Biology 1406 Exam 2

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Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    How is glucose (a large and polar molecule) transported inside the cell passively?

    • A.

      Facilitated transport

    • B.

      Osmosis

    • C.

      Simple diffusion

    • D.

      Active transport

    Correct Answer
    A. Facilitated transport
    Explanation
    Glucose, being a large and polar molecule, cannot passively diffuse across the cell membrane. Facilitated transport is the process by which glucose is transported inside the cell. This process involves the use of carrier proteins embedded in the cell membrane that bind to glucose molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane. Unlike active transport, facilitated transport does not require the input of energy. Therefore, facilitated transport is the most suitable explanation for how glucose is transported inside the cell passively.

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  • 2. 

    What substance influences the fluidity of the plasma membrane? it is a two word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    fatty acid
    Explanation
    Fatty acids are a type of lipid that make up the plasma membrane. The length and saturation of fatty acids can affect the fluidity of the membrane. Shorter and unsaturated fatty acids increase fluidity, while longer and saturated fatty acids decrease fluidity. Therefore, the presence and composition of fatty acids directly influence the fluidity of the plasma membrane.

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  • 3. 

    Refer to figure below. A U-shaped tube is divided at the center with a semipermeable membrane. The membrane is permeable to water but not permeable to glucose. Each side of the U-shape tube is filled with equal amount of glucose solution, side A with 1% and side B with 10%. The set-up is left for some  time. At equilibrium, what happens to the concentration of the glucose in side A and in side B?

    • A.

      Theoretically, the concentration of glucose in side A is greater than in side B

    • B.

      Theoretically, the concentration of glucose in side A is less then side B

    • C.

      Theoretically, the concentration of glucose in side A and in side B is equal

    • D.

      Not enough information given to answer

    Correct Answer
    C. Theoretically, the concentration of glucose in side A and in side B is equal
    Explanation
    The semipermeable membrane only allows water to pass through, not glucose. Therefore, over time, water will move from the side with lower concentration of solute (side A with 1% glucose) to the side with higher concentration of solute (side B with 10% glucose) in order to equalize the concentration. As a result, the concentration of glucose in side A will increase, while the concentration in side B will decrease. At equilibrium, the concentration of glucose in side A and side B will be equal.

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  • 4. 

    A red blood cell (RBC) has a concentration of 0.9% NaCl is put in a beaker with 1.8% NaCl. Assume NaCl is not permeable to membrane. What is the tonicity of the solution inside the RBC in relation to the solution outside the RBC?

    • A.

      Solution inside the RBC is hypertonic in relation to the solution outside the RBC

    • B.

      Solution inside the RBC is hypotonic in relation to the solution outside the RBC

    • C.

      Solution inside the RBC is isotonic in relation to the solution outside the RBC

    Correct Answer
    B. Solution inside the RBC is hypotonic in relation to the solution outside the RBC
    Explanation
    The concentration of NaCl inside the RBC is lower (0.9%) compared to the concentration outside the RBC (1.8%). This means that the solution outside the RBC is more concentrated, making it hypertonic. In contrast, the solution inside the RBC is less concentrated, making it hypotonic.

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  • 5. 

    A red blood cell (RBC) has a concentration of 0.9% NaCl is put in a beaker with 1.8% NaCl. Assume NaCl is not permeable to membrane. What will happen to the RBC after sometime?

    • A.

      RBC will shrink

    • B.

      RBC will swell

    • C.

      RBC will stay the same

    • D.

      RBC will burst

    Correct Answer
    A. RBC will shrink
    Explanation
    When a red blood cell (RBC) with a lower concentration of NaCl (0.9%) is placed in a solution with a higher concentration of NaCl (1.8%), water molecules will move out of the RBC through osmosis. This is because the solution outside the RBC has a higher solute concentration, creating a hypertonic environment. As water leaves the RBC, it will shrink or crenate. Therefore, the correct answer is that the RBC will shrink.

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  • 6. 

    The process that is used by animals to secrete digestive enzymes into stomach and small intestines is called ________. It is a one-word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    exocytosis
    Explanation
    Exocytosis is the process by which animals secrete digestive enzymes into the stomach and small intestines. During exocytosis, vesicles containing the enzymes fuse with the cell membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular space. This allows the enzymes to be transported and delivered to the appropriate locations for digestion.

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  • 7. 

    Osmosis is the net diffusion of ________ molecules across a membrane toward a higher solute concentration. It is a one word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    water, H2O
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the process by which water molecules move across a membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. This movement occurs to equalize the solute concentration on both sides of the membrane. The correct answer is "water" or "H2O" because osmosis specifically refers to the movement of water molecules.

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  • 8. 

    Plants that survive winter or tolerate cold temperatures have plenty of (saturated fatty acids / unsaturated fatty acids) in there are their plasma membranes. Type the three words in your answer.

    Correct Answer
    unsaturated fatty acids
    Explanation
    Plants that survive winter or tolerate cold temperatures have plenty of unsaturated fatty acids in their plasma membranes. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds in their carbon chains, which gives them a more fluid and flexible structure. This allows the plasma membranes of these plants to remain functional even in cold temperatures, as they can adjust their fluidity to prevent freezing and maintain membrane integrity. Saturated fatty acids, on the other hand, have no double bonds and tend to have a more rigid structure, making them less suitable for cold tolerance.

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  • 9. 

    Refer to figure below. The blue balls and the red rectangles are two different solutes. Solution with blue solutes is placed in side A of a container and solution with red solutes is placed in side B of the container. The membrane that divides the two solutions is permeable to both solutes. At what direction is the net movement of the blue solutes and red solutes?

    • A.

      Blue balls stay in side A, red rectangles stay in side B

    • B.

      Blue balls move from side A to side B, red rectangles stay in side B

    • C.

      Blue balls stay in side A, red rectangles move from side B to side A

    • D.

      Blue balls move from side A to side B, red rectangles move from side B to side A

    Correct Answer
    D. Blue balls move from side A to side B, red rectangles move from side B to side A
    Explanation
    The net movement of the blue solutes is from side A to side B because there is a higher concentration of blue solutes in side A compared to side B. On the other hand, the net movement of the red solutes is from side B to side A because there is a higher concentration of red solutes in side B compared to side A.

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  • 10. 

    Refer to the figure below. The U tube is divided in the center by a semipermeable membrane. The membrane is permeable to water but not to urea. To what direction is the net movement of the water molecules?

    • A.

      Net movement of water molecules is from side B to side A

    • B.

      Net movement of water molecules is from side A to side B

    • C.

      Net movement of water molecules go both directions

    Correct Answer
    A. Net movement of water molecules is from side B to side A
    Explanation
    The net movement of water molecules is from side B to side A because the semipermeable membrane is permeable to water but not to urea. This means that water molecules can pass through the membrane, but urea molecules cannot. As a result, there is a higher concentration of water molecules on side B compared to side A. According to the principle of osmosis, water molecules will move from an area of higher concentration (side B) to an area of lower concentration (side A) in order to equalize the concentrations on both sides.

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  • 11. 

    What carrier proteins move two molecules in opposite directions?

    • A.

      Uniporters

    • B.

      Antiporters

    • C.

      Symporters

    • D.

      Phagocytosis

    • E.

      Option 5

    Correct Answer
    B. Antiporters
    Explanation
    Antiporters are carrier proteins that move two molecules in opposite directions across the cell membrane. They use the energy derived from the movement of one molecule down its concentration gradient to transport the second molecule against its concentration gradient. This process is known as countertransport or exchange transport. Antiporters play a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as the exchange of ions, nutrients, and waste products across cell membranes.

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  • 12. 

    Which statements are true about Na+/K+ pump?

    • A.

      It involves the direct use of ATP

    • B.

      Na+ and K+ move along their concentration gradient

    • C.

      Na+ and K+ move against their concentration gradient

    • D.

      It uses carrier proteins

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It involves the direct use of ATP
    C. Na+ and K+ move against their concentration gradient
    D. It uses carrier proteins
    Explanation
    The Na+/K+ pump is an active transport mechanism that involves the direct use of ATP. It uses carrier proteins to move Na+ and K+ ions against their concentration gradient. This means that it moves Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell, both against their respective concentration gradients. This process is essential for maintaining the resting membrane potential and for various cellular functions such as nerve signal transmission and muscle contraction.

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  • 13. 

    Which statements is true about the structure of the plasma membrane?

    • A.

      It is composed of one layer of a phospholipid and no proteins

    • B.

      It is composed of two layers of phospholipids and mosaic of proteins

    • C.

      Has no major components

    • D.

      Inflexible and hydrophillic

    Correct Answer
    B. It is composed of two layers of phospholipids and mosaic of proteins
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the plasma membrane is composed of two layers of phospholipids and a mosaic of proteins. This is a well-known fact in cell biology. The phospholipid bilayer forms the basic structure of the membrane, with the hydrophilic heads facing outward and the hydrophobic tails facing inward. The proteins are embedded within the phospholipid bilayer and have various functions, such as transport of molecules, cell signaling, and structural support. This structure allows the plasma membrane to regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell and maintain cellular integrity.

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  • 14. 

    Refer to figure below. A U-shaped tube is divided at the center with a semipermeable membrane. The membrane is permeable to water and NaCl but not to protein. Each side of the U-shape tube is filled with equal amount of solution of protein and NaCl, Side a with 6g proteins and 2g NaCl and Side B with 4g protein and 4g NaCl. After some time, what happens to the level of solution in side A?

    • A.

      Level of solution in side A increases

    • B.

      Level of solution in side B increases

    • C.

      Level of solution on both sides stay the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Level of solution in side A increases
    Explanation
    The level of solution in side A increases because the concentration of protein is higher in side B compared to side A. As the semipermeable membrane is permeable to NaCl and water, but not to protein, water will move from side A to side B in order to dilute the higher concentration of protein. This movement of water causes the level of solution in side A to increase.

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  • 15. 

    Refer to figure below. The blue balls and the red rectangles are two different solutes. Solution with blue solutes is placed in side A of a container and solution with red rectangles is placed in side B of the container. The membrane that divides the two solutions is permeable to both solutes. At equilibrium, how many blue balls are there in each side of the container?

    • A.

      No blue balls in side A, 6 blue balls in side B

    • B.

      4 blue balls in side A, 2 blue balls in side B

    • C.

      3 blue balls in side A, 3 blue balls in side B

    • D.

      6 blue balls in side A, no blue balls in side B

    Correct Answer
    C. 3 blue balls in side A, 3 blue balls in side B
    Explanation
    At equilibrium, the movement of solutes across the permeable membrane will continue until the concentrations on both sides of the membrane are equal. Therefore, the number of blue balls in each side of the container will be the same, resulting in 3 blue balls in side A and 3 blue balls in side B.

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  • 16. 

    Differentiate passive transport from active transport

    • A.

      Passive transport moves materials against the concentration gradient while active transport moves materials along the concentration gradient

    • B.

      Passive transport requires energy while active transport requires no energy

    • C.

      Passive transport requires the use of highly selective carrier proteins and active transport does not

    • D.

      Passive transport moves materials along the concentration gradient while active transport moves materials against the concentration gradient

    Correct Answer
    D. Passive transport moves materials along the concentration gradient while active transport moves materials against the concentration gradient
    Explanation
    Passive transport is the movement of materials along the concentration gradient, meaning from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, without the need for energy. On the other hand, active transport moves materials against the concentration gradient, meaning from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, and requires energy. Therefore, the given answer correctly distinguishes between passive and active transport based on the direction of material movement and the requirement of energy.

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  • 17. 

    It is a bulk transport process performed by cells and it involves taking in droplets of liquids. It is a one-word answer and spelling matters. Be specific in your answer.

    Correct Answer
    pinocytosis
    Explanation
    Pinocytosis is a bulk transport process performed by cells where they take in droplets of liquids. This process involves the formation of small vesicles that engulf the liquid and bring it into the cell. It is a one-word answer and the correct spelling is important.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following require ATP to transport substances?

    • A.

      Exocytosis

    • B.

      Endocytosis

    • C.

      Coupled transport

    • D.

      Sodium-potassium pump

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Exocytosis
    B. Endocytosis
    C. Coupled transport
    D. Sodium-potassium pump
    Explanation
    Exocytosis, endocytosis, coupled transport, and the sodium-potassium pump all require ATP to transport substances. Exocytosis is the process by which substances are released from a cell, and ATP is needed to power the fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane. Endocytosis involves the uptake of substances into a cell, and ATP is required for the formation of vesicles and their internalization. Coupled transport refers to the movement of substances across a membrane against their concentration gradient, and ATP is necessary to provide the energy for this process. The sodium-potassium pump is responsible for maintaining the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane, and ATP is utilized to power the active transport of these ions.

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  • 19. 

    By what transport process O2 and CO2 go in and out of the cell? It is a one-word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer(s)
    diffusion
    Explanation
    Oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules move in and out of the cell through the process of diffusion. Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down the concentration gradient. In the case of O2 and CO2, they diffuse across the cell membrane, which is selectively permeable to allow the passage of these gases. This process is essential for the exchange of gases between the cell and its surroundings, ensuring that the cell receives oxygen for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide waste.

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  • 20. 

    Which processes move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration?

    • A.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • B.

      Osmosis

    • C.

      Active transport

    • D.

      Simple diffusion

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Facilitated diffusion
    B. Osmosis
    D. Simple diffusion
    Explanation
    Facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and simple diffusion all involve the movement of substances from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion refers to the passive transport of molecules across a cell membrane with the help of transport proteins. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Simple diffusion is the movement of molecules directly across the cell membrane without the need for transport proteins. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy and moves substances against the concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.

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  • 21. 

    Which proteins are responsible for the transport of substances?

    • A.

      Glycoproteins

    • B.

      Peripheral proteins

    • C.

      Integral membrane proteins

    • D.

      Intracellular membrane proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Integral membrane proteins
    Explanation
    Integral membrane proteins are responsible for the transport of substances across the cell membrane. These proteins are embedded within the lipid bilayer of the membrane and have hydrophobic regions that allow them to interact with the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. They play a crucial role in transporting molecules such as ions, nutrients, and signaling molecules across the membrane, ensuring the proper functioning and homeostasis of the cell. Glycoproteins, peripheral proteins, and intracellular membrane proteins may also have various functions within the cell, but they are not specifically responsible for substance transport across the membrane.

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  • 22. 

    What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?

    • A.

      Simple diffusion requires no transport proteins while facilitated diffusion requires transport proteins

    • B.

      Simple diffusion is the movement of nonpolar molecules while facilitated diffusion is the movement of small molecules

    • C.

      Simple diffusion requires transport proteins while facilitated diffusion requires no transport proteins

    • D.

      Simple diffusion repels smaller and larger polar molecules while facilitated diffusion allows O2, CO2, and H2O to diffuse in an out of the plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Simple diffusion requires no transport proteins while facilitated diffusion requires transport proteins
    Explanation
    Simple diffusion is the passive movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, without the need for transport proteins. On the other hand, facilitated diffusion also involves the passive movement of molecules, but it requires the assistance of transport proteins embedded in the cell membrane. These proteins act as channels or carriers to facilitate the movement of specific molecules across the membrane. Therefore, the correct answer is that simple diffusion requires no transport proteins while facilitated diffusion requires transport proteins.

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  • 23. 

    If plasma membrane has more saturated fatty acids, the plasma membrane is (more fluid/ less fluid).

    Correct Answer
    less fluid
    Explanation
    If the plasma membrane has more saturated fatty acids, it means that there are fewer double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains. This results in a more tightly packed arrangement of the fatty acids, making the plasma membrane less fluid. Saturated fatty acids have straight chains that can easily stack together, reducing the movement of the phospholipids in the membrane. As a result, the membrane becomes more rigid and less fluid.

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  • 24. 

    Semi-permeability of plasma membrane means 

    • A.

      All substances can pass through

    • B.

      Some substances can pass through and some cannot

    • C.

      No substances can pass through

    Correct Answer
    B. Some substances can pass through and some cannot
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "some substances can pass through and some cannot." This is because the plasma membrane is selectively permeable, allowing certain substances to pass through while restricting the passage of others. The membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that regulate the movement of molecules in and out of the cell. Small, non-polar molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide can freely diffuse across the membrane, while larger molecules and ions require specific transport proteins or channels to cross. This selective permeability is essential for maintaining homeostasis and controlling the internal environment of the cell.

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  • 25. 

    Carrot sticks that are left in a dish with fresh tap water for several hours become stiff and hard because the solution inside the cells of the carrot is ________ to fresh tap water.

    Correct Answer
    hypertonic
    Explanation
    When carrot sticks are left in a dish with fresh tap water for several hours, they become stiff and hard because the solution inside the cells of the carrot is hypertonic to fresh tap water. This means that the concentration of solutes inside the carrot cells is higher than that of the tap water. As a result, water from the tap water moves into the carrot cells through osmosis, causing the cells to expand and become stiff and hard.

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  • 26. 

    Which statements describe an enzyme?

    • A.

      Enzymes are not specific for their reactions

    • B.

      Enzyme speeds up the reaction by decreasing the activation energy

    • C.

      Enzyme slows down the reaction by decreasing activation energy

    • D.

      Enzyme can be reused after the reaction

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Enzyme speeds up the reaction by decreasing the activation energy
    D. Enzyme can be reused after the reaction
    Explanation
    Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. This allows the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. Enzymes are highly specific for their reactions, meaning that each enzyme is designed to catalyze a particular reaction or set of reactions. Additionally, enzymes are not consumed or permanently altered during the reaction, so they can be reused multiple times.

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  • 27. 

    How does an enzyme increase the rate of chemical reaction?

    • A.

      By raising the energy of activation

    • B.

      By being consumed by the reaction

    • C.

      By stabilizing existing bonds

    • D.

      By lowering the energy of activation

    Correct Answer
    D. By lowering the energy of activation
    Explanation
    Enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the energy of activation. The energy of activation is the energy required to start a reaction. By lowering this energy barrier, enzymes make it easier for the reaction to occur, thus increasing the reaction rate. Enzymes achieve this by binding to the reactants and bringing them closer together in a way that facilitates the formation of new bonds or the breaking of existing bonds. This lowers the overall energy required for the reaction to proceed, making it more likely to happen.

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  • 28. 

    What type of reaction (exergonic or endergonic) is shown in the equation below? C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)

    Correct Answer
    exergonic
    Explanation
    The given equation represents the process of cellular respiration, which is the breakdown of glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. In this reaction, glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are reactants, and carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and ATP are products. Since energy is released in this reaction, it is considered exergonic.

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  • 29. 

    What are examples of energy transformation?

    • A.

      Burning wood releases heat and light

    • B.

      Light energy from the sun is transformed by plants to chemical energy stored in the bonds of glucose

    • C.

      When plants are eaten by animals, the chemical energy in glucose is transformed to energy in ATP

    • D.

      When animals walk, run, or move, the chemical energy in ATP is transformed to mechanical energy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Burning wood releases heat and light
    B. Light energy from the sun is transformed by plants to chemical energy stored in the bonds of glucose
    C. When plants are eaten by animals, the chemical energy in glucose is transformed to energy in ATP
    D. When animals walk, run, or move, the chemical energy in ATP is transformed to mechanical energy
    Explanation
    The examples provided in the answer demonstrate different forms of energy transformation. Burning wood releases heat and light energy, which is a transformation from chemical energy stored in the wood. Plants transform light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in glucose through photosynthesis. When animals consume plants, the chemical energy in glucose is transformed into ATP, which is a form of energy used by cells. Finally, when animals move, the chemical energy in ATP is transformed into mechanical energy, allowing for physical motion.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following have kinetic energy?

    • A.

      Ball rolling on the grass

    • B.

      Rock sitting at the top of the cliff

    • C.

      Person diving in the swimming pool

    • D.

      A book on a table

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ball rolling on the grass
    C. Person diving in the swimming pool
    Explanation
    The ball rolling on the grass and the person diving in the swimming pool both have kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. In both cases, the ball and the person are in motion, so they possess kinetic energy. The rock sitting at the top of the cliff and the book on a table are not in motion, so they do not have kinetic energy.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following are true if the chemical reaction has a positive ∆G?

    • A.

      Non-spontaneous reaction

    • B.

      Products have less free energy

    • C.

      Enthalpy is higher

    • D.

      Endergonic reaction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Non-spontaneous reaction
    C. Enthalpy is higher
    D. Endergonic reaction
    Explanation
    If a chemical reaction has a positive ∆G (Gibbs free energy), it means that the reaction is non-spontaneous. This implies that the reaction does not occur spontaneously in the given conditions and requires an input of energy to proceed. Additionally, a positive ∆G indicates that the products of the reaction have higher free energy compared to the reactants, meaning that they are less stable. This is consistent with the statement that the enthalpy is higher. Lastly, a positive ∆G indicates that the reaction is endergonic, meaning that it requires an input of energy to proceed.

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  • 32. 

    In the reaction below, what are the intermediate products? A  →  B  → C  →  D  →  X     E1        E2        E3         E4             E = enzyme

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      X

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. B
    C. C
    D. D
  • 33. 

    According to the induce-fit model of enzyme action, ________ change/s slightly in shape to conform to the shape of the ________.

    • A.

      Active sites of enzyme; substrate

    • B.

      Substrate; active site of enzyme

    • C.

      Site other than the active site; substrate

    • D.

      Allosteric site; inhibitor

    Correct Answer
    A. Active sites of enzyme; substrate
    Explanation
    According to the induce-fit model of enzyme action, the active sites of enzyme change slightly in shape to conform to the shape of the substrate.

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  • 34. 

    Refer to figure below. Why there is an increasing rate of reaction when temperature is increased from 0o to 40oC?

    • A.

      Increasing the temperature decreases the activation energy

    • B.

      Increasing the temperature slows down the movement of molecules

    • C.

      Increasing the temperature causes more effective collision between enzyme and substrate

    • D.

      Increasing the temperature causes ionic bonds to be sensitive to the concentration of H+

    Correct Answer
    C. Increasing the temperature causes more effective collision between enzyme and substrate
    Explanation
    Increasing the temperature causes more effective collision between enzyme and substrate. As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the molecules also increases. This leads to higher molecular movement and more frequent collisions between the enzyme and substrate. These collisions are necessary for the reaction to occur. Therefore, increasing the temperature enhances the chances of successful collisions, leading to an increasing rate of reaction.

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  • 35. 

    In feedback inhibition, the inhibitor of the biochemical pathway is the ________. It is two words and spelling matters

    Correct Answer
    final product
    Explanation
    In feedback inhibition, the final product of a biochemical pathway acts as the inhibitor. This means that when the concentration of the final product reaches a certain level, it binds to and inhibits one of the enzymes in the pathway, effectively shutting down the production of more product. This mechanism helps regulate and maintain homeostasis within the cell or organism by preventing the overproduction of certain molecules.

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  • 36. 

    Potential energy is stored energy. Which of the following has potential energy?

    • A.

      A satellite orbiting Earth

    • B.

      Water used to run water mills

    • C.

      An apple up on the apple tree

    • D.

      A person skiing down a mountain

    Correct Answer
    C. An apple up on the apple tree
    Explanation
    An apple up on the apple tree has potential energy because it is in a higher position and can potentially fall down due to gravity. When it falls, its potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy.

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  • 37. 

    What is the ∆G of the reaction shown below?

    • A.

      Positive ∆G

    • B.

      Negative ∆G

    • C.

      ∆G equals zero

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative ∆G
    Explanation
    The negative ∆G indicates that the reaction is thermodynamically favorable and spontaneous. This means that the products of the reaction have a lower free energy than the reactants, and the reaction will proceed in the forward direction without the need for external energy input.

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  • 38. 

    What energy is released to the environment during energy transformation? It is a one-word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    heat
    Explanation
    During energy transformation, heat is released to the environment. This occurs when energy changes form from one type to another, such as from chemical energy to heat energy or from mechanical energy to heat energy. Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object, and it is often released as a byproduct of various energy conversions.

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  • 39. 

    ________ reaction releases ATP and ________ molecules

    • A.

      Anabolic; builds

    • B.

      Catabolic; breaks down

    • C.

      Anabolic; breaks down

    • D.

      Catabolic; builds

    Correct Answer
    B. Catabolic; breaks down
    Explanation
    Catabolic reactions break down larger molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process. This energy is used to produce ATP, which is the main energy currency of cells. Therefore, the given answer "catabolic; breaks down" is correct because catabolic reactions break down molecules and release ATP.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following statements is not true about redox reaction?

    • A.

      Involves the transfer of electrons between reactants

    • B.

      In oxidation, a substance loses electrons

    • C.

      The oxidizing agent accepts electrons from the electron donor

    • D.

      The reducing agent is reduced

    Correct Answer
    D. The reducing agent is reduced
    Explanation
    The statement "the reducing agent is reduced" is not true about redox reactions. In a redox reaction, the reducing agent actually donates electrons to another substance, causing itself to be oxidized. The reducing agent is responsible for the reduction of another substance by giving away electrons. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that the reducing agent is reduced in a redox reaction.

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  • 41. 

    Which statement about allosteric enzyme is false?

    • A.

      Activators and inhibitors compete with substrate for binding in active sites

    • B.

      Allosteric enzymes exist in active and inactive forms

    • C.

      The active form is stablized by the allosteric activator

    • D.

      The inactive form is stabilized by the allosteric inhibitor

    Correct Answer
    A. Activators and inhibitors compete with substrate for binding in active sites
    Explanation
    Allosteric enzymes have a unique regulatory mechanism where activators and inhibitors bind to a site other than the active site. This means that they do not compete with the substrate for binding in the active site. Instead, the binding of an activator or inhibitor at the allosteric site causes a conformational change in the enzyme, either stabilizing the active form or stabilizing the inactive form. Therefore, the statement that activators and inhibitors compete with the substrate for binding in active sites is false.

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  • 42. 

    Oxidizing agents accept electrons and are oxidized.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Oxidizing agents are substances that cause other substances to lose electrons, while they themselves are reduced. In other words, they gain electrons and are reduced, not oxidized. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 43. 

    Refer to figure below. Which enzyme is denatured at basic pH?

    • A.

      Chymotrypsin

    • B.

      Cholinesterase

    • C.

      Pepsin

    • D.

      Papsin

    Correct Answer
    A. Chymotrypsin
    Explanation
    Chymotrypsin is denatured at basic pH because it is an enzyme that functions optimally at a slightly acidic pH. Basic pH conditions can disrupt the enzyme's active site and alter its structure, leading to denaturation. Cholinesterase, pepsin, and papsin are not affected by basic pH and can function under a wider range of pH conditions.

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  • 44. 

    Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?

    • A.

      Noncompetitive inhibition

    • B.

      Allosteric inhibition

    • C.

      Feedback inhibition

    • D.

      Competitive inhibition

    Correct Answer
    D. Competitive inhibition
    Explanation
    Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome competitive inhibition. Competitive inhibition occurs when a molecule similar in structure to the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, preventing the substrate from binding. By increasing the substrate concentration, the chances of the substrate successfully binding to the active site increase, thereby outcompeting the inhibitor and overcoming the inhibition.

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  • 45. 

    Which enzyme inhibitor/s bind/s in the active site of the enzyme?

    • A.

      Allosteric inhibitor only

    • B.

      Competitive enzyme inhibitor only

    • C.

      Allosteric inhibitor and competitive enzyme inhibitor

    • D.

      Competitive enzyme inhibitor and noncompetitive enzyme inhibitor

    Correct Answer
    B. Competitive enzyme inhibitor only
    Explanation
    Competitive enzyme inhibitors are molecules that bind to the active site of an enzyme and compete with the substrate for binding. This means that they have a similar structure to the substrate and can effectively block the enzyme's active site, preventing the substrate from binding and inhibiting the enzyme's activity. Therefore, the correct answer is "competitive enzyme inhibitor only" as it specifically refers to inhibitors that bind in the active site.

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  • 46. 

    How many ATP are produced from fermentation of two molecules of glucose to four molecules of lactic acid? Your answer must be numeral with description such as 2 ATP

    Correct Answer
    4 ATP
    Explanation
    During fermentation, two molecules of glucose are converted into four molecules of lactic acid. This process does not involve the electron transport chain and occurs in the absence of oxygen. As a result, only a small amount of ATP is produced through substrate-level phosphorylation. Each molecule of glucose produces two molecules of ATP, so with the fermentation of two molecules of glucose, a total of four molecules of ATP are produced.

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  • 47. 

    When proteins are used to generate ATP, they are first broken down to ________. It is a two-word answer (plural) and spelling matters

    Correct Answer
    amino acids
    Explanation
    Proteins are broken down into amino acids in order to generate ATP. This process involves the breaking of peptide bonds between the amino acids in the protein molecule. These individual amino acids can then be further metabolized to produce ATP through various metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and play a crucial role in energy production within cells.

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  • 48. 

    Which is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      Sulfate

    • D.

      Carbonate

    Correct Answer
    B. O2
    Explanation
    O2 is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration. During aerobic respiration, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP, carbon dioxide, and water. Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, which is the last step of aerobic respiration. It accepts electrons from the electron carriers and combines with protons to form water. Without oxygen, aerobic respiration cannot proceed, and cells would not be able to produce sufficient energy.

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  • 49. 

    What process generates the most ATP from one molecule of glucose? And what process generates the least ATP from one molecule of glucose?

    • A.

      Aerobic cellular respiration; anaerobic cellular respiration

    • B.

      Fermentation; aerobic cellular respiration

    • C.

      Aerobic cellular respiration; fermentation

    • D.

      Anaerobic cellular respiration; fermentation

    Correct Answer
    C. Aerobic cellular respiration; fermentation
    Explanation
    Aerobic cellular respiration is the process that generates the most ATP from one molecule of glucose. This process occurs in the presence of oxygen and involves the complete breakdown of glucose to produce a large amount of ATP. On the other hand, fermentation is the process that generates the least ATP from one molecule of glucose. This process occurs in the absence of oxygen and involves the partial breakdown of glucose, resulting in the production of a small amount of ATP.

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  • 50. 

    In ethanol fermentation, what is reduced by NADH? It is a one-word answer (singular) and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    acetaldehyde
    Explanation
    In ethanol fermentation, NADH is reduced by acetaldehyde.

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