Block 3 Heart Anatomy And Valvular Pathology

22 Questions | Total Attempts: 281

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Heart Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    CARDIAC ANATOMY During a heart procedure, the surgeon accidently damages the vein that is accompanied by the posterior interventricular artery. Which of the following veins is most likely to be damaged?
    • A. 

      Great cardiac vein

    • B. 

      Middle cardiac vein

    • C. 

      Small cardiac vein

    • D. 

      Anterior cardiac vein

    • E. 

      Oblique vein of the left atrium

  • 2. 
    A surgical procedure requires you to separate the left brachiocephalic vein. Which of the following structures is least likely at risk of being damaged?
    • A. 

      Right brachiocephalic artery

    • B. 

      Left subclavian artery

    • C. 

      Left common carotid artery

    • D. 

      Right pulmonary trunk

    • E. 

      Right vagus nerve

  • 3. 
    The thoracic duct empties directly into the junction of the:
    • A. 

      Superior vena cava and the azygos veins

    • B. 

      Left jugular and brachiocephalic veins

    • C. 

      Right jugular and brachiocephalic vein

    • D. 

      Left internal jugular and subclavian veins

    • E. 

      Right internal jugular and subclavian veins

  • 4. 
    If the right coronary artery is blocked by a fat globule after giving off the right marginal artery, which ofthe following structures may have oxygen deficiency?
    • A. 

      Right atrium

    • B. 

      SA node

    • C. 

      AV node

    • D. 

      Apex of the heart

    • E. 

      Root of the pulmonary trunk

  • 5. 
    In preparation for thoracic surgery, a median sternal splitting procedure was carried out. But an improper depth setting on the saw blade resulted in a slight nick on the underlying sternocostal surface of the heart. Which heart chamber would most likely have been opened had the blade completely penetrated this wall?
    • A. 

      Left atrium

    • B. 

      Left ventricle

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

  • 6. 
    In obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava, venous blood is returned to the heart by an alternate route via the azygos vein, which becomes dilated in the process. Which of the following structures might it compress as a result?
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Root of the left lung

    • C. 

      Phrenic nerve

    • D. 

      Thoracic duct

    • E. 

      Descending aorta

  • 7. 
    The apex of the heart is formed by the:
    • A. 

      Left atrium

    • B. 

      Left ventricle

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

    • E. 

      Both left and right ventricles

  • 8. 
    Which vein accompanies the posterior interventricular artery?
    • A. 

      Great cardiac

    • B. 

      Marginal

    • C. 

      Middle cardiac

    • D. 

      Small cardiac

    • E. 

      Coronary sinus

  • 9. 
    Which of the following accompanies the anterior interventricular artery?
    • A. 

      Middle cardiac vein

    • B. 

      Coronary sinus

    • C. 

      Small cardiac vein

    • D. 

      Great cardiac vein

    • E. 

      Anterior cardiac vein

  • 10. 
    Which group of structures empties directly into the right atrium?
    • A. 

      Superior vena cava, coronary sinus and hemiazygos vein

    • B. 

      Coronary sinus and pulmonary vein

    • C. 

      Pulmonary and bronchial veins the following

    • D. 

      Superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

    • E. 

      Coronary sinus and azygos vein

  • 11. 
    The heart is located in which anatomical subdivision of the mediastinum?
    • A. 

      Anterior

    • B. 

      Middle

    • C. 

      Posterior

    • D. 

      Lateral

    • E. 

      Superior

  • 12. 
    A blood clot (embolus) found in the left pulmonary artery probably came from which of the following?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary veins

    • B. 

      Left atrium

    • C. 

      Right ventricle

    • D. 

      Left brachiocephalic vein

    • E. 

      Left ventricle

  • 13. 
    Which of the following cardiac veins empties directly into the right atrium of the heart?
    • A. 

      Middle cardiac

    • B. 

      Anterior cardiac

    • C. 

      Small cardiac

    • D. 

      Great cardiac

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    Over distension of the vaIves of the atrioventricular orifices of the heart is prevented by the papillary muscles and the:
    • A. 

      Crista termina/is

    • B. 

      Ligamentum teres

    • C. 

      Chordae tendineae

    • D. 

      Trabeculae carneae

    • E. 

      Ligamentum venosum

  • 15. 
    Which of the following structures maintains constant tension on the cusps of the atrioventricuIar valves?
    • A. 

      Pectinate muscle

    • B. 

      Anulus fibrosis (rings)

    • C. 

      Moderator band

    • D. 

      Crista terminalis

    • E. 

      Chordae tendineae

  • 16. 
    Valvular Disorders and Murmurs A 35-year-old woman sees her doctor for a routine physical, and a heart murmur is heard between S1 and S2. Further tests reveal an increase in right atrial pressure and right ventricular eccentric hypertrophy, and normal left heart values. Which of the following valve disorders is most likely present in this patient?
    • A. 

      Aortic vaIve stenosis

    • B. 

      Mitral valve regurgitation

    • C. 

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

    • D. 

      Tricuspid valve regurgitation

    • E. 

      Tricuspid valve stenosis

  • 17. 
    A patient comes to your office complaining of breathlessness and "puffiness is his legs". Upon examination, you detect an elevated jugular venous pulse, an S4 heart sound, and a systolic murmur. Based on these findings, what is his likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Aortic valve stenosis

    • B. 

      Mitral valve regurgitation

    • C. 

      Tricuspid valve regurgitation

    • D. 

      Tricuspid valve stenosis

    • E. 

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

  • 18. 
    A 70 year-old woman is brought to the emergency room by her daughter, who noticed that her mother is not as energetic as she previously was. Tests revealed the following patient data : Left ventricular pressure 110/0 mmHg Right ventricular pressure 95/5 mmHg Pulmonary artery pressure 20/0 mmHg Aortic pressure 110/60 mmHg Which of the following diagnoses is most consistent with the above information? 
    • A. 

      Systemic hypertension

    • B. 

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

    • C. 

      Aortic valve regurgitation

    • D. 

      Left heart failure

    • E. 

      Aortic valve stenosis

    • F. 

      Pulmonic valve regurgitation

  • 19. 
    A decrease in ventricular compliance as a result of untreated chronic systemic hypertension will lead to which of the following?
    • A. 

      Decreased afterload

    • B. 

      Decreased preload

    • C. 

      Decreased inotropy (contractility)

    • D. 

      Increased end systolic volume

    • E. 

      Decreased chronotropy (heart rate)

  • 20. 
    A 62-year-old woman presents to your office with new onset atrial fibrillation. She thinks she may have had "rheumatic fever" as a child but isn't sure. She has no other medical conditions and is not on any medications. On examination you note a diastolic murmur at the left side of the chest in the 5th intercostal space. What is the most likely cause of her atriaI fibriIIatron?
    • A. 

      Aortic valve stenosis with left ventricuIar hypertrophy

    • B. 

      PuImonic valve stenosis with pulmonary hypertension

    • C. 

      Tricuspid vaIve stenosis with pulmonary hypertension

    • D. 

      Mitral valve stenosis with left atrial dilatation

  • 21. 
    Which set of cardiovascular parameters below would most closely fits someone suffering from severe pulmonic valve regurgitation? RAP          Pc of pulm capillaries               RV hypertrophy                  Murmur
    • A. 

      Inc dec . present diastolic

    • B. 

      Inc dec not present systolic

    • C. 

      Inc inc present diastolic

    • D. 

      Inc inc present systolic

    • E. 

      Dec dec not present diastolic

    • F. 

      Dec inc not present systolic

    • G. 

      Dec inc present diastolic

  • 22. 
    A 28-year-old man who had rheumatic fever as a child comes to the physician's office because of fatigue and dyspnea for the past 4 months. An early diastolic sound followed by a low-pitched rumbling decrescendo diastolic murmur is present 4 cm left of the sternal border In the fourth intercostals space. Which of the following valve defects is most likely in this patient?
    • A. 

      Aortic regurgitation

    • B. 

      Aortic stenosis

    • C. 

      Mitral regurgitation

    • D. 

      Mitral stenosis

    • E. 

      Pulmonic regurgitation

    • F. 

      Pulmonic stenosis

    • G. 

      Tricuspid regurgitation

    • H. 

      Tricuspid stenosis

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