Activation of nociceptors in the bone overlying the point of minor trauma
Activation of nociceptors in muscles of the scalp and neck
Activation of the neo-spinothalamic tract reaching consciousness
Activation of the paleospinothalamic tract reaching consciousness
High levels of serotonin in blood due to stress related to the trauma
Brain stem herniation
Bilateral upward deviation of the eyeball.
Deviation of the tongue opposite to the side of lesion.
Paralysis of the muscles of mastication bilaterally.
Facial paralysis on the side of lesion.
Fixed and dilated pupil on the side of lesion.
Occipital lobe infarct
Laceration of ipsilateral pedunculus
Laceration of contralateral pedunculus
Transtentorial hypoccampal herniation
They are caused by traumatic injury only
They arise from tearing of bridging veins
They arise from tearing of middle meningeal arteries
They are most commonly present at the base of the brain
They are often unilateral
Tears of basilar artery with Duret hemorrhage
Compression of posterior and superior cerebellar arteries and cerebellar infarctions
Compression of cranial nerve III
Compression and tears of cerebral peduncles
Cerebral edema with herniation
Widespread areas of cortical and subcortical hemorrhages
Neuronal swelling and dissolution of Nissl substance
Chronic meningitis and increased intracranial pressure
Increased intracranial pressure due to intracranial mass
Acute meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to berry aneurysm rupture
Acute meningitis and intracerebral hemorrhages due to hemophilia A