    The oocyte of a mature Graafian follicle is induced to complete the 1st meiotic division just prior to ovulation. Which of the following hormonal stimuli causes this?

    • A.

      The low estrogen levels associated with the maturing follicles

    • B.

      The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) initiated by high estrogen levels

    • C.

      The gradual elevation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • D.

      The cessation (lack) of progesterone secretion

    • E.

      The slow elevation of progesterone produced by the corpus luteum

    Correct Answer
    B. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) initiated by high estrogen levels
    Explanation
    The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) initiated by high estrogen levels causes the oocyte of a mature Graafian follicle to complete the 1st meiotic division just prior to ovulation. LH surge is a crucial event in the menstrual cycle that triggers ovulation. High levels of estrogen produced by the maturing follicles stimulate the release of LH from the anterior pituitary gland. LH surge then induces the completion of the 1st meiotic division in the oocyte, leading to the release of a mature egg from the ovary.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following descriptions BEST suit the primordial follicles?

    • A.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicular cells

    • B.

      An oogonia surrounded by a single cuboidal layer of follicular cells

    • C.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by a multilayer of follicular (granulosa) cells

    • D.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by the cumulus oophorus

    • E.

      A secondary oocyte surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicular cells

    Correct Answer
    A. A primary oocyte surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicular cells
    Explanation
    The primordial follicles are the earliest stage of follicular development in the ovaries. They consist of a primary oocyte, which is an immature egg cell, surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicular cells. This description best suits the characteristics of primordial follicles.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following statements concerning gametogenesis is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Primary spermatocytes are formed before birth

    • B.

      The follicular cells of primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) that stops the development of the primary oocyte

    • C.

      Primary oocytes secrete the oocyte maturation inhibitor

    • D.

      Before birth, the primary oocytes are all arrested in metaphase II

    • E.

      Primary oocytes are all formed only at the time of puberty

    Correct Answer
    B. The follicular cells of primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) that stops the development of the primary oocyte
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the follicular cells of primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) that stops the development of the primary oocyte. This statement is correct because the follicular cells surrounding the oocyte in the primordial follicle release oocyte maturation inhibitor, which prevents the oocyte from maturing until it is ready for ovulation. This inhibitor helps regulate the timing of oocyte maturation and ensures that it occurs at the appropriate time for fertilization.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements regarding the DNA content of cells is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Spermatids have 2n DNA

    • B.

      Secondary spermatocytes have 2n DNA

    • C.

      Primary spermatocytes have 2n DNA and 46 pairs of chromosomes

    • D.

      Spermatozoa have 23 pairs of chromosomes

    • E.

      Spermatogonia have 2n DNA and 46 pairs of chromosomes

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary spermatocytes have 2n DNA
    Explanation
    Secondary spermatocytes have 2n DNA, meaning they have a diploid number of chromosomes. This is because they undergo meiosis I, which reduces the chromosome number by half. Therefore, secondary spermatocytes have 2n DNA and are haploid, containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the fertilization process is CORRECT?

    • A.

      The cortical granules release enzymes that alter the oocyte plasma membrane and the zone pellucida thus preventing polyspermy

    • B.

      Acrosin and neuramiaidase are enzymes released by the cortical granules to alter the oocyte plasma membrane

    • C.

      A zonal reaction occurs after fusion of the male pronucleus to the female pronucleus

    • D.

      The uncapacitated sperm are able to fertilize the egg

    Correct Answer
    A. The cortical granules release enzymes that alter the oocyte plasma membrane and the zone pellucida thus preventing polyspermy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the cortical granules release enzymes that alter the oocyte plasma membrane and the zone pellucida thus preventing polyspermy. During fertilization, the cortical granules in the oocyte release enzymes that cause a reaction in the oocyte plasma membrane and the zone pellucida. This reaction creates a barrier that prevents additional sperm from penetrating the oocyte, ensuring that only one sperm can fertilize the egg. This process is known as the cortical reaction and is essential for preventing polyspermy, which is the fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following statements concerning meiosis is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Separation of chromatids occurs during anaphase I of meiosis I

    • B.

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase I of meiosis I

    • C.

      Non disjunction can only occur in meiosis II

    • D.

      Crossing over of genetic material occurs in metaphase I of meiosis I

    • E.

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in metaphase I of meiosis I

    Correct Answer
    B. Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase I of meiosis I
    Explanation
    During prophase I of meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair up and form a structure called a tetrad. This allows for the exchange of genetic material between the homologous chromosomes, a process known as crossing over. This exchange of genetic material increases genetic diversity. Therefore, the statement that pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase I of meiosis I is correct.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements concerning gametogenesis is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Primary oocytes are arrested in the diplotene stage of prophase II before birth

    • B.

      Primary follicles are all formed at the time of birth

    • C.

      Primary spermatocytes are formed before birth

    • D.

      Follicular cells of the primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor

    • E.

      Ova are produced at the time of birth

    Correct Answer
    D. Follicular cells of the primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor
    Explanation
    The statement that follicular cells of the primordial follicles secrete oocyte maturation inhibitor is correct. This inhibitor prevents the oocyte from undergoing further maturation until it is stimulated by hormones during the menstrual cycle. The other statements are incorrect. Primary oocytes are arrested in the diplotene stage of prophase I before birth, primary follicles continue to form after birth, primary spermatocytes are formed after birth, and ova are not produced at the time of birth.

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  • 10. 

    During the process of fertilization:

    • A.

      Acrosin and neuraminidase are released from the cortical granules. These enzymes digest the zona pellucida

    • B.

      The tail of the sperm drops off as the sperm touches the zona pellucida

    • C.

      Acrosin and neuraminidase are released from the acrosome. These enzymes digest the zona pellucida

    • D.

      The cortical granules release enzymes that digest the corona radiata cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Acrosin and neuraminidase are released from the acrosome. These enzymes digest the zona pellucida
    Explanation
    Acrosin and neuraminidase are enzymes that are released from the acrosome, which is a structure located at the tip of the sperm. These enzymes are responsible for digesting the zona pellucida, which is a protective layer surrounding the egg. This allows the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and fertilize the egg. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the release of enzymes from cortical granules or the dropping off of the sperm's tail, are not accurate explanations of the fertilization process.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the fertilization process is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Uncapacitated sperms can penetrate the secondary oocyte

    • B.

      Enzymes released from the cortical granules cause the oocyte plasma membrane and the zona pellucida to undergo a conformational change

    • C.

      The zygote that is produced has 1n chromosome number

    • D.

      Several sperms normally penetrate the secondary oocyte

    • E.

      Sperms become capacitated in the epididymis

    Correct Answer
    B. Enzymes released from the cortical granules cause the oocyte plasma membrane and the zona pellucida to undergo a conformational change
    Explanation
    During fertilization, enzymes released from the cortical granules cause the oocyte plasma membrane and the zona pellucida to undergo a conformational change. This change prevents additional sperm from penetrating the oocyte, ensuring that only one sperm can fertilize the egg. This process is known as the cortical reaction and is an essential step in preventing polyspermy, where multiple sperm fertilize the same egg.

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  • 12. 

    During the menstrual cycle

    • A.

      Follicle stimulating hormone causes ovulation of the secondary oocyte

    • B.

      A primary oocyte arrested at metaphase I of meiosis I is released at the time of ovulation

    • C.

      Luteinizing hormone stimulates the granulosa and theca interna layers to form the corpus luteum

    • D.

      Luteinizing hormone stimulates several primordial follicles to develop

    • E.

      Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Luteinizing hormone stimulates the granulosa and theca interna layers to form the corpus luteum
    Explanation
    Luteinizing hormone stimulates the granulosa and theca interna layers to form the corpus luteum. During the menstrual cycle, the corpus luteum is formed after ovulation occurs. The granulosa and theca interna layers of the ruptured follicle transform into the corpus luteum under the influence of luteinizing hormone. The corpus luteum then secretes hormones such as progesterone, which is important for preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg. This process is essential for the regulation of the menstrual cycle and the maintenance of pregnancy if fertilization occurs.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the menstrual cycle is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Human chorionic gonadotropin is secreted from the pituitary gland

    • B.

      Progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum inhibits the secretion of luteinizing hormone

    • C.

      Estrogen secreted from the corpus luteum. stimulates ovulation

    • D.

      Progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum inhibits the secretion of Follicle stimulating hormone

    • E.

      Human chorionic gonadotropin causes primordial follicles to develop

    Correct Answer
    B. Progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum inhibits the secretion of luteinizing hormone
    Explanation
    Progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum inhibits the secretion of luteinizing hormone. This is because progesterone plays a role in maintaining the uterine lining and preparing it for implantation of a fertilized egg. Inhibiting the secretion of luteinizing hormone helps to prevent further ovulation and allows the uterine lining to be maintained for a potential pregnancy.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following descriptions BEST suit the multilaminar primary follicle?

    • A.

      An oogonia surrounded by a single layer of columnar cells

    • B.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of cuboidal cells

    • C.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by many layers of follicular or granulosa cells

    • D.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by a flattened layer of follicular cells

    • E.

      A primary oocyte surrounded by a corona radiata layer of cells

    Correct Answer
    C. A primary oocyte surrounded by many layers of follicular or granulosa cells
    Explanation
    A multilaminar primary follicle is characterized by a primary oocyte surrounded by many layers of follicular or granulosa cells. This description indicates that the follicle is in an early stage of development, with multiple layers of cells surrounding the oocyte. This is different from the other options, which describe different stages of follicle development or different types of cells surrounding the oocyte.

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  • 15. 

    1. Which of the following statements concerning the mature graafian follicle is  CORRECT?  

    • A.

      Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the granulosa layer to convert androstenedione to estrogen

    • B.

      Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the theca interna layer to produce progesterone

    • C.

      The theca externa layer produces estrogen

    • D.

      The theca interna layer produces estrogen

    • E.

      Progesterone stimulates ovulation of the secondary oocyte from the graafian follicle

    Correct Answer
    A. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the granulosa layer to convert androstenedione to estrogen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the granulosa layer to convert androstenedione to estrogen." This statement accurately describes the role of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the maturation of the graafian follicle. FSH acts on the granulosa cells within the follicle, stimulating them to convert androstenedione, a precursor hormone, into estrogen. This process is crucial for the development and maturation of the follicle, ultimately leading to ovulation.

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  • 16. 

    In the absence of fertilization, the

    • A.

      Corpus luteum degenerates and forms scar tissue called the corpus albicans

    • B.

      Corpus luteum enlarges to become the corpus luteum of pregnancy

    • C.

      Human chorionic gonadotropin maintains the viability of the corpus luteum

    • D.

      Luteinizing hormone continues to stimulate the corpus luteum

    • E.

      The corpus luteum last for only 2 days after ovulation

    Correct Answer
    A. Corpus luteum degenerates and forms scar tissue called the corpus albicans
    Explanation
    In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum degenerates and forms scar tissue called the corpus albicans. This is because the corpus luteum is a temporary structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and is responsible for producing hormones, such as progesterone, which are necessary for maintaining the uterine lining for potential implantation of a fertilized egg. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum is no longer needed and begins to degenerate, eventually forming scar tissue. This process marks the end of the menstrual cycle and prepares the body for the next ovulation.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the growing (developing) follicles is CORRECT?

    • A.

      Estrogens from the granulosa cells stimulates proliferation and regeneration of the endometrial lining

    • B.

      Androstenedione stimulates the endometrial glands to secrete glycolipids

    • C.

      Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates regeneration and proliferation of the endometrial lining

    • D.

      The corpus luteum enhances development of the follicles

    • E.

      Luteinizing hormone causes growing follicles to become atretic

    Correct Answer
    A. Estrogens from the granulosa cells stimulates proliferation and regeneration of the endometrial lining
    Explanation
    Estrogens from the granulosa cells stimulate proliferation and regeneration of the endometrial lining. Estrogens are produced by the granulosa cells in the growing follicles of the ovaries. These estrogens play a crucial role in preparing the uterus for implantation and pregnancy. They stimulate the growth and development of the endometrial lining, making it thick and rich in blood vessels. This prepares the uterus to support the implantation of a fertilized egg. Estrogens also promote the proliferation of endometrial cells, ensuring that the lining is ready for potential implantation.

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