Biology Final Exam Chapter 5

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Biology Exam Quizzes & Trivia

Biology review. Final exam review chapter 5


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If someone sitting at the other end of the restaurant smokes a cigarette, you may still breathe in some of that smoke.  the movement of smoke through the air of the restaurant is an example of what type of transports

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D.

      Active transport

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffusion
    Explanation
    The movement of smoke through the air of the restaurant is an example of diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which particles move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. In this case, the smoke particles move from the area where the person is smoking (higher concentration) to the rest of the restaurant (lower concentration), allowing you to breathe in some of that smoke.

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  • 2. 

    The total solute concentration in a red blood cell is about 2%. sucrose cannot pass through a red blood cell's plasma membrane, but water and urea can. osmosis will cause such a cell to shrink the most when the cell is immersed in which of the following?

    • A.

      A hypertonic sucrose solution

    • B.

      A hypotonic sucrose solution

    • C.

      A hypertonic urea solution

    • D.

      A hypotonic urea solution

    Correct Answer
    A. A hypertonic sucrose solution
    Explanation
    When a red blood cell is immersed in a hypertonic sucrose solution, the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. This creates a concentration gradient, causing water to move out of the cell through osmosis. As water leaves the cell, it will shrink the most because the sucrose molecules cannot pass through the red blood cell's plasma membrane. On the other hand, a hypotonic sucrose solution would cause water to move into the cell, leading to swelling. Urea, being able to pass through the membrane, would not cause as much water movement as sucrose. Therefore, a hypertonic sucrose solution is the best choice for causing the red blood cell to shrink the most.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following types of cellular transport require and expenditure of energy?

    • A.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      A and b

    Correct Answer
    B. Active transport
    Explanation
    Active transport is the correct answer because it is the only type of cellular transport that requires an expenditure of energy. Facilitated diffusion and osmosis are passive processes that do not require energy. Active transport, on the other hand, involves the movement of molecules or ions against their concentration gradient, which requires the input of energy in the form of ATP. This energy is used to pump molecules or ions across the cell membrane, allowing the cell to maintain or establish concentration gradients that are necessary for various cellular processes.

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  • 4. 

    A _________ is a process that links the reception of cell signals to responses within the cell.

    Correct Answer
    signal transduction pathway
    Explanation
    A signal transduction pathway is a process that connects the reception of cell signals to the corresponding responses within the cell. It involves a series of molecular events, such as the activation of receptors on the cell surface, the transmission of signals through intracellular signaling molecules, and the activation of specific cellular responses. This pathway allows cells to interpret and respond to external signals, such as hormones or growth factors, by triggering various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, or changes in cell behavior.

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  • 5. 

    You have to expend considerable energy to carry a heavy sofa up a flight of stairs. since energy cannot be destroyed, what happens to all the energy you spend?

  • 6. 

    The label on a candy bar says it has 150 calories. if you were able to convert all of that energy to hear, you could raise teh temperature of how much water by 15 degrees celcius.

  • 7. 

    ___________ is the capacity to perform work, while _________ is a measure of randomness.

    Correct Answer
    heat, entrophy
    Explanation
    Heat is the capacity to perform work, as it can be converted into other forms of energy to do mechanical work. Entropy, on the other hand, is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. It quantifies the number of possible arrangements or microstates that a system can have. As entropy increases, the system becomes more disordered and less organized.

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  • 8. 

    Why does removing a phosphate group from the triphosphate tail in a molecule of ATP release energy?

  • 9. 

    Your digestive system is equipped with a deversity of enzymes that break the polymers in your food down to monmers that your cells can assimilate. a generic name for a digestive enzyme is hydrolase. what is the chemical basis for that name?

  • 10. 

    Explain how an inhibitor can disrupt the action of an enyzme even though it does not bind to the enyzmes active site.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
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