Bentley Ch. 36 Test World War 2 And The Cold War

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Bentley Ch. 36 Test World War 2 And The Cold War - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The first act of agression which ended the post-Great War peace was the

    • A.

      German Anschluss with Austria

    • B.

      Italian invasion of Ethiopia

    • C.

      Japan's invasion of Manchuria

    • D.

      Spanish Civil War

    Correct Answer
    C. Japan's invasion of Manchuria
    Explanation
    Japan's invasion of Manchuria was the first act of aggression that ended the post-Great War peace. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, a region in northeastern China, claiming that a railway explosion was carried out by Chinese forces. This invasion violated the territorial integrity of China and sparked international condemnation. It marked a significant escalation of tensions in East Asia and demonstrated Japan's expansionist ambitions. The invasion of Manchuria ultimately led to further Japanese aggression in the region and contributed to the outbreak of World War II in the Pacific.

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  • 2. 

    The phrase "peace for our time" is now associated with

    • A.

      The basis of modern pacifist movements

    • B.

      The failure of appeasement to halt aggression

    • C.

      The trauma of the war shame clause in the Versailles Treaty

    • D.

      The nonviolence of the Anschluss with Austria

    Correct Answer
    B. The failure of appeasement to halt aggression
    Explanation
    The phrase "peace for our time" is now associated with the failure of appeasement to halt aggression. This phrase was famously used by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938 after signing the Munich Agreement with Adolf Hitler, which allowed Nazi Germany to annex parts of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain believed that this agreement would bring peace, but it ultimately failed as Hitler continued his aggressive expansionist policies, leading to the outbreak of World War II. The phrase has since become a symbol of the dangers of appeasement and the failure to effectively address aggression.

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  • 3. 

    The "Rape of Nanjing" has become the symbol for

    • A.

      The horrors of war passion driven by notions of racial superiority

    • B.

      The specific problems encountered by women during war and occupation

    • C.

      The German treatment of non-Germans including Jews, Poles, and gypsies

    • D.

      The long-term cost of postwar reparations and indemnities

    Correct Answer
    A. The horrors of war passion driven by notions of racial superiority
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the horrors of war passion driven by notions of racial superiority. The "Rape of Nanjing" refers to the brutal mass murder, rape, and looting that occurred in Nanjing, China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It has become a symbol of the atrocities committed during war, particularly driven by the Japanese soldiers' belief in their racial superiority over the Chinese. The event is widely recognized as one of the most horrific war crimes in history, highlighting the extreme brutality and inhumanity that can arise from notions of racial superiority.

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  • 4. 

    The success of Blitzkrieg is most effectively seen in

    • A.

      The Battle of Dunkirk

    • B.

      The Battle of Britain

    • C.

      The invasion of Czechoslovakia

    • D.

      The invasion of Poland

    Correct Answer
    D. The invasion of Poland
    Explanation
    The success of Blitzkrieg is most effectively seen in the invasion of Poland. Blitzkrieg, which means "lightning war" in German, was a military tactic used by the Germans during World War II. It involved using fast-moving armored units supported by air power to quickly overwhelm the enemy. The invasion of Poland in 1939 was the first major implementation of Blitzkrieg by Germany, and it proved to be highly successful. The Polish forces were caught off guard and unable to effectively respond to the rapid and coordinated German attack. This victory demonstrated the effectiveness of Blitzkrieg and set the stage for future German military successes.

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  • 5. 

    The Japanese conquest of Singapore was symbolically significant because

    • A.

      It dealt a blow to British prestige and to European superiority in Asia

    • B.

      It provided Japan with much needed access to tin, rubber, and petroleum

    • C.

      It made the American petoleum embargo obsolete

    • D.

      It allowed Japan to demonstrate its abundant and superior technology

    Correct Answer
    A. It dealt a blow to British prestige and to European superiority in Asia
    Explanation
    The Japanese conquest of Singapore was symbolically significant because it dealt a blow to British prestige and to European superiority in Asia. This conquest demonstrated that Japan was capable of defeating a major European power, which challenged the long-held belief in European dominance in the region. It also undermined British control and influence in Southeast Asia, leading to a shift in power dynamics and further weakening European colonialism in Asia.

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  • 6. 

    The use of kamikaze tactics was particularly significant because

    • A.

      They led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Allied

    • B.

      They convinced many people in the U.S. that the Japanese would never willingly surrender

    • C.

      they magnified the growing split between Japanese and Chinese forces

    • D.

      They were an effective strategy to combat the nighttime allied sorties using napalm fire bombs

    Correct Answer
    B. They convinced many people in the U.S. that the Japanese would never willingly surrender
    Explanation
    The use of kamikaze tactics was particularly significant because it convinced many people in the U.S. that the Japanese would never willingly surrender. This tactic involved Japanese pilots intentionally crashing their planes into enemy ships, sacrificing their own lives in the process. The sheer determination and willingness to die for their cause displayed by the kamikaze pilots created a perception that the Japanese would fight to the death rather than surrender. This belief further hardened the resolve of the American public and military to continue the war until Japan's unconditional surrender.

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  • 7. 

    Why did some Asian peoples experience little resentment toward Japanese occupation of their countries?

    • A.

      They found little to resent in the change from European colonial occupation to Asian colonial occupation

    • B.

      The Japanese treated the Asians far better than their European colonial masters

    • C.

      The Japanese occupation offered ready employment for all who wanted to work

    • D.

      The Japanese occupation did not carry with it the racial ideologies that the European colonial system did

    Correct Answer
    A. They found little to resent in the change from European colonial occupation to Asian colonial occupation
    Explanation
    Some Asian peoples experienced little resentment toward Japanese occupation of their countries because they found little to resent in the change from European colonial occupation to Asian colonial occupation. This suggests that they did not perceive a significant difference between being under European rule and being under Japanese rule, and therefore did not harbor negative feelings towards the Japanese occupation.

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  • 8. 

    The establishment of comfort houses for Japanese soldiers was

    • A.

      To replace the geisha culture in Japanese tradition

    • B.

      To prevent mass rape as in the occupation of Nanjng in 1937

    • C.

      To legalize and administer prostitution

    • D.

      To shame Korean women and destroy Korean culture

    Correct Answer
    B. To prevent mass rape as in the occupation of Nanjng in 1937
    Explanation
    The establishment of comfort houses for Japanese soldiers was to prevent mass rape as in the occupation of Nanjing in 1937. Comfort houses were set up during World War II to provide sexual services to Japanese soldiers in order to prevent them from committing acts of rape and sexual violence against local populations in occupied territories. The intention was to create a controlled environment where soldiers could access sexual services, with the hope of reducing incidents of rape and maintaining discipline within the military. This measure was particularly implemented in response to the widespread atrocities committed by Japanese soldiers during the occupation of Nanjing in 1937.

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  • 9. 

    The Warsaw Pact was created to counterbalance the

    • A.

      League of Nations

    • B.

      North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    • C.

      COMECON

    • D.

      Marshall Plan

    Correct Answer
    B. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    Explanation
    The Warsaw Pact was created as a response to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO was formed by Western European countries and the United States to counter the perceived threat from the Soviet Union and its allies. In order to counterbalance NATO's influence and military power, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact, which included several Eastern European countries. The Warsaw Pact was essentially a mutual defense alliance among the communist countries in response to the formation of NATO.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following events is considered genocide?

    • A.

      Cambodia under Pol Pot in the late 1970s

    • B.

      The Terror in 18th century France

    • C.

      The Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258

    • D.

      The execution of the peoples of Palestine at the hands of the Assyrians in the 8th century

    Correct Answer
    A. Cambodia under Pol Pot in the late 1970s
    Explanation
    Cambodia under Pol Pot in the late 1970s is considered genocide because during this time, the Khmer Rouge regime led by Pol Pot implemented a brutal campaign that resulted in the deaths of approximately 1.7 million people. The regime targeted and systematically killed members of certain ethnic and religious groups, as well as intellectuals, professionals, and anyone perceived as a threat to their ideology. The atrocities committed during this period included mass executions, forced labor, torture, starvation, and forced displacement. The scale and intent of these actions meet the criteria for genocide as defined by the United Nations.

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  • 11. 

    During World War II why did most areas in eastern Europe come under direct military control by German forces?

    • A.

      Puppet governments like in Vichy France proved ineffective in controlling the unruly Slavs and Romanians

    • B.

      Occuption there was a prelude for the extermination of existing populations and the resettlement of the areas by Germans in the fulfillment of the quest for Lebensraum

    • C.

      These areas were to become part of the greater German empire and therefore required greater attention than the west

    • D.

      The Germans were afraid of Rssian infiltration in existing governments as the communists had many allies among the Hungarians and the Poles

    Correct Answer
    B. Occuption there was a prelude for the extermination of existing populations and the resettlement of the areas by Germans in the fulfillment of the quest for Lebensraum
    Explanation
    During World War II, most areas in eastern Europe came under direct military control by German forces because the occupation of these areas served as a prelude for the extermination of existing populations and the resettlement of the areas by Germans in the fulfillment of the quest for Lebensraum. This concept of Lebensraum, or "living space," was a key ideology of Nazi Germany, which aimed to expand and colonize territories to accommodate the growing German population. The occupation of these areas allowed the Germans to carry out their plans for ethnic cleansing and population displacement.

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  • 12. 

    The purpose of the Marshall plan was to 

    • A.

      To help rebuild war-torn Europe with massive aid

    • B.

      To avoid the mistakes that the Paris Peace Settlement made in dealing harshly with a defeated enemy

    • C.

      To discourage communism in western Europe by strengthening capitalism

    • D.

      To be an economic adjunct to the Truman Doctrine

    Correct Answer
    A. To help rebuild war-torn Europe with massive aid
    Explanation
    The Marshall Plan was implemented after World War II with the aim of providing extensive financial assistance to rebuild the war-ravaged countries in Europe. This aid was intended to help these nations recover from the devastating effects of the war and restore their economies. The plan was not only focused on providing economic support but also aimed to promote stability and prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe.

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  • 13. 

     The Truman Doctrine pledged that 

    • A.

      Soviet aggression would be met with American force

    • B.

      The United States would help rebuild Europe and Japan

    • C.

      The United States would support free people resisting subjugation by insurrection or outside interference

    • D.

      The United States would never again resort to atomic weapons

    Correct Answer
    C. The United States would support free people resisting subjugation by insurrection or outside interference
    Explanation
    The Truman Doctrine was a policy statement by President Harry Truman in 1947, which stated that the United States would provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism. It aimed to contain the spread of communism and support countries that were resisting subjugation by insurrection or outside interference. This answer accurately reflects the main principle of the Truman Doctrine.

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  • 14. 

    As the end of the war approached, Allied leaders agreed that each power would have control over 

    • A.

      Those territories liberated by their own armed forces

    • B.

      Different sectors of Italy

    • C.

      Only the defeated territories in Asia

    • D.

      Only those lands illegally seized by the Axis powers

    Correct Answer
    A. Those territories liberated by their own armed forces
    Explanation
    As the end of the war approached, Allied leaders agreed that each power would have control over those territories liberated by their own armed forces. This means that each country would have jurisdiction and authority over the areas that their own military forces had liberated from the enemy. This decision was made to ensure that the countries that had contributed to the liberation of certain territories would have control and influence over the post-war governance and administration of those areas.

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  • 15. 

    The highest casualties in World War II were suffered by

    • A.

      Britain and the U.S.

    • B.

      China and the Soviet Union

    • C.

      Japan and the U.S.

    • D.

      Germany and Japan

    Correct Answer
    B. China and the Soviet Union
    Explanation
    China and the Soviet Union suffered the highest casualties in World War II. This is because both countries were heavily involved in the war and experienced significant military conflicts and occupations. China, in particular, faced brutal Japanese aggression and occupation, leading to millions of civilian deaths and military casualties. The Soviet Union also endured intense fighting against Germany on the Eastern Front, resulting in massive casualties. Therefore, China and the Soviet Union experienced the highest number of casualties during World War II.

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  • 16. 

    Women in the United States and Britain performed all the following wartime activities except

    • A.

      Direct combat

    • B.

      Industrial work

    • C.

      Frontline support

    • D.

      Transport piloting

    Correct Answer
    A. Direct combat
    Explanation
    During wartime, women in the United States and Britain were involved in various activities to support the war effort. They took up industrial work, providing essential labor in factories and industries. They also played a crucial role in frontline support, providing medical aid, nursing, and other forms of assistance to soldiers. Additionally, women were involved in transport piloting, flying planes and transporting goods and personnel. However, the one activity they did not participate in was direct combat, as women were generally not allowed to engage in active combat roles during this time.

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  • 17. 

    One common feature of both Japanese and German occupation was

    • A.

      The use of slave laborers in key industries

    • B.

      Increased economic output in occupied territories

    • C.

      A decentralized administration in collaboration with local authorities

    • D.

      Civilian rather than military rule

    Correct Answer
    A. The use of slave laborers in key industries
    Explanation
    Both the Japanese and German occupations involved the use of slave laborers in key industries. This means that both countries forced individuals to work against their will, often under harsh conditions and without proper compensation, in order to support their war efforts and boost their economies. This practice of exploiting and dehumanizing workers was a common feature of both occupations.

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  • 18. 

    Japanese had established either direct or indirect control over all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Dutch East Indies

    • B.

      Indochina

    • C.

      Singapore

    • D.

      Thailand

    Correct Answer
    D. Thailand
    Explanation
    The Japanese had established either direct or indirect control over the Dutch East Indies, Indochina, and Singapore during World War II. However, they did not have control over Thailand. This could be due to various reasons such as Thailand's strategic location, diplomatic negotiations, or resistance from the Thai government.

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  • 19. 

    The key to the Allied victory in Europe was

    • A.

      The success of resistance movements at undermining German authority

    • B.

      The vast personnel and industrial capacity of the U.S. and Soviet Union

    • C.

      The development of the atom bomb

    • D.

      The leadership of Harry Truman after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Correct Answer
    B. The vast personnel and industrial capacity of the U.S. and Soviet Union
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the vast personnel and industrial capacity of the U.S. and Soviet Union. This is because both countries had a large number of soldiers and workers, as well as a significant industrial infrastructure, which allowed them to produce and deploy a massive amount of military equipment and supplies. This gave them a significant advantage in terms of manpower and resources, enabling them to sustain a prolonged war effort and ultimately defeat Germany.

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  • 20. 

    All of the following were essential to the Soviet defense against the Nazis except

    • A.

      Allied support through the lend-lease program

    • B.

      German overconfidence of a swift victory, which left them trapped far inside Russia when winter came

    • C.

      The rapid relocation of Soviet industry to the east

    • D.

      Outrage at the German treatment of Jewish minorities in eastern Europe

    Correct Answer
    D. Outrage at the German treatment of Jewish minorities in eastern Europe
    Explanation
    During World War II, the Soviet Union faced a significant threat from the Nazis. To defend against the Nazis, the Soviet Union relied on various factors. Allied support through the lend-lease program provided crucial assistance in terms of military equipment and supplies. German overconfidence played a role as well, as their belief in a swift victory led them to advance deep into Russia, only to be trapped when winter arrived. The rapid relocation of Soviet industry to the east allowed for the production of weapons and resources away from the front lines. However, outrage at the German treatment of Jewish minorities in eastern Europe, while a valid and important sentiment, did not directly contribute to the Soviet defense against the Nazis.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a reason why Britain stood alone against the German forces in 1941?

    • A.

      The U.S. was unwilling to become involved in another European war and so refused to provide any material support to Britain

    • B.

      Many European states either declared their neutrality or formed alliances with the Germans

    • C.

      German blitzkrieg tactics swiftly eliminated all opposition on the continent

    • D.

      German U-boats severely crippled overseas shipping to Britain

    Correct Answer
    A. The U.S. was unwilling to become involved in another European war and so refused to provide any material support to Britain
    Explanation
    During 1941, the United States was not unwilling to become involved in another European war. In fact, the U.S. had already entered the war after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Therefore, the U.S. did provide material support to Britain, making it an incorrect reason for why Britain stood alone against the German forces in 1941.

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  • 22. 

    The Russian-German Treaty of Nonaggression of 1939   

    • A.

      Freed Hitler to pursue a more aggressive policy in western Europe

    • B.

      Conceded Soviet control over eastern Europe

    • C.

      Conceded German control over eastern Europe

    • D.

      Pledged Soviet support to Germany in case of war

    Correct Answer
    A. Freed Hitler to pursue a more aggressive policy in western Europe
    Explanation
    The Russian-German Treaty of Nonaggression of 1939 freed Hitler to pursue a more aggressive policy in western Europe. This means that with the signing of the treaty, Hitler no longer had to worry about potential Soviet interference or opposition in his plans for expansion in western Europe. The treaty allowed Hitler to focus his efforts and resources on implementing his aggressive policies without the fear of a two-front war with the Soviet Union.

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  • 23. 

    At the Munich Conference, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

    • A.

      Took a hard line with Hitler, threatening military retaliation for any further aggression

    • B.

      Agreed that the Treaty of Versailles had been unfair to the Germans and that their former empire should be restored

    • C.

      Made a secret alliance with the Axis powers

    • D.

      Agreed that Hitler could keep lands alread taken in exchange for a pledge to end German expansion

    Correct Answer
    D. Agreed that Hitler could keep lands alread taken in exchange for a pledge to end German expansion
    Explanation
    At the Munich Conference, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed that Hitler could keep lands already taken in exchange for a pledge to end German expansion. This decision, known as the Munich Agreement, was an attempt to appease Hitler and avoid another war. Chamberlain believed that by giving in to Hitler's territorial demands, he could maintain peace in Europe. However, this decision ultimately proved to be a failure, as Hitler continued to expand his empire and eventually led to the outbreak of World War II.

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  • 24. 

    Specific steps taken by Hitler after 1933 that violated the Treaty of Versailles included all of the following EXCEPT 

    • A.

      Retaking the Rhineland, held by France since the war

    • B.

      Withdrawing Germany from the League of Nations

    • C.

      Signig a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union

    • D.

      Annexing Austria and Sudetenland in spite of the principle of self-determination

    Correct Answer
    C. Signig a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union
    Explanation
    After 1933, Hitler took several steps to violate the Treaty of Versailles. He retook the Rhineland, which was held by France since the war. He withdrew Germany from the League of Nations. He annexed Austria and Sudetenland, disregarding the principle of self-determination. However, signing a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union did not directly violate the Treaty of Versailles.

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  • 25. 

    The Japanese justified their invasion of China as

    • A.

      Providing resources essential to their economic survival

    • B.

      Rescuing the Chinese people from foreign imperialism

    • C.

      Claiming land that should have come to them by the Treaty of Versailles

    • D.

      Justifiable revenge for the Sino-Japanese War of 1894

    Correct Answer
    A. Providing resources essential to their economic survival
    Explanation
    The Japanese justified their invasion of China by stating that it was necessary to acquire resources that were essential for their economic survival. They believed that by invading China, they would be able to secure the necessary resources to sustain their economy and ensure their survival as a nation.

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