Biology 105 Final Review

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Biology 105 Final Review - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Matter is anything that has mass (weight) or takes up space, which includes everything.  Matter is made up of elements.  The three most common elements in the human body are:

    • A.

      Nitrogen, carbon, oxygen

    • B.

      Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

    • C.

      Carbon, calcium, oxygen

    • D.

      Calcium, hydrogen, oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    Explanation
    The human body is composed of various elements, but the three most common elements found in it are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These elements are essential for the formation of organic compounds and play crucial roles in biological processes. Carbon is the backbone of organic molecules, hydrogen is involved in bonding and energy transfer, and oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration. Therefore, the combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen accurately represents the most common elements in the human body.

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  • 2. 

    The smallest part of an element is an atom.  Each atom is made up of subatomic particles. Which of the following subatomic particles have a positive charge?

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Protons

    • C.

      Neutrons

    • D.

      Isotrons

    • E.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    B. Protons
    Explanation
    Protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge. They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons, which have no charge. Electrons, on the other hand, have a negative charge and orbit around the nucleus. Isotrons are not a recognized subatomic particle, so the correct answer is protons.

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  • 3. 

    Atoms that combine by electron bonding form ___________.

    • A.

      Cells

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Molecules

    • D.

      Premoles

    Correct Answer
    C. Molecules
    Explanation
    Atoms that combine by electron bonding form molecules. When atoms come together and share or transfer electrons, they form chemical bonds. These bonds create stable structures known as molecules. Molecules can be composed of two or more atoms of the same or different elements. This process of electron bonding allows atoms to achieve a more stable and lower energy state. Molecules play a crucial role in various chemical reactions and are the building blocks of all matter. Therefore, the correct answer is molecules.

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  • 4. 

     Water is formed when 2 atoms of hydrogen bond with 1 atom of oxygen.  The human body is approximately _______% H2O

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      90%

    • C.

      25%

    • D.

      60%

    Correct Answer
    D. 60%
    Explanation
    Water is formed when 2 atoms of hydrogen bond with 1 atom of oxygen. The human body is approximately 60% H2O. This means that a significant portion of the human body is composed of water. Water is essential for various bodily functions such as regulating temperature, transporting nutrients, and removing waste. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain proper hydration levels for overall health and well-being.

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  • 5. 

    Macromolecules are large non-living molecules called polymers that are made up of many single units called monomers joined together by dehydration synthesis.  Which of the following macromolecules is important for short term energy for your body?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Lipid

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Amino acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is an important macromolecule for short term energy for the body. Glucose is a simple sugar and a monomer that can be easily broken down by the body to release energy. It is the main source of energy for the brain and muscles. When glucose is consumed, it is broken down through a process called cellular respiration to produce ATP, which is used as energy by the cells. Therefore, glucose plays a crucial role in providing immediate energy for bodily functions.

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  • 6. 

    The smallest Unit of life (smallest living thing) is a/an

    • A.

      Atom

    • B.

      Molecule

    • C.

      Cell

    • D.

      Sperm

    • E.

      Tissue

    Correct Answer
    C. Cell
    Explanation
    A cell is considered the smallest unit of life because it is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. Cells are capable of carrying out all the necessary processes for life, such as metabolism, reproduction, and response to stimuli. They are composed of various molecules and organelles, working together to maintain the life functions of an organism. While atoms and molecules are essential components of cells, they alone cannot exhibit the characteristics of life. Sperm and tissue are specialized forms of cells and are not considered the smallest unit of life.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) found in living things?

    • A.

      Respiration

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Reproduction

    • D.

      Growth

    • E.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the choices
    Explanation
    All of the choices - respiration, metabolism, reproduction, and growth are characteristics found in living things. Respiration refers to the process of obtaining energy from food, metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism, reproduction is the ability to produce offspring, and growth is the increase in size or number of cells in an organism. These characteristics are essential for the survival and functioning of living organisms.

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  • 8. 

    The term for all of the chemical processes that take place in a cell is

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Oxidation

    • D.

      Tonicity

    Correct Answer
    B. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to all the chemical processes that occur within a cell. It involves the conversion of nutrients into energy, the synthesis of molecules, and the breakdown of substances for various cellular functions. Homeostasis, on the other hand, refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment within a cell or organism. Oxidation is a specific type of chemical reaction that involves the loss of electrons, while tonicity refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution. Therefore, metabolism is the correct answer as it encompasses all the chemical processes in a cell.

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  • 9. 

    The cellular organelle that produces ATP energy by breaking down glucose is the _______.

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Golgi Body

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Plasma Membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    The mitochondria is the cellular organelle responsible for producing ATP energy by breaking down glucose through a process called cellular respiration. This organelle contains enzymes that carry out the reactions of the electron transport chain, which generates ATP. The other options, such as the Golgi body, nucleus, and plasma membrane, do not have the necessary structures or enzymes to produce ATP from glucose.

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  • 10. 

    The semipermeable cellular structure that separates the inside of a cell from the outside of the cell is the _________________

    • A.

      Plasma membrane

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Cell wall

    • D.

      Cytoshell

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is a semipermeable cellular structure that separates the inside of a cell from the outside of the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that regulate the movement of molecules in and out of the cell. This membrane is essential for maintaining cell integrity, controlling the entry and exit of substances, and facilitating communication with the external environment. The other options, such as endoplasmic reticulum, cell wall, and cytoshell, are not correct because they do not specifically refer to the structure that separates the inside and outside of the cell.

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  • 11. 

    Organisms must maintain a dynamic equilibrium (balance) of the internal environment in order to function properly.  This dynamic balance is called____________

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Oxidation

    • D.

      Tonicity

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the ability of organisms to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. It involves various physiological processes that help regulate temperature, pH levels, blood pressure, and other factors within a narrow range. This dynamic balance is crucial for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within living organisms, oxidation refers to the process of combining a substance with oxygen, and tonicity refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution.

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  • 12. 

    The 75 trillion cells in a human body are divided into 4 categories of tissue.  The function of _______________tissues in the body is to line and cover the body and also to absorb and secrete substances.

    • A.

      Muscle

    • B.

      Connective

    • C.

      Nerve

    • D.

      Epithelial

    Correct Answer
    D. Epithelial
    Explanation
    Epithelial tissues in the body serve the purpose of lining and covering the body, as well as absorbing and secreting substances. These tissues are found on the surfaces of organs, blood vessels, and body cavities, providing a protective barrier. They also play a role in the absorption of nutrients and the secretion of hormones and enzymes. Epithelial tissues can be found in various forms, such as squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, depending on their location and function in the body.

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  • 13. 

    The only type of muscle tissue that is under your control is ____________ muscle.

    • A.

      Skeletal

    • B.

      Cardiac

    • C.

      Smooth

    Correct Answer
    A. Skeletal
    Explanation
    Skeletal muscle is the only type of muscle tissue that is under conscious control. This type of muscle is attached to the bones and is responsible for voluntary movements such as walking, running, and lifting objects. Cardiac muscle, found in the heart, and smooth muscle, found in organs and blood vessels, are both involuntary and not under conscious control. Therefore, the correct answer is skeletal muscle.

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  • 14. 

    The type of tissue that conducts electrical impulses to and from the brain is ________ tissue.

    • A.

      Muscle

    • B.

      Connective

    • C.

      Nerve

    • D.

      Epithelial

    Correct Answer
    C. Nerve
    Explanation
    Nerve tissue is responsible for conducting electrical impulses to and from the brain. This tissue is made up of specialized cells called neurons that transmit signals through electrical impulses. Nerve tissue is essential for the functioning of the nervous system, allowing communication between different parts of the body and the brain.

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  • 15. 

    The largest organ of the body is the _____

    • A.

      Large intestines

    • B.

      Lungs

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer
    D. Skin
    Explanation
    The skin is the largest organ of the body as it covers the entire external surface. It protects the body from external factors, regulates body temperature, and helps in the excretion of waste products through sweat. Additionally, the skin plays a crucial role in sensation, allowing us to feel touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. Overall, the skin is essential for the body's overall protection and functioning.

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  • 16. 

    The cardiovascular system provides transportation of necessary materials such as nutrients and oxygen to cells and removal of waste products from cells.  What are the three parts of the cardiovascular system?

    • A.

      Heart, bones, lungs

    • B.

      Heart, vessels, blood

    • C.

      Heart, lungs, blood

    • D.

      Heart, bones, blood

    Correct Answer
    B. Heart, vessels, blood
    Explanation
    The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart is responsible for pumping the blood throughout the body. The blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries, transport the blood to and from the heart and deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells. The blood carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "Heart, vessels, blood."

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is/are true regarding the circulatory system?

    • A.

      Arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart

    • B.

      The largest artery is the vena cava

    • C.

      The pulmonary vein takes oxygenated blood to the lungs

    • D.

      The heart muscle is a smooth muscle.

    • E.

      Two of the choices are true

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart
    Explanation
    Arteries carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood to the heart. This is because arteries have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart, while veins have thinner walls and valves that help prevent backflow of blood as it returns to the heart. The statement that the largest artery is the vena cava is incorrect, as the vena cava is actually a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart. The pulmonary vein does carry oxygenated blood, but it takes it from the lungs to the heart, not the other way around. The heart muscle is not a smooth muscle, but rather a specialized type of muscle called cardiac muscle. Therefore, the only true statements are that arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to the heart.

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  • 18. 

    Hypertension is a term for high blood pressure.   If blood pressure is too high, the heart has to work harder and vessels may balloon or rupture (aneurysm or stroke).   Normal resting blood pressure for your age is 

    • A.

      140/80

    • B.

      160/80

    • C.

      80/120

    • D.

      120/80

    Correct Answer
    D. 120/80
    Explanation
    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This puts strain on the heart and can lead to various complications. A normal resting blood pressure for most adults is considered to be around 120/80 mmHg. The top number (systolic pressure) represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats, while the bottom number (diastolic pressure) represents the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats. Therefore, a blood pressure reading of 120/80 is within the normal range.

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  • 19. 

    “Formed elements” are cells in blood plasma.  Which blood cells carry oxygen? 

    • A.

      Erythrocyte

    • B.

      Leukocyte

    • C.

      Eosinophil

    • D.

      Monocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Erythrocyte
    Explanation
    Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, are responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood. They contain a protein called hemoglobin which binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the body's tissues. Erythrocytes are the most abundant type of blood cell and their main function is to deliver oxygen to the body's cells and remove carbon dioxide.

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  • 20. 

    Which formed element in blood functions to fight various types of infection?

    • A.

      Erythrocyte

    • B.

      Leukocyte

    • C.

      Thrombocytes

    • D.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    B. Leukocyte
    Explanation
    Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells, are the formed elements in blood that function to fight various types of infection. They are a crucial part of the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Leukocytes are responsible for identifying and destroying these foreign invaders, playing a vital role in maintaining overall health and preventing infections.

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  • 21. 

    The disease that is the greatest killer of humans is ______________.

    • A.

      Breast cancer

    • B.

      Heart disease

    • C.

      AIDs

    • D.

      Measles

    Correct Answer
    B. Heart disease
    Explanation
    Heart disease is the correct answer because it is the leading cause of death worldwide. It includes various conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and heart failure. Risk factors for heart disease include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and diabetes. It is responsible for a significant number of deaths each year and affects both men and women. Early detection, lifestyle modifications, and medical interventions can help prevent and manage heart disease.

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  • 22. 

    What is the approximate amount of blood in the circulatory system?

    • A.

      2 liters

    • B.

      2 gallons

    • C.

      4 liters

    • D.

      10 liters

    Correct Answer
    B. 2 gallons
    Explanation
    The approximate amount of blood in the circulatory system is 2 gallons. This is a significant volume of blood that is necessary for the proper functioning of the body. It is important to have an adequate amount of blood in the circulatory system to ensure the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following correctly traces the path of food through the body?

    • A.

      Mouth, pharynx, duodenum, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, colon, rectum, anus

    • B.

      Mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, colon, rectum, anus

    • C.

      Mouth stomach, pharynx, esophagus, small intestines, large intestines, colon, rectum, anus

    • D.

      Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, colon, rectum, anus

    Correct Answer
    D. Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, colon, rectum, anus
    Explanation
    The correct answer traces the path of food through the body in the correct order. Food enters through the mouth, passes through the pharynx and esophagus, then reaches the stomach. From the stomach, it moves into the small intestines, where most of the absorption of nutrients takes place. After the small intestines, the food enters the large intestines, also known as the colon. Finally, it reaches the rectum and is eliminated through the anus.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is the correct order for the path of urine through the excretory organs?

    • A.

      Urethra, kidney, ureter, bladder

    • B.

      Kidney, ureter, urethra, bladder

    • C.

      Kidney, urethra, bladder ureter

    • D.

      Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra

    Correct Answer
    D. Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra
    Explanation
    The correct order for the path of urine through the excretory organs is kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra. The kidneys filter waste products from the blood to produce urine. The urine then travels down the ureters, which are tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until it is ready to be eliminated. Finally, the urine passes through the urethra and is expelled from the body.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following bones are found in the appendicular skeleton?

    • A.

      Scapula, femur, humerus

    • B.

      Radius, fibula, clavicle

    • C.

      Hip bones, tibia, ulna

    • D.

      Phalanges, carpal, tarsal

    • E.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the choices
    Explanation
    All of the choices are correct because all the listed bones are indeed found in the appendicular skeleton. The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton that includes the bones of the limbs (arms and legs) as well as the bones that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton (shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle). The scapula, femur, humerus, radius, fibula, clavicle, hip bones, tibia, ulna, phalanges, carpal, and tarsal bones all belong to the appendicular skeleton.

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  • 26. 

    Skeletal muscles and bones work together to allow movement of the body.  How are muscles attached to bones?  

    • A.

      Ligaments

    • B.

      Tendons

    • C.

      Cartilage

    Correct Answer
    B. Tendons
    Explanation
    Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Tendons are strong, fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. They play a crucial role in allowing movement by transmitting the force generated by the muscles to the bones. Tendons are flexible yet tough, enabling them to withstand the stress and strain of muscle contractions. They also help stabilize joints and provide support to the musculoskeletal system. Overall, tendons are essential for the proper functioning and coordination of muscles and bones in the body.

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  • 27. 

    The normal human body has _____ bones.  

    • A.

      100

    • B.

      300

    • C.

      206

    • D.

      200

    • E.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    C. 206
    Explanation
    The human body has 206 bones.

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  • 28. 

    Which of these bones is the largest and strongest bone of the body?

    • A.

      Tibia

    • B.

      Fibula

    • C.

      Femur

    • D.

      Ulna

    Correct Answer
    C. Femur
    Explanation
    The femur is the largest and strongest bone of the body. It is located in the thigh and is responsible for supporting the body's weight and facilitating movement. The femur is a long bone that is designed to withstand significant pressure and force, making it the strongest bone in the body. Its size and strength allow it to provide stability and support during activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is accurate for the bones of the hand?

    • A.

      Carpals, phalanges, metatarsals

    • B.

      Carpals, metacarpals phalanges

    • C.

      Tarsal, metatarsals, phalanges

    • D.

      Radius, carpals, phalanges

    Correct Answer
    B. Carpals, metacarpals phalanges
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges. The bones of the hand are divided into three main groups: carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Carpals are the small bones that make up the wrist, metacarpals are the bones in the palm of the hand, and phalanges are the bones in the fingers. This answer accurately lists all three groups of bones in the hand.

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  • 30. 

    The vertebrae of the neck are called _______ vertebrae.

    • A.

      Thoracic

    • B.

      Lumbar

    • C.

      Cervical

    • D.

      Sacral

    Correct Answer
    C. Cervical
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cervical because the vertebrae of the neck are specifically referred to as cervical vertebrae. The cervical vertebrae are the smallest and most flexible of the vertebrae in the spine, and they support the weight of the head while allowing for a wide range of movement.

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  • 31. 

    Mineral that is essential for the formation of bones, transmission of nerve impulses, and for muscle contraction

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Iron

    • C.

      Lead

    • D.

      Nickel

    • E.

      Phosphorus

    Correct Answer
    A. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is the correct answer because it is a mineral that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of strong bones. It is also essential for the transmission of nerve impulses, allowing communication between different parts of the body. Additionally, calcium is necessary for muscle contraction, enabling movement and proper functioning of the muscles. Iron, lead, nickel, and phosphorus do not have the same functions as calcium in the body.

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  • 32. 

    Which type of fracture results in pieces of the broken bone piercing through the skin? 

    • A.

      Spiral fracture

    • B.

      Compound fracture

    • C.

      Simple fracture

    • D.

      Incomplete fracture

    Correct Answer
    B. Compound fracture
    Explanation
    A compound fracture, also known as an open fracture, is a type of fracture where the broken bone pierces through the skin. This occurs when there is a significant force applied to the bone, causing it to break and protrude through the surrounding tissues. Compound fractures are considered more severe than other types of fractures because they carry a higher risk of infection due to the exposure of the bone to the external environment. Immediate medical attention is required to treat and stabilize a compound fracture.

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  • 33. 

    The central nervous system is made up of the most critical parts of the nervous system.  Which of the following shows both parts of the central nervous system?

    • A.

      Brain and spinal cord

    • B.

      Spinal nerves and cranial nerves

    • C.

      Cranial nerves and brain

    • D.

      Cerebrum and spinal nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Brain and spinal cord
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. These two structures are considered the most critical parts of the nervous system because they are responsible for processing and transmitting information throughout the body. The brain is the control center of the body, while the spinal cord acts as a pathway for nerve signals between the brain and the rest of the body. Together, the brain and spinal cord play a crucial role in regulating bodily functions and coordinating responses to stimuli.

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  • 34. 

    The part of the brain that directs impulses from the lower parts of the brain to various parts of the cerebrum, (it is often called the “gatekeeper to the cerebrum”) is the __________

    • A.

      Hippocampus

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Pituitary

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    D. Thalamus
    Explanation
    The thalamus is the part of the brain that directs impulses from the lower parts of the brain to various parts of the cerebrum. It acts as a "gatekeeper to the cerebrum" by regulating the flow of sensory information to the cortex. It receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain and relays them to the appropriate areas in the cerebral cortex for further processing. The thalamus also plays a role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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  • 35. 

    There are three types of neurons that carry impulses.  Which of the following represents the path of an impulse from a receptor to an effector?

    • A.

      Motor neuroninterneuronsensory neuron

    • B.

      Sensory neuroninterneuronmotor neuron

    • C.

      Interneuronsensory neuronmotor neuron

    • D.

      Interneuronmotor neuronsensory neuron

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensory neuroninterneuronmotor neuron
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sensory neuron→interneuron→motor neuron. This path of an impulse from a receptor to an effector is the most accurate representation. Sensory neurons transmit signals from sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS). Interneurons then process and integrate these signals within the CNS. Finally, motor neurons carry the processed signals from the CNS to effectors, such as muscles or glands, to produce a response.

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  • 36. 

    The part of the brain stem that controls involuntary actions, such as heartbeat, respiration, vomiting, hiccupping and sneezing is the _____________

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Thalamus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    • E.

      Midbrain

    Correct Answer
    D. Medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is the part of the brain stem that controls involuntary actions such as heartbeat, respiration, vomiting, hiccupping, and sneezing. It is responsible for regulating vital functions and maintaining homeostasis in the body. The medulla oblongata contains important centers for controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing. It also plays a role in coordinating swallowing, coughing, and vomiting reflexes. Overall, the medulla oblongata is crucial for ensuring the proper functioning of many essential bodily processes.

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  • 37. 

    The central nervous system is protected by:

    • A.

      Bone

    • B.

      Meninges

    • C.

      Cerebral spinal fluid

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is protected by bone, meninges, and cerebral spinal fluid. Bone provides a solid and rigid structure to protect the brain and spinal cord from external forces. The meninges are three layers of protective membranes that surround and cushion the central nervous system. Cerebral spinal fluid acts as a shock absorber and provides additional protection by surrounding and cushioning the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, all of these choices play a role in protecting the central nervous system.

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  • 38. 

    What is this structure that regulates the amount of light entering eye?

    • A.

      Lens

    • B.

      Sclera

    • C.

      Cornea

    • D.

      Iris

    • E.

      None of thses

    Correct Answer
    D. Iris
    Explanation
    The iris is the structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye. It is a circular, colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The iris contains muscles that can contract or relax, thereby adjusting the size of the pupil. When there is bright light, the iris contracts, making the pupil smaller and reducing the amount of light that enters the eye. Conversely, in low light conditions, the iris relaxes, making the pupil larger and allowing more light to enter the eye.

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  • 39. 

    Which type of receptor is involved with the sense of hearing?

    • A.

      Photoreceptor

    • B.

      Mechanoreceptor

    • C.

      Chemoreceptor

    • D.

      Proprioreceptor

    Correct Answer
    B. Mechanoreceptor
    Explanation
    Mechanoreceptors are involved with the sense of hearing. These receptors are specialized to detect mechanical stimuli such as vibrations or pressure changes. In the case of hearing, mechanoreceptors in the inner ear called hair cells are responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. Photoreceptors are involved with vision, chemoreceptors are involved with the sense of taste and smell, and proprioreceptors are involved with the sense of body position and movement.

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  • 40. 

    The part of the brain that is responsible for conscious thought is the________.  

    • A.

      Cerebellum

    • B.

      Cerebrum

    • C.

      Thalamus

    • D.

      Hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebrum
    Explanation
    The cerebrum is responsible for conscious thought. It is the largest part of the brain and is involved in various cognitive functions such as perception, memory, language, and decision-making. It is divided into two hemispheres and is further divided into different lobes, each with its specific functions. The cerebrum plays a crucial role in higher-level thinking and conscious awareness, making it the correct answer to the question.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is NOT true regarding the female reproductive system?

    • A.

      Female gonads are ovaries.

    • B.

      The cervix is the opening to the oviduct.

    • C.

      The uterine lining prepares for a pregnancy every month during a female’s fertile years.

    • D.

      The clitoris is a very sensitive area in the external genitalia of a female

    • E.

      The cervix is an area that is prone to cancer and is checked during a PAP test

    Correct Answer
    B. The cervix is the opening to the oviduct.
    Explanation
    The cervix is not the opening to the oviduct. The oviduct, also known as the fallopian tube, is connected to the uterus and serves as the pathway for the egg to travel from the ovary to the uterus. The cervix, on the other hand, is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It acts as a barrier between the uterus and the vagina, and it also plays a role in childbirth by dilating to allow the baby to pass through during labor.

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  • 42. 

    Fertilization of the egg takes place in the_______________. 

    • A.

      Ovary

    • B.

      Vagina

    • C.

      Uterus

    • D.

      Oviduct

    • E.

      Vas deferens

    Correct Answer
    D. Oviduct
    Explanation
    Fertilization of the egg takes place in the oviduct. The oviduct, also known as the fallopian tube, is a tube connecting the ovary to the uterus in females. It is in the oviduct where the egg is released from the ovary during ovulation and where it can be fertilized by sperm if present. The fertilized egg then travels down the oviduct towards the uterus for implantation and further development.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following symbols is used to represent a male?

    • A.

    • B.

    • C.

    Correct Answer
    B. ♂
    Explanation
    The symbol ♂ is used to represent a male. It is commonly used to denote the male gender in various contexts, such as in biology, sociology, and gender studies. The symbol consists of a circle with an arrow pointing upwards and to the right, representing the Mars symbol, which is associated with the Roman god of war, Mars. This symbol has been widely recognized and used to represent masculinity and males.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is/are true about the male reproductive system?

    • A.

      Sperm is produced in the seminferous tubules in the testes

    • B.

      The male gonad is called sperm

    • C.

      The testes are distended from the body to protect developing sperm from the heat of the body cavity

    • D.

      The penis has a cartilage core to produce erections

    • E.

      A and c are both true

    Correct Answer
    E. A and c are both true
    Explanation
    Sperm is produced in the seminferous tubules in the testes. This is true because the seminiferous tubules are the site of sperm production in the male reproductive system. The testes are distended from the body to protect developing sperm from the heat of the body cavity. This is also true because the testes are located outside the body in the scrotum, which helps maintain a lower temperature necessary for sperm development. Therefore, the correct answer is that both statement a and c are true.

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  • 45. 

    Which parent determines the sex of a baby?

    • A.

      Father

    • B.

      Mother

    Correct Answer
    A. Father
    Explanation
    The father determines the sex of a baby because he contributes either an X or Y chromosome through his sperm. If the sperm carries an X chromosome, the baby will be female (XX), and if it carries a Y chromosome, the baby will be male (XY). The mother always contributes an X chromosome through her egg. Therefore, the father's genetic material is responsible for determining the sex of the baby.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is true regarding a fertilized egg?

    • A.

      It has 46 chromosomes

    • B.

      It has 23 chromosomes

    • C.

      It is called a zygote

    • D.

      Both a and c are true

    • E.

      Both b and c are true

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and c are true
    Explanation
    Both statements a and c are true. A fertilized egg, also known as a zygote, is formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg. This zygote contains 46 chromosomes, half of which are contributed by the sperm and the other half by the egg. The 46 chromosomes in the zygote carry the genetic information that determines the characteristics and traits of the individual.

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  • 47. 

    Babies are normally born head first because the head can compress a little as it passes through the birth canal (vagina).  What are the structures that allow the head to compress a little?

    • A.

      Small cerebrum

    • B.

      Undeveloped brain

    • C.

      Fontanels

    • D.

      Lack of CSF

    Correct Answer
    C. Fontanels
    Explanation
    Fontanels are the structures that allow the head to compress a little during birth. Fontanels are soft spots on a baby's skull where the bones have not yet fused together. These flexible areas allow the skull to mold and adjust as the baby passes through the birth canal. Fontanels also allow for the growth and expansion of the brain during the early stages of development.

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  • 48. 

    What happens when “the water breaks” in a pregnant woman?

    • A.

      The placenta breaks loose signaling that birth is near

    • B.

      The baby urinates for the first time on its own

    • C.

      The amnion ruptures releasing fluid

    • D.

      The baby causes the mommy to urinate by putting pressure on her bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. The amnion ruptures releasing fluid
    Explanation
    When "the water breaks" in a pregnant woman, it refers to the amnion, which is a sac filled with amniotic fluid surrounding the baby in the uterus. The amnion ruptures, releasing this fluid. This is a natural process that occurs as the body prepares for childbirth. It is a sign that labor is imminent and the baby will be born soon.

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  • 49. 

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are increasing in our world because of disease-causing pathogens and a relaxed sex code. Which of these pathogens is most dangerous because there is no cure for it at this time?

    • A.

      Chlamydia

    • B.

      Gonorrhea

    • C.

      Genital Warts

    • D.

      Syphilis

    Correct Answer
    C. Genital Warts
    Explanation
    Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection. While there is no cure for HPV, there are treatments available to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. However, it is important to note that HPV can lead to various health issues, including certain types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered the most dangerous among the listed options because there is no definitive cure for it at this time.

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  • 50. 

    The ________STD is commonly called the “clap”

    • A.

      Herpes

    • B.

      Chlamydia

    • C.

      Syphilis

    • D.

      Gonorrhea

    • E.

      AIDs

    Correct Answer
    D. Gonorrhea
    Explanation
    Gonorrhea is commonly referred to as the "clap." This sexually transmitted disease (STD) is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, or anal sex. The nickname "clap" is believed to have originated from the old French word "clapier," meaning brothel. The term was used to describe the painful clapping motion that people with gonorrhea would make when urinating due to the inflammation and discomfort caused by the infection.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 24, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Justine_zarazee

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