Bentley Ch. 23 Test

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| By Mrscindytong
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Bentley Ch. 23 Test - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    When Martin Luther objected to the Catholic church, what was his original issue?

    • A.

      A vernacular Bible

    • B.

      An end to celibacy

    • C.

      The sale of indulgences

    • D.

      The display of relics

    Correct Answer
    D. The display of relics
    Explanation
    Martin Luther's original issue with the Catholic church was the display of relics. Relics were objects believed to have belonged to or been associated with saints, and were often used for worship and veneration. Luther criticized the practice, arguing that it distracted from the true essence of Christianity and placed too much emphasis on material objects. He believed that faith and salvation should be based on a personal relationship with God, rather than on external rituals or objects.

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  • 2. 

    Why was the Council of Trent convened?

    • A.

      As opposition to the Protestant Reformation and to create an education for priests

    • B.

      The debate the question of celibacy in priests and the sale of relics

    • C.

      To determine whether or not Jesus Christ was a human man

    • D.

      All of these statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. As opposition to the Protestant Reformation and to create an education for priests
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was convened as opposition to the Protestant Reformation and to create an education for priests. This council was a response to the challenges posed by the Protestant movement and aimed to address the theological and doctrinal disputes that had arisen. It sought to reaffirm Catholic teachings, clarify doctrines, and establish guidelines for the education and training of priests. By doing so, the council aimed to counter the spread of Protestant ideas and strengthen the Catholic Church.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following contributed the most to the enormous growth of the European population during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

    • A.

      The decrease in epidemic disease

    • B.

      New crops from other continents

    • C.

      An increasing birth rate

    • D.

      Increased sanitation methods in urban centers

    Correct Answer
    B. New crops from other continents
    Explanation
    New crops from other continents contributed the most to the enormous growth of the European population during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The introduction of new crops, such as potatoes, corn, and tomatoes from the Americas, provided a more diverse and nutritious diet for Europeans. This led to improved health and increased life expectancy, resulting in a higher birth rate and a decrease in mortality rates. The availability of these new crops also helped to alleviate food shortages and famine, further supporting population growth.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is the most accurate in regards to constitutional states?

    • A.

      Constitutional monarchs must follow the rules of a written constitution

    • B.

      Constitutional monarchs must be sole rulers

    • C.

      Constitutional monarchs must share power with a representative body

    • D.

      Constitutional monarchs base their power on divine right

    Correct Answer
    C. Constitutional monarchs must share power with a representative body
    Explanation
    Constitutional monarchs must share power with a representative body because in a constitutional state, power is divided and shared between the monarch and a representative body, such as a parliament or congress. This ensures that the monarch does not have absolute power and that decisions are made collectively, taking into account the interests and opinions of the people. It also provides a system of checks and balances, preventing any one entity from becoming too powerful. This arrangement is in contrast to an absolute monarchy where the monarch has unlimited power and is not bound by a constitution or any other governing body.

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  • 5. 

    In addition to enhanced administration and improved finances, the new monarchs needed to 

    • A.

      Ally themselves with bigger states

    • B.

      Have the support of the nobility

    • C.

      Suppress the power of the nobility

    • D.

      Gain the support of the Catholic church

    Correct Answer
    C. Suppress the power of the nobility
    Explanation
    During the time of the new monarchs, they aimed to consolidate their power and centralize control over their kingdoms. One way to achieve this was by suppressing the power of the nobility, who often held significant influence and could challenge the authority of the monarchs. By reducing the power of the nobility, the new monarchs could assert their dominance and ensure that their rule was not undermined. This would also help to establish a more stable and unified kingdom under their control.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements best describes the similarities between the Enlightenment and the earlier Renaissance?

    • A.

      Both focused on a philosophy of human behavior

    • B.

      Both adopted a return to a better, more classical period

    • C.

      Both allowed women some role in the intellectual world

    • D.

      Both were a product of recent scientific discoveries

    Correct Answer
    A. Both focused on a philosophy of human behavior
    Explanation
    Both the Enlightenment and the Renaissance shared a focus on a philosophy of human behavior. During the Renaissance, there was a renewed interest in humanism, which emphasized the potential and achievements of individuals. Similarly, the Enlightenment placed an emphasis on reason, logic, and the power of human intellect to understand and improve the world. Both movements sought to understand and explain human behavior, albeit in different ways and contexts.

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  • 7. 

    The absolute monarchs of Europe had a philosophy most similar to which of the following rulers?

    • A.

      The Roman emperors

    • B.

      The Incas

    • C.

      The Chinese emperors

    • D.

      The pharoahs

    Correct Answer
    C. The Chinese emperors
    Explanation
    The absolute monarchs of Europe had a philosophy most similar to the Chinese emperors. Both the European absolute monarchs and the Chinese emperors held absolute power and ruled with the belief in the divine right of kings. They both believed that they were chosen by a higher power to rule and that their authority was unquestionable. Additionally, both systems of government were highly centralized, with the ruler exerting control over all aspects of society and government.

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  • 8. 

    Why were the French philosophes important?

    • A.

      They believed that their concepts of individual rights would provide for constant progress

    • B.

      They explained the theories of the scientific revolution to the public

    • C.

      They started a religious split that further divided Protestant sects

    • D.

      They uniformly agreed on the rejection of organized religion

    Correct Answer
    A. They believed that their concepts of individual rights would provide for constant progress
    Explanation
    The French philosophes were important because they believed that their concepts of individual rights would lead to constant progress. This belief in the power of individual rights and freedoms was influential in shaping Enlightenment thinking and challenging the traditional authority of monarchies and the church. The philosophes advocated for ideas such as freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and the separation of powers, which laid the foundation for modern democratic societies. Their emphasis on reason, logic, and progress had a profound impact on various fields, including politics, science, and philosophy.

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  • 9. 

    One reason for the hysterical witch hunts of the 16th century was that

    • A.

      The conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence

    • B.

      Unusual natural phenomena suggested supernatural causes

    • C.

      Desperate people turned to magic to try to improve their lives

    • D.

      New texts claimed scientific evidence of witchcraft

    Correct Answer
    A. The conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence
    Explanation
    During the 16th century, the conflicts of the Reformation, which was a period of religious upheaval and division in Europe, created a climate of suspicion and violence. The Reformation led to the fragmentation of the Christian Church and the rise of different religious sects, causing distrust and fear among the population. This atmosphere of uncertainty and religious tension made people more susceptible to believing in supernatural phenomena and witchcraft. The fear of religious heresy and the search for scapegoats during this time fueled the hysteria and witch hunts as people sought to find and eliminate perceived threats to their religious beliefs and social order.

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  • 10. 

    Who benefited most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation?

    • A.

      The people

    • B.

      The peasants

    • C.

      Centralizing monarchs

    • D.

      The Islamic empires

    Correct Answer
    C. Centralizing monarchs
    Explanation
    Centralizing monarchs benefited the most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation. The Reformation led to divisions within Christianity, which allowed monarchs to assert their authority over the Church and consolidate power. Monarchs such as Henry VIII of England and Louis XIV of France took advantage of the religious turmoil to centralize their rule, weaken the influence of the Catholic Church, and establish themselves as the ultimate authority in religious matters. This resulted in increased control and authority for the centralizing monarchs, ultimately benefiting them the most from the religious controversy.

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  • 11. 

    The new monarchs were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      A commitment to individual liberty

    • B.

      Standing professional armies

    • C.

      Large centrally administered bureaucracies

    • D.

      Increased state revenues through taxes

    Correct Answer
    A. A commitment to individual liberty
    Explanation
    The new monarchs were characterized by standing professional armies, large centrally administered bureaucracies, and increased state revenues through taxes. However, they were not characterized by a commitment to individual liberty. This means that they did not prioritize or emphasize the rights and freedoms of individuals in their rule.

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  • 12. 

    The Spanish Inquisition relied on religious justifications to advance what political end?

    • A.

      Increasing the revenues for the Spanish crown

    • B.

      Raising a vast army for Spain

    • C.

      Discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism

    • D.

      Crushing a suspected Muslim rebellion

    Correct Answer
    C. Discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism
    Explanation
    During the time of the Spanish Inquisition, one of its main goals was to discourage the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism. The Spanish crown and the Catholic Church were concerned about the spread of Protestantism in Spain, as it posed a threat to their power and authority. By using religious justifications, the Inquisition aimed to suppress any Protestant influence among the nobility and ensure their loyalty to Catholicism. This was done through various means, including persecution, censorship, and the enforcement of strict religious orthodoxy.

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  • 13. 

    The putting-out system was profitable for all of the following groups EXCEPT

    • A.

      Entrepreneurs

    • B.

      Consumers

    • C.

      Rural workers

    • D.

      Guild members

    Correct Answer
    D. Guild members
    Explanation
    The putting-out system was a form of subcontracting in which entrepreneurs would provide raw materials to rural workers who would then produce goods in their homes. These goods would be sold by the entrepreneurs, who would make a profit from the sales. Consumers benefited from this system as they had access to a wider range of goods. Rural workers also benefited as they were able to earn income from their work. However, guild members did not benefit from this system as it undermined their traditional control over the production and sale of goods. Therefore, guild members were the only group that did not profit from the putting-out system.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 12, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Mrscindytong
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