Digestive And Respiratory Quiz

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Digestive And Respiratory Quiz - Quiz

The digestive and respiratory system of the human body is complex and its functionality is of outmost importance. Just how much do you understand the system, its functions, organs and signs of failure in operation? Take up the quiz below and get to find out. All the best and keep revising!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through

    • A.

      Glomerulus

    • B.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    • E.

      Nephron loop

    Correct Answer
    D. Collecting duct
    Explanation
    The collecting duct is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through. This is achieved through the action of aquaporins and the counter-current multiplier system. As the filtrate moves through the collecting duct, water is reabsorbed by osmosis, concentrating the urine. At the same time, metabolic wastes and NaCl are allowed to pass through, maintaining the concentration gradient.

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  • 2. 

    Normal urine from a heathly person can be expected to contain all of the following except

    • A.

      Creatine

    • B.

      Urobilin

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Ammonia

    • E.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer
    C. Glucose
    Explanation
    Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain glucose. Glucose is usually filtered out by the kidneys and reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. If glucose is present in urine, it could indicate a problem with the kidneys or high blood sugar levels, which is commonly seen in conditions like diabetes. Therefore, the presence of glucose in urine is abnormal and not expected in a healthy individual.

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  • 3. 

    Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?

    • A.

      Insulin and glucose

    • B.

      Inulin and creatinine

    • C.

      Sodium and water

    • D.

      Albumin and inulin

    • E.

      Insulin and urea

    Correct Answer
    B. Inulin and creatinine
    Explanation
    Inulin and creatinine are the most useful substances for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate. Inulin is a polysaccharide that is freely filtered by the glomerulus and is not reabsorbed or secreted by the renal tubules. Therefore, its clearance rate can accurately estimate the glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine is a waste product of muscle metabolism and is also freely filtered by the glomerulus. Its clearance rate is commonly used as an estimate of the glomerular filtration rate because it is easily measured in the blood and urine.

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  • 4. 

    Aldosteron acts on

    • A.

      The proximal convoluted tubule

    • B.

      The medullary portion of the collecting duct

    • C.

      The descending limb of the nephron loop

    • D.

      The distal convoluted tubule

    • E.

      The glomerulus

    Correct Answer
    D. The distal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    Aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubule. This is the portion of the nephron where aldosterone exerts its effects on the reabsorption of sodium ions and the secretion of potassium ions. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, which helps to increase blood volume and blood pressure. It also stimulates the secretion of potassium ions into the filtrate, helping to maintain electrolyte balance in the body. Overall, aldosterone plays a crucial role in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance in the kidneys.

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  • 5. 

    Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence

    • A.

      Pepsin, trypsin, caboxypeptidase, dipeptidase

    • B.

      Pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase

    • C.

      Trypsin, pepsin, carbozypeptidase, dipeptidase

    Correct Answer
    A. Pepsin, trypsin, caboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
  • 6. 

    Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checkd for sweetnes of the urine as a sign of

    • A.

      Diabetes insipidus

    • B.

      Acute glomerulonephritis

    • C.

      Diabetes mellitus

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetes mellitus
    Explanation
    Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood, which can result in glucose being excreted in the urine. The presence of glucose in the urine can give it a sweet taste, hence why clinicians used to rely on this observation as an indicator of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus and acute glomerulonephritis are unrelated conditions and would not cause sweetness in the urine.

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  • 7. 

    Human urine can have as much as _______ times the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is hwy it is called hypertonic.

    • A.

      1.5

    • B.

      2.6

    • C.

      4.0

    Correct Answer
    C. 4.0
    Explanation
    Human urine can have as much as 4.0 times the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is why it is called hypertonic. This means that the concentration of solutes in urine is significantly higher than that of blood plasma. The high osmolarity of urine is due to the reabsorption of water and the excretion of waste products by the kidneys. This concentration gradient allows for the removal of excess water and waste from the body, helping to maintain homeostasis.

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  • 8. 

    ________ break(s) down _________.

    • A.

      Lactase; glucose

    • B.

      Peptidases; proteins

    • C.

      Nucleases; nucleotides

    Correct Answer
    B. Peptidases; proteins
    Explanation
    Peptidases are enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. This process is known as proteolysis. Therefore, the given answer "peptidases; proteins" is correct because peptidases break down proteins.

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  • 9. 

    The _________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing __________.

    • A.

      Liver; cholesterol

    • B.

      Duodenum; neutral fats

    • C.

      Illeum; bilirubin

    Correct Answer
    A. Liver; cholesterol
    Explanation
    The liver synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing cholesterol. Bile acids are important for the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine. Cholesterol is converted into bile acids in the liver, which are then stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine when needed for fat digestion.

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  • 10. 

    The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is

    • A.

      The pancreas.

    • B.

      The stomach.

    • C.

      The liver.

    Correct Answer
    C. The liver.
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for storing excess glucose in the form of glycogen and releasing it into the blood when needed. This process helps maintain stable blood sugar levels and provides a constant supply of energy to the body. The pancreas, on the other hand, plays a role in regulating blood sugar levels by producing insulin and glucagon, but it does not store glucose. The stomach is primarily involved in digestion and does not store or release glucose. Therefore, the correct answer is the liver.

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  • 11. 

    Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the __________ to form angiotensin I.

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Kidneys

    • C.

      Liver

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    Renin is an enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of angiotensinogen, a protein released from the liver, into angiotensin I. This process occurs in the liver and is the first step in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. The lungs and kidneys are not directly involved in the production of angiotensin I.

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  • 12. 

    The __________ regulates diestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow and its neruons are found in the _________.

    • A.

      Autonomic nervous system; serosa

    • B.

      Central nervous system; muscalaris externa and muscularis mucosae

    • C.

      Enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa

    Correct Answer
    C. Enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
    Explanation
    The enteric nervous system regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow. Its neurons are found in the submucosa and muscularis externa.

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  • 13. 

    Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?

    • A.

      Podocytes

    • B.

      Macula densa cells

    • C.

      Mesangial cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Podocytes
    Explanation
    Podocytes form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus. These specialized cells have foot-like projections called pedicels that interlock to form filtration slits, which allow the passage of small molecules while preventing the filtration of larger substances like proteins. The podocytes play a crucial role in the filtration process of the kidneys by regulating the movement of substances from the blood into the glomerular capsule.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?

    • A.

      Decreased urine volume

    • B.

      Decreased urine molarity

    • C.

      Increased urine volume

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreased urine volume
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormones, such as vasopressin, act on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption. This leads to decreased urine volume because more water is being retained in the body instead of being excreted in the urine. Therefore, the correct answer is decreased urine volume.

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  • 15. 

    Osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by

    • A.

      The temperature difference between compartments

    • B.

      The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

    • C.

      The realtive volume in each compartment

    • D.

      The relative size of each compartment

    Correct Answer
    B. The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane. Therefore, the correct answer is the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment. The concentration gradient between the two compartments determines the direction and rate of osmosis. If one compartment has a higher solute concentration than the other, water molecules will move from the compartment with lower solute concentration to the one with higher solute concentration until equilibrium is reached. The temperature difference, relative volume, and relative size of the compartments do not directly affect osmosis.

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  • 16. 

    ________ transport  lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ______________.

    • A.

      Fat droplets; micelles

    • B.

      Fat droplets; chylomicrons

    • C.

      Micelles; fat globules

    • D.

      Micelles; chylomicrons

    • E.

      Fat globules; micelles

    Correct Answer
    D. Micelles; chylomicrons
    Explanation
    Micelles are small, spherical structures formed by the aggregation of bile salts and lipids in the small intestine. They help in the absorption of lipids by solubilizing them and facilitating their transport to the surface of intestinal absorptive cells. Once at the surface, the lipids are processed into chylomicrons, which are larger lipoprotein particles. Chylomicrons are responsible for transporting dietary fats, including triglycerides, to various tissues in the body for storage or energy production. Therefore, the correct answer is "micelles; chylomicrons."

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  • 17. 

    The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?

    • A.

      Renal autoregulation

    • B.

      The myogenic mechanism

    • C.

      Tubuloglomerular feedback

    Correct Answer
    B. The myogenic mechanism
    Explanation
    The myogenic mechanism refers to the ability of smooth muscle cells in the walls of the afferent arterioles in the kidneys to contract in response to increased pressure or stretch. This contraction helps to regulate and stabilize the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by reducing the blood flow into the glomerulus. This mechanism is important in maintaining a constant GFR despite changes in blood pressure, ensuring that the kidneys receive a consistent blood supply and preventing damage to the glomeruli.

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  • 18. 

    Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption

    • A.

      Proximal convoluted tubules

    • B.

      Distal convoluted tubules

    • C.

      Loops of henle

    • D.

      Collecting ducts

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal convoluted tubules
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for a significant amount of active transport in the nephrons. This active transport requires ATP and consumes calories. As a result, the proximal convoluted tubules collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.

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  • 19. 

    These are normally found in saliva EXCEPT

    • A.

      Muscus.

    • B.

      Lysozyme.

    • C.

      Amylase.

    • D.

      Lipase.

    • E.

      Protease.

    Correct Answer
    E. Protease.
    Explanation
    Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. They are not typically found in saliva, unlike the other options listed. Saliva contains amylase, which helps in the digestion of carbohydrates; lipase, which aids in the digestion of fats; lysozyme, which has antimicrobial properties; and mucus, which lubricates and protects the oral cavity. Therefore, the correct answer is protease, as it is not a component of saliva.

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  • 20. 

    In a health kidney, very little ____ is passed through the glomerus.

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Electrolytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Protein
    Explanation
    In a healthy kidney, very little protein is passed through the glomerulus. This is because the glomerulus, which is part of the filtration system in the kidney, is designed to filter out waste products and excess substances from the blood, while retaining essential nutrients and proteins. Excessive protein in the urine can be a sign of kidney damage or dysfunction. Therefore, in a healthy kidney, the amount of protein passing through the glomerulus is minimal.

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  • 21. 

    Total saturation of protein transportes for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in

    • A.

      Reabsoption of all the solute

    • B.

      A renal clearance of zero

    • C.

      A net filtration pressure of 1.0.

    • D.

      Apperance of that solute in the urine.

    • E.

      Absense of that solute from the urine.

    Correct Answer
    D. Apperance of that solute in the urine.
    Explanation
    If there is total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules, it means that all the transporters are already occupied and cannot transport any more of that solute. As a result, the solute cannot be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream and will instead be excreted in the urine, leading to the appearance of that solute in the urine.

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  • 22. 

    What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?

    • A.

      Monochrome

    • B.

      Urochrome

    • C.

      Cyanochrome

    • D.

      Multichrome

    • E.

      Pyuria

    Correct Answer
    B. Urochrome
    Explanation
    Urochrome is the correct answer because it is the pigment responsible for the color of urine. It is a yellow pigment that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin and other waste products in the body. The presence of urochrome gives urine its characteristic yellow color, which can vary in intensity depending on factors such as hydration levels and certain medications or foods. Monochrome, cyanochrome, multichrome, and pyuria are not relevant to the color of urine.

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  • 23. 

    Hypocalcemis stimulates

    • A.

      A decrease in aldosterone production.

    • B.

      Secretion of parathyoid horomone

    • C.

      Secretion of renin

    • D.

      An increase in blood urea nitrogen

    • E.

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles

    Correct Answer
    B. Secretion of parathyoid horomone
    Explanation
    Hypocalcemia refers to low levels of calcium in the blood. One of the main regulators of calcium homeostasis is the parathyroid hormone (PTH). When calcium levels are low, the parathyroid glands secrete PTH, which acts to increase calcium levels in the blood. Therefore, in the context of hypocalcemia, it is expected that there would be an increase in the secretion of parathyroid hormone.

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  • 24. 

    THe countercurrent multiplier recaptures _____ and is based on  fluid flowing in _____ direction in two adjacent tubules.

    • A.

      Potassium; the same

    • B.

      Calcium; the opposite

    • C.

      Calcium; the same

    • D.

      Sodium; the opposite

    • E.

      Sodium; the same

    Correct Answer
    D. Sodium; the opposite
    Explanation
    The countercurrent multiplier recaptures sodium and is based on fluid flowing in the opposite direction in two adjacent tubules.

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  • 25. 

    Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

    • A.

      The renal corpuscle

    • B.

      The proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      The distal convoluted tubule

    • D.

      The glomerurlar capillaries

    • E.

      The collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    B. The proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the proximal convoluted tubule. This is because the proximal convoluted tubule is located immediately after the glomerulus in the nephron, allowing it to efficiently reabsorb important substances from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. The cells lining the proximal convoluted tubule have specialized transporters that actively reabsorb glucose and amino acids, preventing their loss in the urine. This reabsorption process helps maintain the body's nutrient balance and prevents valuable substances from being excreted.

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  • 26. 

    The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

    • A.

      Carbohydrates, proteins, and mineral

    • B.

      Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates

    • C.

      Proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates

    • D.

      Triglycerides, starches, and proteins

    • E.

      Proteins, fats, and minerals

    Correct Answer
    B. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
    Explanation
    The three most abundant classes of nutrients are fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. These nutrients are essential for the body to function properly. Fats provide energy, insulation, and help absorb vitamins. Proteins are the building blocks of the body and are involved in various functions such as muscle growth, repair, and immune system support. Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy and are found in foods like grains, fruits, and vegetables. These three classes of nutrients are necessary for maintaining a healthy diet and overall well-being.

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  • 27. 

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by______ cells

    • A.

      Mucous

    • B.

      Regenerative stem

    • C.

      Parietal

    • D.

      Chief

    • E.

      Enteroendochrine

    Correct Answer
    C. Parietal
    Explanation
    Parietal cells are responsible for secreting hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach. HCl is necessary for the digestion of food and the breakdown of proteins. Parietal cells are located in the gastric glands of the stomach lining and play a crucial role in maintaining the acidic environment of the stomach. They also secrete intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

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  • 28. 

    Bacterial flora carry out all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Digest most of the proteins we get in the diet

    • B.

      Synthesize vitamin K

    • C.

      Produce some of the gases found in the flatus

    • D.

      Digest cellulose

    • E.

      Form part of the feces

    Correct Answer
    A. Digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
    Explanation
    Bacterial flora play a crucial role in our digestive system by aiding in the breakdown and absorption of nutrients. They help in the digestion of cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate found in plant-based foods. Additionally, they synthesize vitamin K, which is important for blood clotting. Bacterial flora also produce gases that contribute to flatus and form a part of the feces. However, the digestion of proteins is primarily carried out by enzymes in the stomach and small intestine, not by bacterial flora.

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  • 29. 

    Infants have ______ deciduous teeth, wheras adults have ________ permanent teeth.

    • A.

      20; 32

    • B.

      16;20

    • C.

      28; 20

    Correct Answer
    A. 20; 32
    Explanation
    Infants have 20 deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, which eventually fall out to make way for permanent teeth. Adults, on the other hand, have 32 permanent teeth, which include incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. The number of teeth in infants and adults differs because the permanent teeth include additional molars that erupt later in life.

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  • 30. 

    Carbohydrate difestio begins in the ____, wherase protein digestion begins in the _____.

    • A.

      Liver; small intestine

    • B.

      Small intestine; stomach

    • C.

      Mouth; stomach

    Correct Answer
    C. Mouth; stomach
    Explanation
    Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth where the enzyme amylase is secreted by the salivary glands and breaks down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Protein digestion, on the other hand, begins in the stomach where the enzyme pepsin is released and starts breaking down proteins into smaller peptides.

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  • 31. 

    Which os these is NOT a component of the pancreatic juice?

    • A.

      Trypsinogen

    • B.

      Chymotrypsinogen

    • C.

      Deoxtribonuclease

    • D.

      Sodium bicarbonate

    • E.

      Enterokinase

    Correct Answer
    E. Enterokinase
    Explanation
    Enterokinase is not a component of pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice is a fluid secreted by the pancreas that aids in digestion. It contains various enzymes such as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and deoxyribonuclease, which help break down proteins and nucleic acids. Sodium bicarbonate is also present in pancreatic juice, helping to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach. However, enterokinase is not a component of pancreatic juice. Enterokinase is an enzyme produced by the small intestine that activates trypsinogen into its active form, trypsin, but it is not secreted by the pancreas.

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  • 32. 

    Which of these is the site of contact digestion?

    • A.

      Gastric pits

    • B.

      Sufrace of the gastric muscosa

    • C.

      Intestinal crypts

    • D.

      Brush border of the small intestine

    • E.

      Cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine

    Correct Answer
    D. Brush border of the small intestine
    Explanation
    The brush border of the small intestine is the site of contact digestion. The brush border refers to the microvilli that line the surface of the small intestine. These microvilli increase the surface area available for absorption and contain digestive enzymes that break down nutrients into smaller molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. Therefore, the brush border plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

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  • 33. 

    In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constrictio nof the outlet, and also raises blood pressure.

    • A.

      Azotemia

    • B.

      Sodium chloride

    • C.

      Parathyroid hormone

    • D.

      Aldosterone

    • E.

      Angiotensin II

    Correct Answer
    E. Angiotensin II
    Explanation
    In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, angiotensin II stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet, and also raises blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a hormone that is produced in response to low blood pressure or low blood volume. It acts on the blood vessels, causing them to constrict, which increases resistance to blood flow and raises blood pressure. This constriction of the glomerular inlet and outlet helps to maintain blood pressure and ensure adequate blood flow to the kidneys.

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  • 34. 

    Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zyymogens?

    • A.

      Because this saves one step in their synthesis

    • B.

      Because gastric cells do not have the necessary enzymes for their synthesis

    • C.

      So they start digesting intracellular proteins of the gastric cells more quickly

    • D.

      So they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins

    • E.

      So they can start digesting dietary proteins more quickly

    Correct Answer
    D. So they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
    Explanation
    Several digestive enzymes are secreted as zymogens because it allows them to act only in the stomach lumen and not digest intracellular proteins. Zymogens are inactive forms of enzymes that are activated when needed. By being secreted as zymogens, the digestive enzymes remain inactive until they reach the stomach lumen where they are needed for digestion. This prevents them from prematurely digesting intracellular proteins in the cells that produce them. This mechanism ensures that the enzymes are only active in the appropriate location and do not cause damage to the cells that produce them.

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  • 35. 

    Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _________, and fatty acids are absorbed in the ____________.

    • A.

      Small intestine; large intestine

    • B.

      Small intestine; liver

    • C.

      Small intestine; small intestine too

    Correct Answer
    C. Small intestine; small intestine too
    Explanation
    Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the small intestine because this is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients occur. The small intestine has specialized structures called villi and microvilli that increase its surface area, allowing for efficient absorption of these molecules into the bloodstream. While some fatty acids can be absorbed in the small intestine, the majority of fat absorption occurs in the small intestine as well, where they are broken down by bile salts and absorbed into the lymphatic system before eventually reaching the liver.

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  • 36. 

    This byproduct of protein catabolism constitues approximated one- half of all nitrogenous waste

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Creatinine

    • C.

      Uric acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is the correct answer because it is a byproduct of protein breakdown in the liver and constitutes approximately half of all nitrogenous waste. Urea is formed when the liver breaks down proteins into amino acids, and then converts the excess nitrogen into urea. It is then transported to the kidneys for excretion in urine. Creatinine and uric acid are also waste products, but they do not make up as much of the nitrogenous waste as urea does.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following enzymes function at the lowest pH?

    • A.

      Salivary amylase

    • B.

      Pancreatic amylase

    • C.

      Pepsin

    • D.

      Trypsin

    • E.

      Dipeptidase

    Correct Answer
    C. Pepsin
    Explanation
    Pepsin functions at the lowest pH because it is an enzyme that is secreted by the stomach and is involved in the digestion of proteins. The stomach has a very acidic environment, with a pH of around 1-3, and pepsin is able to function optimally in this highly acidic condition. On the other hand, salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase function in the mouth and pancreas respectively, where the pH is more neutral. Trypsin and dipeptidase also function in the small intestine, where the pH is slightly alkaline. Therefore, pepsin is the enzyme that works at the lowest pH.

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  • 38. 

    These nutrients are all absorbed without begin digested EXCEPT

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Vitamins

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Minerals

    • E.

      Cholesterol

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are large molecules that need to be broken down into smaller components, called amino acids, in order to be absorbed by the body. This process occurs during digestion in the stomach and small intestine. In contrast, water, vitamins, minerals, and cholesterol are all absorbed directly into the bloodstream without the need for digestion.

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  • 39. 

    Aldosterone

    • A.

      Increases both Na + and K+ reabsorption

    • B.

      Increases both Na+ and K+ secretion

    • C.

      Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

    • D.

      Reduces Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

    Correct Answer
    C. Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that plays a role in regulating electrolyte balance in the body. It increases the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) in the kidneys, which helps to retain water and maintain blood pressure. Additionally, aldosterone also promotes the secretion of potassium ions (K+) in the kidneys, which helps to regulate potassium levels in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is that aldosterone increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.

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  • 40. 

    Water output is significantly controlled through variations in

    • A.

      Metabolic water

    • B.

      Sweating

    • C.

      Cutaneous transpiration

    • D.

      Drinking

    • E.

      Urine volume

    Correct Answer
    E. Urine volume
    Explanation
    The variations in urine volume significantly control water output. Urine volume refers to the amount of urine produced by the body. When the body needs to conserve water, it reduces urine volume, leading to less water being excreted. On the other hand, when the body needs to eliminate excess water, it increases urine volume, resulting in more water being excreted. Therefore, changes in urine volume play a crucial role in controlling the amount of water that is output by the body.

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  • 41. 

    Which is not a function of the kidneys?

    • A.

      They regulate osmolarity of the body fluids

    • B.

      They fight osteoporosis by synthesizing vitamin D

    • C.

      They help control blood pressure

    • D.

      They release waste into the blood stream

    • E.

      They indirectly increase oxyhemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    D. They release waste into the blood stream
    Explanation
    The kidneys do not release waste into the bloodstream. Instead, they filter waste products, toxins, and excess water from the blood and produce urine, which is then excreted from the body. This process helps maintain the balance of electrolytes, regulate blood pressure, and remove metabolic waste products from the body.

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  • 42. 

    Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine

    • A.

      Triglycerides

    • B.

      Amino acids

    • C.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglycerides
    Explanation
    Triglycerides are absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine. Lacteals are specialized lymphatic vessels located in the lining of the small intestine. Triglycerides, which are a type of fat, are broken down into their component fatty acids and glycerol molecules during digestion. These smaller molecules are then absorbed by the lacteals and transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream. From there, they can be used by cells for energy or stored as fat in adipose tissue.

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  • 43. 

    The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when

    • A.

      The body's water volume is high

    • B.

      The body's pH is low

    • C.

      The output of antidiuretic hormone is high

    Correct Answer
    A. The body's water volume is high
    Explanation
    When the body's water volume is high, it means that there is an excess of water in the body. This can occur due to excessive intake of fluids or a decrease in water excretion. In this situation, the concentration of solutes in the body is relatively low compared to the concentration in the urine. As a result, the urine becomes hypotonic, meaning it has a lower concentration of solutes compared to the body's fluids.

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  • 44. 

    Each of the following lists some of the tissue laters of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?

    • A.

      Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

    • B.

      A is right

    • C.

      A is right

    Correct Answer
    A. Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
    Explanation
    The correct order of tissue layers from lumen to external surface in the digestive tract is as follows: Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa.

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  • 45. 

    The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Glomerulus

    • C.

      Cortical radiate veins

    Correct Answer
    B. Glomerulus
    Explanation
    The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels located in the renal corpuscle of the kidney. The afferent arteriole brings blood into the glomerulus, where it is filtered to form urine. The efferent arteriole then carries the filtered blood away from the glomerulus. This transition is crucial for the filtration process in the kidneys and plays a vital role in maintaining proper kidney function.

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  • 46. 

    The sodium- glucose transpot protien (SGLP)

    • A.

      Is a uniport carrier

    • B.

      Is an antiport carrier

    • C.

      Uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium

    • D.

      Transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells

    • E.

      Transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells, and sodium in the opposite direction

    Correct Answer
    D. Transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells." The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP) is responsible for transporting both glucose and sodium ions from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells. This process is important for the absorption of glucose from the digestive system into the bloodstream.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate

    • A.

      Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole

    • B.

      A drop in oncotic presure

    • C.

      Vasodilation of the afferent artiole

    • D.

      Vasoconstriction o the afferent artiole

    • E.

      An increase in osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule

    Correct Answer
    D. Vasoconstriction o the afferent artiole
    Explanation
    Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole would reduce the glomerular filtration rate. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus, where filtration occurs. When the afferent arteriole constricts, it reduces the blood flow into the glomerulus, leading to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. This constriction restricts the amount of blood entering the glomerulus, resulting in a decrease in the filtration of waste products and excess fluids from the blood.

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  • 48. 

    ___, which is secreted by ____ cells, is necessary for vitamin B12 absorption.

    • A.

      Intrinsic factor; parietal

    • B.

      Bile salts; chief

    • C.

      Lecithin; hepatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Intrinsic factor; parietal
    Explanation
    Intrinsic factor is a substance that is secreted by parietal cells. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. Without intrinsic factor, the body would not be able to properly absorb and utilize vitamin B12, which is essential for various bodily functions. Parietal cells are responsible for producing intrinsic factor in the stomach.

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  • 49. 

    Pepsinogen is produced by ________ and is activated by ____.

    • A.

      Chief cells ; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells

    • B.

      Chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells

    • C.

      Parietal cells; hyrdrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by chief cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells
    Explanation
    Pepsinogen is produced by chief cells and is activated by hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 31, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Laurayalim
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