Preparing For The Biology Exam? Our Ultimate Practice Quiz Can Help!

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Preparing For The Biology Exam? Our Ultimate Practice Quiz Can Help! - Quiz

Biology may be a tough subject to crack, but you’ll be happy you did it once you finally master the scientific study of biology. Take the following quiz on all of the ins and outs of biology to see if you’re ready for the big leagues – the final exam! Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What does DNA ligase do during DNA replication?

    • A.

      Seals the hydrogen bonds between the 2 strands of DNA.

    • B.

      Breaks the hydrogen bonds between the 2 strand of DNA.

    • C.

      Seals the nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds of one of the new DNA strands.

    • D.

      Seals the nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds of one of the old DNA strands.

    Correct Answer
    C. Seals the nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds of one of the new DNA strands.
    Explanation
    DNA ligase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication. It seals the nicks, or gaps, that are present in the sugar-phosphate backbone of one of the newly synthesized DNA strands. These nicks occur as a result of the discontinuous replication of the lagging strand, where small fragments called Okazaki fragments are synthesized in the opposite direction of the replication fork. DNA ligase catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between adjacent nucleotides, effectively joining the fragments and creating a continuous DNA strand. This process ensures the integrity and completeness of the newly synthesized DNA molecule.

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  • 2. 

    To determine whether a field of study is a science, you would:

    • A.

      Consider what questions are asked.

    • B.

      Consider what methods are used.

    • C.

      Consider what conclusions are made.

    • D.

      Look for people wearing lab coats.

    Correct Answer
    B. Consider what methods are used.
    Explanation
    To determine whether a field of study is a science, it is important to consider the methods that are used. Science is characterized by the use of systematic and empirical methods to gather and analyze data in order to test hypotheses and draw conclusions. By evaluating the methods employed in a field of study, one can determine if it adheres to the principles of scientific inquiry. This includes the use of controlled experiments, observation, measurement, and the application of logical reasoning. Examining the methods used provides insight into the scientific rigor and validity of a field of study.

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  • 3. 

    Strictly speaking, DNA replication leads to:

    • A.

      2 new copies of each DNA molecule.

    • B.

      1 new copy and one old copy of each DNA molecule.

    • C.

      2 copies of each DNA molecule that are each half old and half new.

    • D.

      2 copies of each DNA molecule that are both old.

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 copies of each DNA molecule that are each half old and half new.
    Explanation
    During DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA molecule unwinds and each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This process results in the formation of two new copies of the DNA molecule, with each copy consisting of one original (old) strand and one newly synthesized (new) strand. Therefore, the correct answer is that DNA replication leads to 2 copies of each DNA molecule that are each half old and half new.

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  • 4. 

    What does recombinant DNA technology refer to?

    • A.

      The process that produces a DNA fingerprint from a blood sample.

    • B.

      The process of cloning an individual.

    • C.

      The process of inserting gene from one organism into another.

    • D.

      The process of identifying a gene sequence.

    Correct Answer
    C. The process of inserting gene from one organism into another.
    Explanation
    Recombinant DNA technology refers to the process of inserting a gene from one organism into another. This technique allows scientists to manipulate and modify DNA, creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with desired traits. By transferring genes between different species, scientists can enhance crop yields, produce pharmaceuticals, and study gene function. This technology has revolutionized fields such as agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology.

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  • 5. 

    Which best describes why an allele is recessive?

    • A.

      Recessive alleles are weak alleles.

    • B.

      Recessive alleles make no functional gene product.

    • C.

      Recessive alleles are mutated forms of dominant alleles.

    • D.

      Recessive alleles are rare.

    Correct Answer
    B. Recessive alleles make no functional gene product.
    Explanation
    Recessive alleles are described as such because they do not produce a functional gene product. This means that when an individual carries two copies of a recessive allele, they will not have the normal gene product necessary for a particular trait or function. In contrast, dominant alleles produce a functional gene product even if only one copy is present. Therefore, the lack of a functional gene product is the defining characteristic of recessive alleles.

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  • 6. 

    When there are 2 alleles for a gene and both make a protein product the alleles are said to be:

    • A.

      Completely dominant.

    • B.

      Codominant.

    • C.

      Incompletely dominant.

    • D.

      Polygenic.

    Correct Answer
    B. Codominant.
    Explanation
    When there are 2 alleles for a gene and both make a protein product, the alleles are said to be codominant. This means that both alleles are equally expressed and contribute to the phenotype of the organism. In codominance, there is no dominance or recessiveness between the alleles, and both traits are fully expressed in the heterozygous condition.

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  • 7. 

    What is the name of the enzymes which cut DNA only at a specific sequence?

    • A.

      DNA Polymerases.

    • B.

      Ligases.

    • C.

      Restriction Enzymes.

    • D.

      Modification Enzymes.

    Correct Answer
    C. Restriction Enzymes.
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences known as restriction sites. These enzymes recognize specific patterns of nucleotides and cleave the DNA at those sites. This process is important in genetic engineering and molecular biology, as it allows researchers to manipulate and study DNA by cutting it at specific locations. DNA polymerases, ligases, and modification enzymes do not have the ability to cut DNA at specific sequences, making restriction enzymes the correct answer.

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  • 8. 

    A set of ideas that explain a broad set of observations is a:

    • A.

      Theory.

    • B.

      Law.

    • C.

      Hypothesis.

    • D.

      Inference.

    Correct Answer
    A. Theory.
    Explanation
    A theory is a set of ideas that can explain a broad range of observations. It is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a body of evidence and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through experimentation and observation. Theories are often used to make predictions and guide further research. In contrast, a law is a statement that describes a natural phenomenon or relationship, while a hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a specific observation or phenomenon. An inference, on the other hand, is a conclusion drawn from evidence or reasoning.

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  • 9. 

    Which one of the following characteristics is not necessary in order for an object to be considered living?

    • A.

      Ability to reproduce.

    • B.

      Ability to grow.

    • C.

      Ability to move.

    • D.

      Ability to respond to stimuli.

    Correct Answer
    C. Ability to move.
    Explanation
    The ability to move is not necessary for an object to be considered living because there are many living organisms, such as plants, that are rooted in one place and cannot move. While movement is a common characteristic of many living organisms, it is not a defining feature of life. Reproduction, growth, and the ability to respond to stimuli are all essential characteristics that distinguish living objects from non-living ones.

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  • 10. 

    The nucleotide that is found in RNA but not DNA is:

    • A.

      Adenine.

    • B.

      Cytosine.

    • C.

      Guanine.

    • D.

      Uracil.

    Correct Answer
    D. Uracil.
    Explanation
    Uracil is the nucleotide that is found in RNA but not DNA. In DNA, the nucleotide thymine is present instead of uracil. RNA uses uracil as a complementary base to adenine, while DNA uses thymine as a complementary base to adenine. This difference in nucleotides allows RNA to perform its various functions, such as protein synthesis and gene expression, while DNA is responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information.

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  • 11. 

    How does Gel Electrophoresis work?

    • A.

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel which binds the molecule together. The DNA fragments of different sizes are spliced together.

    • B.

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel and exposed to a current. The DNA is attracted to the charge and different sized fragments of DNA are separated.

    • C.

      The sample of DNA is repeatedly heated and cooled in the presence of DNA polymerase and free nucleotides. Many copies of the fragments of DNA are produced.

    • D.

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel which holds the fragments in place. In this way, a fragment of different length can be distinguished.

    Correct Answer
    B. A sample of DNA is added to a gel and exposed to a current. The DNA is attracted to the charge and different sized fragments of DNA are separated.
    Explanation
    Gel electrophoresis works by adding a sample of DNA to a gel and exposing it to a current. The DNA is attracted to the charge and different sized fragments of DNA are separated. This is because the smaller fragments move faster through the gel, while the larger fragments move slower. By running the gel for a specific amount of time, the fragments can be separated based on their size. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology to analyze and compare DNA samples.

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  • 12. 

    When geneticists speak of mutation, they are referring to:

    • A.

      An adaptation.

    • B.

      A deformity.

    • C.

      A change in the DNA sequence.

    • D.

      A change in the amino acid sequence.

    Correct Answer
    C. A change in the DNA sequence.
    Explanation
    Geneticists refer to mutation as a change in the DNA sequence. Mutations can occur due to various factors, such as errors during DNA replication or exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. These changes in the DNA sequence can lead to alterations in the genetic code, which can result in different traits or characteristics in an organism. This definition of mutation is widely accepted in the field of genetics and is essential for understanding the mechanisms of genetic variation and evolution.

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  • 13. 

    Why are DNA fingerprints useful?

    • A.

      When a sample of DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes and separated by gel electrophoresis, the result is unique for each individual.

    • B.

      The impression left behind by a DNA sample is unique for each individual.

    • C.

      When a sample of DNA is compared to an individual's fingerprints, you can distinguish among individuals.

    • D.

      When a sample of DNA is amplified with PCR and mixed with DNA Polymerase, a unique set of fragments are produced for each individual.

    Correct Answer
    A. When a sample of DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes and separated by gel electrophoresis, the result is unique for each individual.
    Explanation
    DNA fingerprints are useful because when a sample of DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes and separated by gel electrophoresis, the resulting pattern is unique for each individual. This allows for the identification and differentiation of individuals based on their DNA profiles. By comparing these unique patterns, scientists can determine relationships, establish paternity, and solve crimes.

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  • 14. 

    Natural Selection may be BEST defined as:

    • A.

      A difference between populations.

    • B.

      A difference between individuals.

    • C.

      A difference in survival between individuals.

    • D.

      A difference in reproduction between individuals.

    Correct Answer
    D. A difference in reproduction between individuals.
    Explanation
    Natural selection is a process in which individuals with favorable traits for survival and reproduction are more likely to pass on their genes to the next generation. This leads to a difference in reproduction between individuals, as those with advantageous traits have a higher chance of producing offspring. Differences between populations or individuals alone do not fully capture the essence of natural selection, as it specifically involves the differential reproductive success of individuals based on their traits.

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  • 15. 

    What is an example of a trait:

    • A.

      Fur color in a mammal.

    • B.

      Leg length in a bird.

    • C.

      Flower number in a plant.

    • D.

      Enzyme production in a fungus.

    • E.

      All of these.

    • F.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of these." This is because all the given examples - fur color in a mammal, leg length in a bird, flower number in a plant, and enzyme production in a fungus - represent traits. A trait is a characteristic or feature that can be inherited or observed in an organism. In this case, each example represents a specific trait that can vary among individuals within a species.

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  • 16. 

    Nuclear transfer was the cloning technique used to produce the sheep, Dolly. Which best describes nuclear transfer?

    • A.

      The nucleus of an egg and sperm are transferred into a donor egg.

    • B.

      The chromosomes are removed from an egg and replaced by the chromosomes from an adult cell.

    • C.

      The chromosomes from an egg are mixed with the chromosomes from an adult cell.

    • D.

      Selected chromosomes are transferred to the nucleus of an egg.

    • E.

      The nucleus of a fertilized egg is transferred to a donor egg.

    Correct Answer
    B. The chromosomes are removed from an egg and replaced by the chromosomes from an adult cell.
    Explanation
    Nuclear transfer involves the removal of chromosomes from an egg and replacing them with the chromosomes from an adult cell. This technique was used in the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

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  • 17. 

    What is necessary for natural selection to lead to evolution?

    • A.

      Individuals have different traits.

    • B.

      Traits affect reproduction.

    • C.

      Traits are inherited.

    • D.

      All of these.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these.
    Explanation
    For natural selection to lead to evolution, it is necessary for all of these conditions to be met. Individuals having different traits allows for variation within a population. Traits affecting reproduction means that certain traits will be more likely to be passed on to future generations. Lastly, traits being inherited ensures that these advantageous traits can be passed down from one generation to the next, leading to the accumulation of beneficial traits over time. Therefore, all of these factors are essential for natural selection to drive evolutionary change.

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  • 18. 

    According to question 18, what is true about the type of cloning discussed in the previous question?

    • A.

      The technique requires that the egg develops in a female's uterus.

    • B.

      The technique leads to the production of a newborn infant animal.

    • C.

      The clone would be a younger identical twin to the donor of the DNA.

    • D.

      All of these.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of these." This means that all of the statements mentioned in the options are true about the type of cloning discussed in the previous question. The technique does require that the egg develops in a female's uterus, it does lead to the production of a newborn infant animal, and the clone would indeed be a younger identical twin to the donor of the DNA.

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  • 19. 

    In a population of long-tailed weasels in central Missouri, individuals that turn white in the winter are rare. Individual weasels that turn white in winter are much more common in the northern part of the weasel's range. This appears to be an example of:

    • A.

      Homeostasis.

    • B.

      Responding to stimuli.

    • C.

      Interdependence.

    • D.

      Natural selection.

    Correct Answer
    D. Natural selection.
    Explanation
    This is an example of natural selection because the weasels that turn white in the winter are better adapted to their environment in the northern part of their range. This adaptation provides them with a survival advantage by allowing them to blend in with the snowy surroundings and avoid predation. Over time, this trait becomes more common in the population as those individuals have a higher chance of passing on their genes to the next generation.

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  • 20. 

    What enzyme is necessary to convert an RNA sequence back to it's complementary DNA sequence:

    • A.

      RNA Polymerase.

    • B.

      DNA Polymerase.

    • C.

      Reverse Transcriptase.

    • D.

      Ligase.

    Correct Answer
    C. Reverse Transcriptase.
    Explanation
    Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that is necessary to convert an RNA sequence back to its complementary DNA sequence. This enzyme is commonly found in retroviruses and is responsible for the process of reverse transcription, where RNA is used as a template to synthesize DNA. Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the synthesis of DNA from RNA, allowing the conversion of RNA into its complementary DNA sequence.

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  • 21. 

    When dogs become overheated, they pant. During panting, blood flow to the tongue increases and this circulates heat from the center of their body to where it can be dissipated. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Metabolism.

    • B.

      Homeostasis.

    • C.

      Adaptation.

    • D.

      Inheritance.

    Correct Answer
    B. Homeostasis.
    Explanation
    This is an example of homeostasis because it refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. In this case, when dogs become overheated, their body automatically responds by increasing blood flow to the tongue, which helps to dissipate the heat and regulate their body temperature. Homeostasis is a fundamental process that ensures the body's optimal functioning and survival.

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  • 22. 

    Over the past 5 years, the number of acres planted in genetically modified crops has:

    • A.

      Increased.

    • B.

      Decreased.

    • C.

      Remained stable.

    • D.

      Fluctuated randomly.

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "increased" because the question states that over the past 5 years, the number of acres planted in genetically modified crops has increased. This indicates that there has been a growth in the cultivation of genetically modified crops during this period.

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  • 23. 

    On page five of your textbook, there is a story about African dung beetles and elephants. We have similar dung beetles here in MO. Suppose you encountered one of these beetles rolling a ball of cow dung across a pasture. You are eager to explain, using the scientific method, why these beetles are rolling ball of cow manure. Your first step is to come up with a(n).

    • A.

      Experiment.

    • B.

      Prediction.

    • C.

      Hypothesis.

    • D.

      Observation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothesis.
    Explanation
    The first step in using the scientific method to explain why the beetles are rolling a ball of cow manure would be to come up with a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction based on available evidence and prior knowledge. In this case, the hypothesis could be that the beetles roll the ball of cow manure as a means of transportation or as a way to store food. This hypothesis can then be tested through experiments and observations to determine its validity.

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  • 24. 

    Three of the following are hypotheses concerning the dung beetle's behavior, select the exception.

    • A.

      The dung beetles store the balls of dung to feed on later.

    • B.

      The dung beetles lay eggs in the balls of dung and young will eat the dung when they hatch.

    • C.

      Only male dung beetles roll balls of dung.

    • D.

      Only female dung beetles roll balls of dung.

    • E.

      The dung beetles use the balls of dung to construct nests.

    Correct Answer
    D. Only female dung beetles roll balls of dung.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that only female dung beetles roll balls of dung. This is the exception among the given hypotheses. The other three hypotheses state that dung beetles store the balls of dung to feed on later, lay eggs in the balls of dung, and use the balls of dung to construct nests.

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  • 25. 

    You hypothesize that dung beetles lay eggs in the balls of dung and the young hatch and feed on the dung. Three of the following are reasonable predictions concerning your hypothesis, select the exception:

    • A.

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, the they will only roll balls of dung during daylight.

    • B.

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, then balls of dung placed in a container will hatch baby dung beetles.

    • C.

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, then most of the beetles rolling dung will be females.

    • D.

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung then dung rolling will be most common during the breeding season.

    Correct Answer
    A. If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, the they will only roll balls of dung during daylight.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, the they will only roll balls of dung during daylight." This is the exception because it does not directly relate to the hypothesis that dung beetles lay eggs in the balls of dung and the young hatch and feed on the dung. The other predictions are reasonable because they are all related to the behavior and characteristics of dung beetles in relation to their reproductive cycle.

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