Block 3 Heart Anatomy And Valvular Pathology

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Heart Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    CARDIAC ANATOMY During a heart procedure, the surgeon accidently damages the vein that is accompanied by the posterior interventricular artery. Which of the following veins is most likely to be damaged?

    • A.

      Great cardiac vein

    • B.

      Middle cardiac vein

    • C.

      Small cardiac vein

    • D.

      Anterior cardiac vein

    • E.

      Oblique vein of the left atrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle cardiac vein
    Explanation
    The middle cardiac vein is most likely to be damaged in this scenario because it runs alongside the posterior interventricular artery. Since the surgeon accidentally damaged the vein accompanied by this artery, it suggests that the middle cardiac vein was affected. The other veins listed do not have a direct association with the posterior interventricular artery, making them less likely to be damaged in this situation.

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  • 2. 

    A surgical procedure requires you to separate the left brachiocephalic vein. Which of the following structures is least likely at risk of being damaged?

    • A.

      Right brachiocephalic artery

    • B.

      Left subclavian artery

    • C.

      Left common carotid artery

    • D.

      Right pulmonary trunk

    • E.

      Right vagus nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Right pulmonary trunk
    Explanation
    During a surgical procedure to separate the left brachiocephalic vein, the least likely structure at risk of being damaged is the right pulmonary trunk. The right pulmonary trunk is located in the chest and carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. Since the procedure is focused on the left side, the right pulmonary trunk is not directly involved and therefore less likely to be damaged. The other structures mentioned, such as the right brachiocephalic artery, left subclavian artery, left common carotid artery, and right vagus nerve, may be at greater risk due to their proximity to the left brachiocephalic vein.

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  • 3. 

    The thoracic duct empties directly into the junction of the:

    • A.

      Superior vena cava and the azygos veins

    • B.

      Left jugular and brachiocephalic veins

    • C.

      Right jugular and brachiocephalic vein

    • D.

      Left internal jugular and subclavian veins

    • E.

      Right internal jugular and subclavian veins

    Correct Answer
    D. Left internal jugular and subclavian veins
    Explanation
    The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body and it drains lymph from the lower body and left side of the upper body. It empties into the junction of the left internal jugular and subclavian veins. This is the correct answer because the thoracic duct is located on the left side of the body and it drains into these specific veins. The other options are incorrect because they either involve the wrong side of the body or different veins.

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  • 4. 

    If the right coronary artery is blocked by a fat globule after giving off the right marginal artery, which ofthe following structures may have oxygen deficiency?

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      SA node

    • C.

      AV node

    • D.

      Apex of the heart

    • E.

      Root of the pulmonary trunk

    Correct Answer
    C. AV node
    Explanation
    If the right coronary artery is blocked after giving off the right marginal artery, the blood supply to the AV node may be compromised. The AV node is located in the right atrium near the septum, and it is responsible for conducting electrical signals between the atria and the ventricles. If the AV node does not receive enough oxygenated blood, it may not function properly, leading to disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. This can result in abnormal heart rhythms or even complete heart block.

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  • 5. 

    In preparation for thoracic surgery, a median sternal splitting procedure was carried out. But an improper depth setting on the saw blade resulted in a slight nick on the underlying sternocostal surface of the heart. Which heart chamber would most likely have been opened had the blade completely penetrated this wall?

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Left ventricle

    • C.

      Right atrium

    • D.

      Right ventricle

    Correct Answer
    D. Right ventricle
    Explanation
    If the blade had completely penetrated the sternocostal wall, the heart chamber that would most likely have been opened is the right ventricle. The right ventricle is located on the right side of the heart and is the chamber responsible for pumping oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs. The sternocostal surface of the heart is the anterior surface of the heart that faces the sternum and ribs, and the right ventricle is located in close proximity to this surface. Therefore, if the blade had penetrated this wall, it would most likely have entered the right ventricle.

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  • 6. 

    In obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava, venous blood is returned to the heart by an alternate route via the azygos vein, which becomes dilated in the process. Which of the following structures might it compress as a result?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Root of the left lung

    • C.

      Phrenic nerve

    • D.

      Thoracic duct

    • E.

      Descending aorta

    Correct Answer
    D. Thoracic duct
    Explanation
    When there is obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava, blood flow is redirected through the azygos vein. The azygos vein becomes dilated as a result. The thoracic duct is a structure that runs alongside the azygos vein in the posterior mediastinum. Therefore, the dilated azygos vein can compress the thoracic duct, leading to obstruction or impaired flow of lymphatic fluid through the duct.

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  • 7. 

    The apex of the heart is formed by the:

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Left ventricle

    • C.

      Right atrium

    • D.

      Right ventricle

    • E.

      Both left and right ventricles

    Correct Answer
    B. Left ventricle
    Explanation
    The apex of the heart is the pointed bottom part of the heart. It is formed by the left ventricle, which is the chamber responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. The left ventricle is thicker and more muscular than the right ventricle, as it needs to generate enough force to propel blood throughout the entire body. Therefore, the left ventricle is responsible for forming the apex of the heart.

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  • 8. 

    Which vein accompanies the posterior interventricular artery?

    • A.

      Great cardiac

    • B.

      Marginal

    • C.

      Middle cardiac

    • D.

      Small cardiac

    • E.

      Coronary sinus

    Correct Answer
    C. Middle cardiac
    Explanation
    The middle cardiac vein accompanies the posterior interventricular artery.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following accompanies the anterior interventricular artery?

    • A.

      Middle cardiac vein

    • B.

      Coronary sinus

    • C.

      Small cardiac vein

    • D.

      Great cardiac vein

    • E.

      Anterior cardiac vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Great cardiac vein
    Explanation
    The great cardiac vein accompanies the anterior interventricular artery. The great cardiac vein runs alongside the anterior interventricular artery and collects blood from the heart muscle supplied by this artery. It then drains into the coronary sinus, which is the main vein that collects blood from the heart muscle and returns it to the right atrium of the heart.

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  • 10. 

    Which group of structures empties directly into the right atrium?

    • A.

      Superior vena cava, coronary sinus and hemiazygos vein

    • B.

      Coronary sinus and pulmonary vein

    • C.

      Pulmonary and bronchial veins the following

    • D.

      Superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

    • E.

      Coronary sinus and azygos vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
    Explanation
    The superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus are the three structures that empty directly into the right atrium. The superior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from the upper body, the inferior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from the lower body, and the coronary sinus brings deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle itself. Together, these structures help to return deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart for oxygenation.

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  • 11. 

    The heart is located in which anatomical subdivision of the mediastinum?

    • A.

      Anterior

    • B.

      Middle

    • C.

      Posterior

    • D.

      Lateral

    • E.

      Superior

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle
    Explanation
    The heart is located in the middle anatomical subdivision of the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the central compartment of the chest, located between the lungs. It is divided into anterior, middle, and posterior subdivisions. The heart is positioned in the middle subdivision of the mediastinum, surrounded by other structures such as the great vessels, thymus gland, and lymph nodes.

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  • 12. 

    A blood clot (embolus) found in the left pulmonary artery probably came from which of the following?

    • A.

      Pulmonary veins

    • B.

      Left atrium

    • C.

      Right ventricle

    • D.

      Left brachiocephalic vein

    • E.

      Left ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Right ventricle
    Explanation
    A blood clot found in the left pulmonary artery most likely came from the right ventricle. This is because blood flows from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, which then carries the blood to the lungs for oxygenation. If a blood clot forms in the right ventricle, it can travel through the pulmonary artery and become lodged in the left pulmonary artery.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following cardiac veins empties directly into the right atrium of the heart?

    • A.

      Middle cardiac

    • B.

      Anterior cardiac

    • C.

      Small cardiac

    • D.

      Great cardiac

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior cardiac
    Explanation
    The anterior cardiac vein is the only one among the options that directly empties into the right atrium of the heart. The middle cardiac vein drains into the coronary sinus, which then empties into the right atrium. The small cardiac vein and great cardiac vein also drain into the coronary sinus, not directly into the right atrium. Therefore, the correct answer is the anterior cardiac vein.

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  • 14. 

    Over distension of the vaIves of the atrioventricular orifices of the heart is prevented by the papillary muscles and the:

    • A.

      Crista termina/is

    • B.

      Ligamentum teres

    • C.

      Chordae tendineae

    • D.

      Trabeculae carneae

    • E.

      Ligamentum venosum

    Correct Answer
    C. Chordae tendineae
    Explanation
    The correct answer is chordae tendineae. Chordae tendineae are fibrous cords that connect the papillary muscles to the atrioventricular valves (AV valves) in the heart. When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract, pulling on the chordae tendineae, which in turn prevent the AV valves from over distending or prolapsing into the atria. This helps to maintain proper blood flow through the heart and prevents backflow of blood into the atria. The other options listed are not directly involved in preventing over distension of the AV valves.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following structures maintains constant tension on the cusps of the atrioventricuIar valves?

    • A.

      Pectinate muscle

    • B.

      Anulus fibrosis (rings)

    • C.

      Moderator band

    • D.

      Crista terminalis

    • E.

      Chordae tendineae

    Correct Answer
    E. Chordae tendineae
    Explanation
    The chordae tendineae are fibrous cords that connect the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) to the papillary muscles in the ventricles. These cords help to anchor the valves in place and prevent them from prolapsing into the atria during ventricular contraction. By maintaining constant tension on the cusps, the chordae tendineae ensure proper closure of the valves and prevent backflow of blood into the atria. Therefore, the chordae tendineae are responsible for maintaining constant tension on the cusps of the atrioventricular valves.

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  • 16. 

    Valvular Disorders and Murmurs A 35-year-old woman sees her doctor for a routine physical, and a heart murmur is heard between S1 and S2. Further tests reveal an increase in right atrial pressure and right ventricular eccentric hypertrophy, and normal left heart values. Which of the following valve disorders is most likely present in this patient?

    • A.

      Aortic vaIve stenosis

    • B.

      Mitral valve regurgitation

    • C.

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

    • D.

      Tricuspid valve regurgitation

    • E.

      Tricuspid valve stenosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Tricuspid valve regurgitation
    Explanation
    murmur after S1 is either bi or tri cuspid, right side problems indicate tri

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  • 17. 

    A patient comes to your office complaining of breathlessness and "puffiness is his legs". Upon examination, you detect an elevated jugular venous pulse, an S4 heart sound, and a systolic murmur. Based on these findings, what is his likely diagnosis?

    • A.

      Aortic valve stenosis

    • B.

      Mitral valve regurgitation

    • C.

      Tricuspid valve regurgitation

    • D.

      Tricuspid valve stenosis

    • E.

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Pulmonic valve stenosis
    Explanation
    Jugular pulse = right side, leg edema from increased pressure in right atrium, breathless from decreased c/o S4 is post closure of pulmonic and aortic valves, right side indicates pulmonic

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  • 18. 

    A 70 year-old woman is brought to the emergency room by her daughter, who noticed that her mother is not as energetic as she previously was. Tests revealed the following patient data : Left ventricular pressure 110/0 mmHg Right ventricular pressure 95/5 mmHg Pulmonary artery pressure 20/0 mmHg Aortic pressure 110/60 mmHg Which of the following diagnoses is most consistent with the above information? 

    • A.

      Systemic hypertension

    • B.

      Pulmonic valve stenosis

    • C.

      Aortic valve regurgitation

    • D.

      Left heart failure

    • E.

      Aortic valve stenosis

    • F.

      Pulmonic valve regurgitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonic valve stenosis
    Explanation
    The patient's left ventricular pressure is normal, indicating that left heart failure is unlikely. The pulmonary artery pressure is also normal, ruling out pulmonary hypertension. The aortic pressure is within the normal range, making aortic valve regurgitation and aortic valve stenosis less likely. The right ventricular pressure is elevated, suggesting a problem with the right side of the heart. The most consistent diagnosis with these findings is pulmonic valve stenosis, which would cause increased pressure in the right ventricle.

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  • 19. 

    A decrease in ventricular compliance as a result of untreated chronic systemic hypertension will lead to which of the following?

    • A.

      Decreased afterload

    • B.

      Decreased preload

    • C.

      Decreased inotropy (contractility)

    • D.

      Increased end systolic volume

    • E.

      Decreased chronotropy (heart rate)

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased end systolic volume
    Explanation
    stiffness leads to a decrease in the ejection fraction

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  • 20. 

    A 62-year-old woman presents to your office with new onset atrial fibrillation. She thinks she may have had "rheumatic fever" as a child but isn't sure. She has no other medical conditions and is not on any medications. On examination you note a diastolic murmur at the left side of the chest in the 5th intercostal space. What is the most likely cause of her atriaI fibriIIatron?

    • A.

      Aortic valve stenosis with left ventricuIar hypertrophy

    • B.

      PuImonic valve stenosis with pulmonary hypertension

    • C.

      Tricuspid vaIve stenosis with pulmonary hypertension

    • D.

      Mitral valve stenosis with left atrial dilatation

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitral valve stenosis with left atrial dilatation
    Explanation
    rheumatic fever THINK mitral valve

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  • 21. 

    Which set of cardiovascular parameters below would most closely fits someone suffering from severe pulmonic valve regurgitation? RAP          Pc of pulm capillaries               RV hypertrophy                  Murmur

    • A.

      Inc dec . present diastolic

    • B.

      Inc dec not present systolic

    • C.

      Inc inc present diastolic

    • D.

      Inc inc present systolic

    • E.

      Dec dec not present diastolic

    • F.

      Dec inc not present systolic

    • G.

      Dec inc present diastolic

    Correct Answer
    A. Inc dec . present diastolic
    Explanation
    A person with severe pulmonic valve regurgitation would have an increased right atrial pressure (RAP) due to the backflow of blood into the right atrium. The pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc of pulm capillaries) would be decreased because the regurgitation causes blood to flow back into the right ventricle instead of being pushed into the pulmonary circulation. The person would also have right ventricular hypertrophy (RV hypertrophy) as a result of the increased workload on the right ventricle. A diastolic murmur would be present due to the regurgitation occurring during diastole.

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  • 22. 

    A 28-year-old man who had rheumatic fever as a child comes to the physician's office because of fatigue and dyspnea for the past 4 months. An early diastolic sound followed by a low-pitched rumbling decrescendo diastolic murmur is present 4 cm left of the sternal border In the fourth intercostals space. Which of the following valve defects is most likely in this patient?

    • A.

      Aortic regurgitation

    • B.

      Aortic stenosis

    • C.

      Mitral regurgitation

    • D.

      Mitral stenosis

    • E.

      Pulmonic regurgitation

    • F.

      Pulmonic stenosis

    • G.

      Tricuspid regurgitation

    • H.

      Tricuspid stenosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitral stenosis
    Explanation
    rheumatic fever = mitral valve, diastolic murmur is mitral stenosis

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 16, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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