Bacteriology Quiz Questions And Answers

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Bacteriology Quiz Questions And Answers - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Week 1. Lecture. Subject of microbiology, its aim and short history Practical. Media, sterilization, bacterial cultures, anaerobic culture methods, pure cultures, microscopy, examination of native bacteria, staining of bacteria.  

    The correct answer is to culture bacteria in order to figure out what bacteria is causing the disease. This involves using media culture to provide the necessary conditions for bacterial growth. The culture can be examined directly under a microscope using techniques such as smear or impression smear, or through indirect methods such as animal trials or inoculation into a medium like agar plates.

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  • 2. 

    Culture bacteria to use for: - Diagnostic bacteriology - Isolation of pathogens, diagnosis - Vaccine production - Industry

    Bacteria can be cultured for various purposes including diagnostic bacteriology, vaccine production, and industrial applications. In diagnostic bacteriology, bacteria can be isolated and identified to diagnose infections or diseases. In vaccine production, bacteria can be cultured to produce antigens or components for vaccines. In industry, bacteria can be used for various purposes such as the production of enzymes or other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the correct answer includes all three options: diagnostic bacteriology, vaccine production, and industry.

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  • 3. 

    Detection of bacteria in a sample

    Direct (microscope) is the correct answer because using a microscope allows for the direct visualization of bacteria in a sample. This method involves placing the sample on a slide, staining it, and then examining it under a microscope to observe the bacteria directly. On the other hand, indirect methods involve detecting bacterial presence through other means such as biochemical tests or molecular techniques, without directly visualizing the bacteria.

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  • 4. 

    Detection of bacteria in a sample Direct methods: - Smear - nasal, vaginal, pus, mastitic milk, blood - Impression smear - cut surface - PCR -> take out the gene and multiply it and check on gel Indirect methods: - Animal trial - Innoculate onto a medium

    Smear is a direct method used for the detection of bacteria in a sample. It involves taking a sample, such as sputum, wound secretion, or mastitic milk, and spreading it onto a slide. The slide is then stained or examined under a microscope to identify the presence of bacteria. In the given answer, various examples of smears and the bacteria they are used to detect are listed. This demonstrates the use of smears as a direct method for detecting bacteria in different samples.

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  • 5. 

    Composition of media for indirect method

    The correct answer provides a list of components that are necessary for the composition of media for the indirect method. These components include water, a carbon source, a nitrogen source, and various vitamins and additives such as B-vitamins, B1, B2, V (NAD), X-factor (heamin), and specific vitamins required by the bacteria Brucella (B1, B3, B5). These components are essential for providing the necessary nutrients and conditions for the growth and survival of the bacteria in the media.

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  • 6. 

    Classification of media Demand of bacteria!

    The correct answer explains that the classification of media depends on the origin of the media (such as blood, milk, serum, bile), the state of the media, and the aim of the culture (whether it is common, selective, or differential). These factors determine the type of media that is used for culturing bacteria.

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  • 7. 

    Agar for Indirect method Agar Sample may have more than one type of bacteria.

    The given answer is a list of different types of agar and their corresponding uses. It provides information about the solidifying and melting points of agar, as well as the types of bacteria that can be cultured on each type of agar. This information is important for microbiologists to know in order to select the appropriate agar for their specific needs and to ensure the growth of desired bacteria in the laboratory.

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  • 8. 

    Use inoculating loops to put bacteria onto agar plate

    The correct answer is to sterilize the loop before and after using it. This is important to prevent contamination of the agar plate with other bacteria or microorganisms. Sterilizing the loop ensures that any bacteria present on the loop are killed before transferring them onto the agar plate. Similarly, sterilizing the loop after use prevents any remaining bacteria from contaminating other surfaces or experiments. Overall, sterilizing the loop before and after use is a crucial step in maintaining a sterile and controlled environment for bacterial growth on agar plates.

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  • 9. 

    If organ

    The correct answer is that before performing any procedure on an organ, it is necessary to disinfect the surface of the organ first. This is done by burning the surface, which helps to eliminate any potential bacteria or contaminants that may be present. By disinfecting the surface of the organ before proceeding with any further steps, the risk of infection or complications can be minimized, ensuring the safety and success of the procedure.

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  • 10. 

    Stab the inoculate loop though the burnt surface of the organ

    The correct answer is to get a sample to put onto an agar plate. Stabbing the inoculate loop through the burnt surface of the organ allows for the collection of a sample that can be transferred onto an agar plate for further analysis and cultivation of microorganisms.

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  • 11. 

    Different ways to spread sample onto agar plate  

    This answer suggests that one way to spread a sample onto an agar plate is by taking one colony and spreading it on a new agar plate, repeating this process three times. This method is mentioned in the question as a possible way to spread the sample onto the agar plate.

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  • 12. 

    Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria Bacteria can be differentiated into Gram positive or Gram negative by testing them with the “Gram stain”.  The stain attaches to part of the bacterial cell wall called peptidoglycan and causes a purple colouration. Gram positive appear: blue to purple Structure: Have thick layer of peptidoglycan over inner cytoplasmic membrane. lack LPS-lipopolysaccharides Gram negative appear: pink to red Structure: In gram negative bacteria the peptidoglycan layer is thinner and is located between space of the outer and inner cytoplasmic membrane. cell wall contains LPS which make them virulent  

    Gram positive bacteria appear blue to purple when stained with the Gram stain because they have a thick layer of peptidoglycan over their inner cytoplasmic membrane. On the other hand, Gram negative bacteria appear pink to red because their peptidoglycan layer is thinner and located between the outer and inner cytoplasmic membrane. Gram negative bacteria also have LPS (lipopolysaccharides) in their cell wall, which gives them a protective outer layer and contributes to their virulence.

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  • 13. 

    If media needs to be inoculated with bacteria then the media needs to fulfill the bacteria needs:

    The correct answer is "Obligate aerobe bacteria - NEEDS O2!" because obligate aerobes require oxygen for their growth and metabolism. They cannot survive in the absence of oxygen.

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  • 14. 

    Examples of obligate AEROBE bacteria

    These bacteria are examples of obligate aerobes because they require oxygen for their growth and survival. Obligate aerobes cannot survive in the absence of oxygen and have specific metabolic pathways that rely on oxygen for energy production. Bacillus, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Rhodoccus all fall under this category and are unable to grow or survive in anaerobic conditions.

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  • 15. 

    Examples of obligate ANAEROBE bacteria

    The given list consists of examples of obligate anaerobe bacteria. Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen and require an oxygen-free environment to grow and reproduce. Actinomyces bovis, Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, and Campylobacter mucosalis are all examples of obligate anaerobes.

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  • 16. 

    Examples of obligate FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE bacteria

    The listed bacteria are examples of facultative anaerobes, which means they can survive in both aerobic (oxygen-rich) and anaerobic (oxygen-poor) environments. They have the ability to switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation depending on the availability of oxygen. This flexibility allows them to adapt to different conditions and survive in various environments.

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  • 17. 

    Microaerophile bacteria Can't tolerate high O2 but can't grow w/o it What % O2 and CO2?

    Microaerophile bacteria are a type of bacteria that cannot tolerate high levels of oxygen but also cannot grow without it. Therefore, they require a specific range of oxygen concentration to survive and grow. The suggested answer of 4-6% O2 and 10% CO2 provides the appropriate conditions for these microaerophiles. This oxygen level is lower than atmospheric oxygen levels, but still necessary for their metabolism. Additionally, the higher concentration of CO2 helps create an optimal environment for their growth. The listed bacteria (Actinomyces sp, Campylobacterium, Lactobacillus) are examples of microaerophiles that would require these conditions.

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  • 18. 

    Capnophile bacteria Need extra CO2 What % CO2?

    Capnophile bacteria are microorganisms that require high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) for growth. The correct answer, 5-10% CO2, indicates the percentage of CO2 that is needed for the growth of specific capnophile bacteria such as Actinomyces viscosus, Brucella abortus, B. ovis, and Taylorella equigenitalis. These bacteria thrive in environments with elevated CO2 levels, and their growth is inhibited in conditions with lower levels of CO2. Therefore, providing the appropriate percentage of CO2 is crucial for the cultivation of these capnophile bacteria.

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  • 19. 

    Tube Growth at different depths in semi-solid agar shows bacterial preference for aerobic, microaerophile, facultative anaerobe, anaerobe. 21% O2 at surface of media

    The growth of bacteria at different depths in semi-solid agar indicates their preference for different levels of oxygen. The presence of 21% O2 at the surface of the media suggests that the bacteria at that level would require more oxygen and are therefore aerobic. The absence of oxygen deeper in the media would favor microaerophiles, which require low levels of oxygen. Bacteria that can grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen are facultative anaerobes, while those that can only grow in the absence of oxygen are anaerobes. Therefore, the correct answer is aerobic, microaerophile, facultative anaerobe, anaerobe.

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  • 20. 

    How can we prepare anaerobe environment for the bacteria? Petri dishes into jar, light candle => O2 used up

    The correct answer options provide different methods for creating an anaerobic environment for bacteria. These methods include using a candle, sprouting seeds, co-culturing, chemical methods such as pyrogallic acid + KOH or H2 + catalyzator, evacuation with a vacuum pump, and using ascorbic acid in a "kit" to generate an anaerobic atmosphere. The addition of water may be necessary for the "kit" to function properly. An indicator may also be used to confirm the presence of an anaerobic environment.

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  • 21. 

    Temperature Categories of bacteria based on temperature ranges at which they can grow.  

    The given answer provides the categories of bacteria based on the temperature ranges at which they can grow. Psychrophiles can grow at temperatures around 20oC, mesophiles can grow at temperatures around 40oC, and thermophiles can grow at temperatures around 60oC.

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  • 22. 

    37oC body temperature, most bacteria, most incubators 42oC Campylobacter jejuni, Brachyspria hyodysenteriae 4oC cold enrichment 15-20oC bacteria isolated from fishes, reptiles

  • 23. 

    Time of incubation 1-2 days - most colonies form fast 2-3 days - several pathogens need more time eg. Brucella 1-3 weeks - tuberculosis 6-12 weeks - paratuberculosis (3 months!)  

    The answer is 1-2 days because most colonies form quickly during this time period. This suggests that the growth rate of these colonies is relatively fast compared to other pathogens.

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  • 24. 

    Steralisation vs disinfection

    Sterilization refers to the complete elimination or killing of all microorganisms, including both pathogens and spores. On the other hand, disinfection aims to reduce the number of pathogens present but may not eliminate spores. This means that sterilization ensures the complete removal of all microorganisms, while disinfection only reduces their numbers, leaving spores potentially still present.

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  • 25. 

    Dry heat - Oxidation - Flaming, Incineration Wet heat - Coagulation - Autoclave:  112oC, 30 min 121oC, 15 min But prions aren't inactivated, they need to be autoclaved for longer time Moist heat: Spores can survive 3h of boiling Spore forming bacteria: - boiling, steaming - tyndallization (fraction steralisation) (Briefly boiling the item, which will kill bacterial cells, but not bacterial spores, allowing it to cool and allowing the spores to germinate, and then re-heating to kill the bacteria. This is usually done three times in total. This process is not particularly reliable, so is not often used today.) Other techniques: - Gas - irridation - UV-light - filtration - NOT REALLY STERALIZATION - pore size 0.22 um, bacteria w/o shape & virus can go through filter, microplasm doesn't have any shape and can go through filter

    Autoclave is a technique used for sterilization that involves the use of steam, increased temperature, and pressure. This combination effectively kills bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, including spores. The autoclave process involves subjecting the items to be sterilized to high-pressure steam at temperatures of 112°C for 30 minutes or 121°C for 15 minutes. This method is highly effective in inactivating most microorganisms, but prions, which are infectious proteins, require a longer autoclaving time for complete inactivation.

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  • 26. 

    Microsope Light microscope - immersion oil, immersion objective

    The correct answer is "Light microscope - immersion oil, immersion objective" because immersion oil is used in light microscopy to improve the resolution and increase the numerical aperture of the objective lens. It allows more light to be collected and reduces the scattering of light, resulting in a clearer and more detailed image. Immersion objectives are specifically designed to work with immersion oil and provide higher magnification (1000-1500x) compared to dry objectives.

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  • 27. 

    Week 2. Lecture. Characterization of bacteria, their importance in life. Size, shape of bacteria, structure of the bacterial cell. Microscopy, native and stained preparations. Practical. Bacillus anthracis and aerobic spore-forming bacteria. Clostridium.

    The correct answer is "Gram + and spore, Bacillus - aerobic, Clostridium - anaerobic." This answer accurately summarizes the information provided in the given text. It states that Bacillus and Clostridium are both spore-forming bacteria, with Bacillus being aerobic and Clostridium being anaerobic. Additionally, it mentions that these bacteria are Gram positive.

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  • 28. 

    Genus Bacillus Genus Clostridium

    The correct answer is "Gram + Spore forming" because both the genus Bacillus and genus Clostridium are Gram-positive bacteria that have the ability to form spores. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which retains the crystal violet stain during the Gram staining process, causing them to appear purple. Spore formation is a survival mechanism used by some bacteria to protect themselves from harsh conditions. Both Bacillus and Clostridium can form spores, which are highly resistant structures that allow the bacteria to survive in unfavorable environments.

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  • 29. 

    • - 140 sp
    • - 10 um
    • - Gram + rod
    • - Spore
    • - Flagella
    • - NEED OXYGEN (Aeroba or facultative anaerob)
    • - Catalase +, Oxidase -
    • - Saprophytes
    • - B anthracis most important  

    The given information describes various characteristics and properties of the bacteria genus Bacillus. It mentions that Bacillus is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that forms spores. It also states that Bacillus bacteria have flagella and require oxygen to survive, making them either aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Additionally, it mentions that Bacillus bacteria are catalase positive and oxidase negative. The information also highlights that Bacillus bacteria are saprophytes, meaning they obtain nutrients from dead organic matter. Lastly, it mentions that B. anthracis, a species of Bacillus, is the most important one.

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  • 30. 

    Where can we find Bacillus -  Widely distributed in the soil  B. anthracis
    • Can't be carried by live animal! Not possible that a sheep or cattle carries it because bacteria kills the animal if on mucus.
    • In soil
    • Central spore
    • Capusle
    • No flagella (general Bacillus flagellated but not B. anthracis)
    • Staining with toluidine-blue: bacteria blue, capsule pink

    Bacillus is widely distributed in the soil. It can be found in the environment, particularly in soil, where it forms spores. B. anthracis, a specific species of Bacillus, is known for causing anthrax. It has a distinct morphology, with a central spore, capsule, and no flagella. When stained with toluidine-blue, the bacteria appear blue while the capsule appears pink. It is important to note that B. anthracis cannot be carried by live animals, as it is lethal to them.

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  • 31. 

    Staining method Toluidine blue Gram staining:

    The given answer states that Gram-positive bacteria will appear blue after Gram staining, while Gram-negative bacteria will appear pink. This is because Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which retains the crystal violet dye used in the staining process. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane, which allows the crystal violet dye to be washed away and the counterstain (safranin) to be absorbed, resulting in a pink color.

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  • 32. 

    How do we culture B. anthracis?  
    •  Simple (nutrient agar (no special needs), can use blood agar, air, 37oC)

    The correct answer is "Simple." This suggests that culturing B. anthracis is a straightforward process that does not require any special nutrient agar or conditions. It can be grown on regular nutrient agar or blood agar at a temperature of 37oC with access to air.

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  • 33. 

    B. anthracis
    • S-colonies have capsule - smooth
    • R-colonies have no capsule - rough  
    • 5-10% CO2 necessary -> S-colony
    • Capsule: poly-D-glutamic acid - PLASMID ENCODED
    poly-D-glutamic acid: - virolent factor - inhibit fagocytosis
    • Can't form spores when cold at least 15oC
    • Need O2 to form spores - Don't open carcass, bacteria cant form spored inside carcass (because no O2), but if you open then you add oxygen for spore formation and spore can survive for decades.
    • Speed of spore formation depend on temp:
    - 37oC finish at 16 h - 18oC spore formation starts after 50 h and needs 2-3 days  

    The correct answer is B. anthracis. This bacterium forms smooth colonies with a capsule when exposed to 5-10% CO2, while rough colonies with no capsule are formed without CO2. The capsule of B. anthracis is made up of poly-D-glutamic acid, which is encoded by a plasmid. This capsule serves as a virulence factor and inhibits phagocytosis. B. anthracis cannot form spores at temperatures below 15°C and requires oxygen for spore formation. Opening a carcass provides oxygen for spore formation, allowing the spores to survive for long periods of time. The speed of spore formation is temperature-dependent, with faster formation at 37°C compared to 18°C.

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  • 34. 

    MOST IMPORTANT: Biochemistry
    • Active metabolism
    • Catalase +
    • Oxidase -
    • Capsule: poly-D-glutamate - virulent factor, inhibits fagocytosis
    • Polysaccharid hapten: heat stable - important because we can detect with Ascoli precipitation test. But be careful B. cereus also has this hapten -> false positive
    • Polysaccharide haptens from cell walls of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus
             PLASMID ENCODED:
    • Anthrax toxins are composed of three distinct proteins, a protective antigen (PA), a lethal factor (LF) and an edema factor (EF). None of these is toxic by itself. PA+LF forms the lethal toxin (LeTx); PA+EF forms the edema toxin (EdTx).
    • edema factor
    • lethal factor
    • protective antigen

    The given answer is a combination of two important topics: biochemistry and antigens. In the context of the question, it suggests that understanding the biochemistry of the organism is important, particularly its active metabolism and the presence of catalase and oxidase enzymes. Additionally, the presence of certain antigens, such as the capsule made of poly-D-glutamate, is highlighted as a virulent factor that inhibits phagocytosis. The presence of polysaccharide haptens from the cell walls of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus is also mentioned, emphasizing the importance of detecting them accurately, as false positives can occur. The plasmid-encoded anthrax toxins, composed of three distinct proteins (protective antigen, lethal factor, and edema factor), are also mentioned as important factors to consider.

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  • 35. 

    Resistance of B. antracis Vegetative bacteria - can't form spore inside carcass (no O2) Can survive on skin for 2 weeks Can survive in bone marrow for 4 weeks Kill by 56oC, 15 Spore extremly high resistance - 50 years!!! Kill by boiling 5-10 min or 8-10% formalin, 12-24 h

    The given answer is correct because it accurately identifies the resistance of spores of B. anthracis. The explanation states that spores require oxygen to survive and can survive for up to 50 years. This aligns with the information provided in the question, which states that spores of B. anthracis have extremely high resistance and can survive for 50 years.

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  • 36. 

    Pathogenicity Cattle, sheep - no clinical signs, septicaemix anthrax Sus - subacute anthrax with edematous swelling Eq - subacute anthrax with localised oedema, septicaemia with colic, enteritis Humans - skin Carnivores and birds - resistant, because of high temp in blood bacteria lose their capsule

    The given answer explains that septicemia refers to the presence of pathogenic organisms in the bloodstream, which can lead to sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response and the presence of an infection. This explanation helps to clarify the connection between septicemia and its potential consequences, providing a clear understanding of the term and its significance in medical contexts.

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  • 37. 

    Pathological findings:
    • Enlarged spleen
    • Skin problems:
    - Edema because of toxin - Necrosis

    The correct answer is B. anthracis. This is because the pathological findings mentioned, such as an enlarged spleen and skin problems like edema and necrosis, are characteristic of anthrax infection caused by the bacterium B. anthracis. Anthrax is known to cause enlargement of the spleen and can lead to skin problems such as edema (swelling) and necrosis (tissue death).

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  • 38. 

    Other species
    • B. cereus
    - mastitis in cattle
    • B. licheniformis
    - sporadic abortion
    • Paenibacillus larvae
    - Honey bees larvae dies

    B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus larvae are all species of bacteria that can cause different health issues in various species. B. cereus is known to cause mastitis in cattle, B. licheniformis can lead to sporadic abortion in animals, and Paenibacillus larvae is responsible for the death of honey bee larvae. Therefore, the correct answer is that these bacteria can cause mastitis in cattle, sporadic abortion, and death of honey bee larvae.

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  • 39. 


    A saprophyte is an organism, such as a fungus or bacterium, that obtains its nourishment from dead organisms or decaying organic material. These organisms play an important role in the ecosystem by recycling organic material in the soil. They break down complex organic compounds into simpler compounds that can be absorbed and utilized by other organisms.

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  • 40. 

    Saprophyte Bacilli  
    • B. subtilis
    • B. meagaterium
    • B. cereus
    • B. licheniformis => produce antibiotic: bacitracin
    • B. thuringiensis => insect pathogen, can kill moth
    • Paenibacillus polymyxa => polymyxin
    • Geobacillus stearothermophilus => heat resistant test organism

    B. licheniformis is the correct answer because it produces the antibiotic bacitracin. Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic used in human medicine and is also approved by the FDA for use in chickens and turkeys. Polymyxins, on the other hand, are antibiotics with a cyclic peptide structure and a long hydrophobic tail.

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  • 41. 

    Differentiation Flagella => B. anthracis has no flagella Capsule in air => B. anthracis and B. cereus don't form capsules in air  Heamolysis => B. cereus strong hemolysis on blood agar Pathogenicity => B. anthracis is pathogenic, check in animal trail (mouse)  

    The correct answer is B. cereus can form hemolysis and B. anthracis can't. This is because B. cereus exhibits strong hemolysis on blood agar, while B. anthracis does not show any hemolysis. Hemolysis refers to the destruction of red blood cells, and the ability of B. cereus to cause hemolysis indicates its pathogenic potential. On the other hand, B. anthracis is known for its pathogenicity, but it does not exhibit hemolysis.

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  • 42. 

    Clostridium - 167 species - 7 - 10 um - Large gram + rod - Spore (terminal, subterminal, central)  - Anaerobic - Catalase and Oxidase - - Flagella - motile, except C. perfringens - No capsule, except C. perfringens - NO OXYGEN, but C. botulinum, C. histolyticum can tolerate O2 - Temp, optimal 40-45oC C. perfringens, 15-22oC C. putrefaciens - Need enriched media - In soil, alimentary tract, faeces - Groups according to mode and site of action of their toxins -- neurotoxic clostridia -- histotoxic clostridia -- enteropathogenic anc enterotoxaemia clostridia

    The correct answer is C. tetanus, botulinum. This is because the question asks for the bacteria that produce anatoxin types A, B, C, and D, and these toxins are produced by Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium botulinum. The other information provided about Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium chauvoei, and enterotoxemia is not relevant to the question.

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  • 43. 

    IMPORTANT: Biochemistry:
    • catalase and oxidase -
    • carbohydrates are fermented except C. tetani, C. histolyticum
    • proteolytic: C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. histolyticum
    • exotoxins (anatoxin from C. prefringens

  • 44. 

    Resistance Spores survive years and C. botulinum 3-4 h boiling, C. perfringens 5-10 min boiling, 8% formalin 2 h

    The given information states that spores of C. botulinum can survive for years, while C. perfringens can survive for 5-10 minutes of boiling. Additionally, both can survive for 2 hours in 8% formalin. This suggests that both bacteria have a high level of resistance to heat and formalin, allowing them to survive in these conditions for extended periods of time.

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  • 45. 


    Gas gangrenic diseases, enterotoxemic diseases, and intoxication are all examples of pathogenicity. Pathogenicity refers to the ability of a pathogen to cause disease in a host organism. Gas gangrenic diseases are caused by certain bacteria that produce gas and toxins, leading to tissue death and gangrene. Enterotoxemic diseases are caused by bacteria that produce toxins that affect the intestines and cause symptoms like diarrhea and vomiting. Intoxication refers to the process of being poisoned by toxins produced by pathogens, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific toxin and affected organ system.

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  • 46. 

    Gas gangrenic diseases - Malignant oedema -- C. haemolyticum -- C. histolyticum -- C. novyi -- C. septicum -- C. sordellii - Blackleg -- C. chauvoei - Human gas gangrene -- C. perfringens A -- C. novyi A  

  • 47. 

    Enterotoxemic diseases - Necrotic enteritis in chicken: C. perfringens A/C - lamb dysentery: C. perfringens B - necrotic enteritis in pigs, sheep: C. prefringens C - pulpy kidney disease of sheep: C. perfringens D - ulcerative enteritis of chicken: C. colinum

  • 48. 

    Intoxications - Tentanus: C. tetani - Botulism: C. botulinum

    Botulism is a paralytic illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium produces botulinum toxin, which can cause paralysis. Botulism is a rare but serious condition that can be caused by consuming contaminated food or by the bacteria entering a wound. The toxin affects the nervous system and can lead to muscle weakness, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and even respiratory failure. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if botulism is suspected.

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  • 49. 

    C. septicum C. novyi C. histolyticum C. chauvoei C. perfringens C. colinum - ulerative enteritis in birds C.  difficile - cause haemorrhage in foals, diarrhea in dogs * Important, common symptoms - Malignant oedema - Lamb dysentery - Necrotic enteritis in pigs - Pulpy kidney disease in sheep (also and overeating disease!)

    C. perfringens is the correct answer because it is known to produce a variety of toxins, including the main toxin responsible for causing the symptoms mentioned in the question. The symptoms listed, such as malignant edema, lamb dysentery, necrotic enteritis, and pulpy kidney disease, are all associated with infections caused by C. perfringens. Therefore, it can be concluded that C. perfringens is the correct answer as it produces the main toxin responsible for these symptoms.

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  • 50. 

    C. tetani
    • Strict anaerob
    • 10 serotypes
    • Toxin: inhibition of ACE -> no ACh uptake -> rigid paralysis
    • Disease: TETANI
    • Poultry aren't susceptible to C. tetani
    • Site of production: wound
    Terminal located spore

    C. tetani is the correct answer because it is a strict anaerobe that produces a toxin that inhibits ACE, leading to the inability of acetylcholine uptake and resulting in rigid paralysis. It causes the disease tetanus and is typically produced in a wound. Additionally, C. tetani forms terminal located spores.

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