Medical Surgery Test For Cardiac Disorders! Trivia Quiz

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Medical Surgery Test For Cardiac Disorders! Trivia Quiz - Quiz

Cardiac disorders


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    It is also considered a back flow. The valve does not close properly and blood backflows through the valve. This disorder is also known as:

    • A.

      Stenosis

    • B.

      Valve Prolapse

    • C.

      Regurgitation

    • D.

      Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Correct Answer
    C. Regurgitation
    Explanation
    Regurgitation (Back flow): the valve does not close properly and blood backflows through the valve.

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  • 2. 

    This is considered the hardening of the valves. The valve does not open completely and blood flow through the valve is reduced

    • A.

      Regurgitation

    • B.

      Stenosis

    • C.

      Mitral Valve Prolapse

    • D.

      Valve Prolapse

    Correct Answer
    B. Stenosis
    Explanation
    Stenosis (hardening): the valve does not open completely and blood flow through the valve is reduced

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  • 3. 

    Define Valve prolapse (overstretching of valves)

    • A.

      Backflow of blood from the left ventricle during systole. Leaflets of mital valve is not closing

    • B.

      The valve does not close properly and blood backflows through the valve.

    • C.

      The valve does not open completely and blood flow through the valve is reduced.

    • D.

      The stretching of an atrioventricular valve leaflet into the atrium during diastole.

    Correct Answer
    D. The stretching of an atrioventricular valve leaflet into the atrium during diastole.
    Explanation
    Mitral valve prolapse – does not progress, asymptomatic, doesn’t normally leads to suddent death. May be caused by inherited tissue disorder. Affects women than men.
    Extra heart sound is called a click. Increase of heart infection
    Tell patient to avoid caffeine and alcohol and good oral hygiene practices when diagnosed with Mitral Valve Prolapse.

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  • 4. 

    When teaching a patient with Mitral Valve Prolapse. Patient teaching may Include:

    • A.

      Rest when you feel tired

    • B.

      Monitor Weight Daily

    • C.

      Avoid Exercising

    • D.

      Avoid Caffeing and Alcohol

    Correct Answer
    D. Avoid Caffeing and Alcohol
    Explanation
    Mitral valve prolapse – does not progress, asymptomatic, doesn’t normally leads to suddent death. May be caused by inherited tissue disorder. Affects women than men.
    Extra heart sound is called a click. Increase of heart infection
    Tell patient to avoid caffeine and alcohol and good oral hygiene practices when diagnosed with Mitral Valve Prolapse.

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  • 5. 

    Define Mitral Valve Prolapse

    • A.

      – backflow of blood from the left ventricle during systole. Leaflets of mital valve is not closing.

    • B.

      Obstructive of blood from left atrium to left ventricle. May be caused by Rheumatic encephalitis.

    • C.

      ): the valve does not close properly and blood backflows through the valve.

    • D.

      – does not progress, asymptomatic, doesn’t normally leads to suddent death. May be caused by inherited tissue disorder.

    Correct Answer
    D. – does not progress, asymptomatic, doesn’t normally leads to suddent death. May be caused by inherited tissue disorder.
    Explanation
    Mitral valve prolapse – does not progress, asymptomatic, doesn’t normally leads to suddent death. May be caused by inherited tissue disorder. Affects women than men.
    Extra heart sound is called a click. Increase of heart infection
    Tell patient to avoid caffeine and alcohol and good oral hygiene practices when diagnosed with Mitral Valve Prolapse.

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  • 6. 

    Mitral Valve Regurgitation is caused by many symptoms.  It is defined as a backflow of blood from the left ventricle during systole. Leaflets of mitral valve is not closing. Chordinae tendinae thickens or fibrous. Caused by degenerative changes to the Mitral valves. What are other symptoms that the patient may experience?

    • A.

      Dyspnea and Chest Pain

    • B.

      Lung Congestion (Caused by some back flow in the Atrium)

    • C.

      A symptomatic that may lead to Heart Failure

    • D.

      Restricted Activites

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Lung Congestion (Caused by some back flow in the Atrium)
    C. A symptomatic that may lead to Heart Failure
    D. Restricted Activites
    Explanation
    Mitral regurgitation – backflow of blood from the left ventricle during systole. Leaflets of mitral valve is not closing. Chordinae tendinae thickens or fibrous. Caused by degenerative changes to the Mitral valves. May cause lung congestion by the cause of some blood backflowing into the left atrium. *** Left ventricle – Left Atrium – Lungs *** . Usually asymptomatic causing heart failure. Management is the same as patient with heart failure. Restricted activity levels.

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  • 7. 

    What are some disorders that may lead to Mitral Stenosis (Thickening of the heart Valve) http://C:\Users\SCHOOL\Documents\ADN\Chapter029 Management of Patients With Structural, Infectious, and Inflammatory Cardiac Disorders SC_files\slide0043.htm

    • A.

      Mitral Valve Prolapse

    • B.

      Rheumatic Encephalitis

    • C.

      Myocardial Infarction

    • D.

      Angina

    Correct Answer
    B. Rheumatic Encephalitis
    Explanation
    Mitral stenosis – Obstructive of blood from left atrium to left ventricle. May be caused by Rheumatic encephalitis. Thickening of the leaflets. Left atrium is challenged to move blood into the Left ventricle and causes reduced cardiac output. Affects the right side of the heart. Eventually the R V system may fail. Narrow opening, increase resistance and heart issues. May have a weak pulse. May lead to a fibb

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  • 8. 

    What patient teaching would you give to a patient with Aortic Regurgitation?

    • A.

      Avoid episodes that may lead to hypertension

    • B.

      Reduce Physical Exercise

    • C.

      Avoid high salt

    • D.

      Avoid Physical Exercise

    Correct Answer
    D. Avoid Physical Exercise
    Explanation
    Aortic regurgitation – back up of blood from the left ventricle. Has no period of rest. Result of lesions affecting the integrity of the valves. Affects the closing of the valves. May be caused by trauma, encephalitis or the actual deterioration of a prior replacement of a valve. Left ventricle dilates to accommodate the increase of blood. “Muscles are thinking they need more strength” resulting in increased force. Will hear a high pitch blowing sound when you listening to heart. Tell pt to avoid physical exercision. Leads to dysrrthmia and treat HF in these pts.

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  • 9. 

    This is the Narrowing of the orfice of the LV and the aorta. Result of regenerative calcification. 

    • A.

      Aortic Stenosis

    • B.

      Aortic hemorrhage

    • C.

      Aortic aneurysm

    • D.

      Aortic Regurgitation

    Correct Answer
    A. Aortic Stenosis
    Explanation
    Aortic stenosis – Narrowing of the orfice of the LV and the aorta. Result of regenerative calcification. Inflammatory changes. Risk factors. DB, HTN, Low HDL (High Cholesterol). Ventricular walls hypertrophies. Management is similar to pts with HF. Angina is a frequent symptom. Heard as a loud and ruff systolic mumur.
    Use the bell of stethoscope when auscultating for extra heart sound.

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  • 10. 

    This type of Valve Replacement benefits includes: –Do not deteriorate or become infected as easily, but are thrombogenic and require life-long anticoagulation therapy. ATB may be required for a period of time. May use cow valves or patients own valve

    • A.

      Tissue Valves

    • B.

      Mechanical Valve

    • C.

      Auto Valves (Patient's own valve)

    Correct Answer
    B. Mechanical Valve
    Explanation
    Mechanical valves
    Do not deteriorate or become infected as easily, but are thrombogenic and require life-long anticoagulation therapy. ATB may be required for a period of time. May use cow valves or patients own valve
    Tissue (biologic) valves
    Xenograft (heterograft): pig or cow valve
    Homograft (allograft): human valve
    Autograft: patient’s own valve

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  • 11. 

    Cardiomyopathy  (disease of the muscle of the heart) is a series of progressive events that culminates in impaired cardiac output and can lead to heart failure, sudden death, or dysrhythmic

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cardiomyopathy (disease of the muscle of the heart) is a series of progressive events that culminates in impaired cardiac output and can lead to heart failure, sudden death, or dysrhythmic
    Types:
    Dilated cardiomyopathy – dlaited muscle walls
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy – heart walls are hypertrophic
    Restrictive cardiomyopathy - refers to a group of disorders in which the heart chambers are unable to properly fill with blood because of stiffness in the heart
    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy – arrythmia associated with the RV. PVC, v tach and v fibb
    Unclassified cardiomyopathies

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  • 12. 

    Patient teaching regarding Infectious disease of the heast includes:

    • A.

      Complete ATB

    • B.

      Oral Hygiene

    • C.

      Monitor Weight

    • D.

      Infection Prevention

    • E.

      Avoiding the public

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Complete ATB
    B. Oral Hygiene
    D. Infection Prevention
    Explanation
    Any of the layers of the heart may be affected by an infectious process.
    Diseases are named by the layer of the heart that is affected.
    Diagnosis is made by patient symptoms and echocardiogram.
    Blood cultures may be used to identify the infectious agent and to monitor therapy.
    Treatment is with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Patients require teaching to complete the course of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and require teaching for infection prevention and health promotion.
    Pt must complete their ATB.
    Teach pt infection prevention
    Don’t drink after people
    Promoting oral health

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  • 13. 

    Patients with myocarditis are sensitive to digitalis. What might be an expected change in order for digitalis for these patients?

    • A.

      Increase in dosage is required

    • B.

      Decrease in dosage is required

    • C.

      No change in dosage is required

    Correct Answer
    B. Decrease in dosage is required
    Explanation
    Patients with myocarditis are sensitive to digitalis. Nurses must closely monitor these patients for digitalis toxicity, which is evidenced by dysrhythmia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headache, and malaise

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  • 14. 

    What treatments are included for a patient with Rheumatic Endocarditis?

    • A.

      Norepinephrines and sedation Medication

    • B.

      ATB, Aspirin and corticosteroids

    • C.

      Anticoagulants and Cholinergics

    • D.

      Steroids

    Correct Answer
    B. ATB, Aspirin and corticosteroids
    Explanation
    Occurs most often in school-age children, after group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis.
    (Strep infect prior to 3 weeks. Pericardial and myocardial tissue affected. Permanent damage to valves. Strep must be treated)
    Treatment - Aspirin, corcosteroids and ATB
    Injury to heart tissue is caused by inflammatory or sensitivity reaction to the streptococci.
    Myocardial and pericardial tissue is also affected, but endocarditis results in permanent changes in the valves.
    Need to promptly recognize and treat “strep” throat to prevent rheumatic fever.

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  • 15. 

    What factors may lead to Infective Endocarditis?

    • A.

      Heart Disorder

    • B.

      IV Therapy

    • C.

      Illegal Drug Use

    • D.

      Needle sticks

    Correct Answer
    B. IV Therapy
    Explanation
    Infection of the inner heart
    May be caused by IV drugs
    A microbial infection of the endothelial surface of the heart. Vegetative growths occur and may embolize to tissues throughout the body.
    Usually develops in people with prosthetic heart valves or structural cardiac defects. Also occurs in patients who are IV drug abusers and in those with debilitating diseases, indwelling catheters, or prolonged IV therapy.
    Types:
    Acute - Onsets (teaching is prevention education)
    Subacute

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  • 16. 

    What three nursing diagnosis is used for Pericarditis?

    • A.

      Pain Management

    • B.

      IV Drugs

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Tripod or Orthopneic positioning

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pain Management
    C. Oxygen
    D. Tripod or Orthopneic positioning
    Explanation
    Inflammation of the pericardium
    Many causes
    Nursing diagnosis: pain
    Characteristics of heart pain (Angina)
    Treated with sitting up and resting hand on a table (Tripod)
    Give oxygen
    Potential complications
    Pericardial effusion – CT scan may help diagnose large effusion
    Cardiac tamponade – fluid that increases the pressure around the heart. (Emergency situation). Give oxygen, relieve pain.
    Pain may increase on inspiration.
    Pulse perdoxis – decrease by 10mm/hg in the systolic BP with inspiration

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