8th-grade Atomic Structure And The Periodic Table

Reviewed by Zohra Sattar Waxali
Zohra Sattar Waxali, PhD (Chemistry) |
Chemistry
Review Board Member
Dr. Zohra Sattar Waxali earned her doctorate in chemistry and biochemistry from Northwestern University, specializing in the metallomes of cardiac cells and stem cells, and their impact on biological function. Her research encompasses the development of arsenoplatin chemotherapeutics, stapled peptide estrogen receptor inhibitors, and antimicrobial natural products. With her expertise, Dr. Waxali ensures the accuracy and relevance of our chemistry quizzes, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of chemical principles and advancements in the field.
, PhD (Chemistry)
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8th-grade Atomic Structure And The Periodic Table - Quiz

You’re never too young or too old to start learning about science, and today we’ll be doing so at an eighth-grade level. How much do you know about atomic structure and the periodic table of elements? Take the following quiz and find out for sure!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The central part of an atom is called the

    • A.

      Electron

    • B.

      Neutron

    • C.

      Proton

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The central part of an atom is called the nucleus. It is composed of protons and neutrons, which are tightly packed together. The nucleus carries most of the mass of the atom and is positively charged due to the presence of protons. Electrons, on the other hand, orbit around the nucleus in specific energy levels. Therefore, the correct answer is nucleus.

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  • 2. 

    The electric charge on a proton is

    • A.

      Positive

    • B.

      Neutral

    • C.

      Negative

    • D.

      Changing

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive
    Explanation
    The electric charge on a proton is positive. Protons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom and they carry a positive charge. This positive charge is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the negative charge carried by electrons. The charge on a proton is fundamental and does not change.

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  • 3. 

    The number of protons in the nucleus is the

    • A.

      Atomic mass

    • B.

      Isotope

    • C.

      Atomic number

    • D.

      Half-life

    Correct Answer
    C. Atomic number
    Explanation
    The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom. It is a unique identifier for each element and determines its position on the periodic table. The atomic number defines the chemical properties of an element and determines its place in the periodic table. Therefore, the correct answer is atomic number.

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  • 4. 

    Nitrogen has the atomic number 7. An isotope of nitrogen that contains seven neutrons would be:

    • A.

      Nitrogen-13

    • B.

      Nitrogen-14

    • C.

      Nitrogen-15

    • D.

      Nitrogen-16

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrogen-14
    Explanation
    Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different numbers of electrons. Since nitrogen has an atomic number of 7, it means it has 7 protons. The isotope in question contains seven neutrons, which means it has a total of 14 nucleons (7 protons + 7 neutrons). Therefore, the correct answer is nitrogen-14.

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  • 5. 

    How do the size of a negative ion compare to the size of the atom that formed it?

    • A.

      It's smaller

    • B.

      It's larger

    • C.

      It's the same size

    • D.

      It varies

    Correct Answer
    B. It's larger
    Explanation
    When an atom gains one or more electrons to become a negative ion, the extra electrons increase the electron-electron repulsion, causing the electron cloud to expand. As a result, the negative ion becomes larger in size compared to the original atom.

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  • 6. 

    The modern periodic table is organized by

    • A.

      Size of atom

    • B.

      Atomic mass

    • C.

      Number of neutrons

    • D.

      Atomic number

    Correct Answer
    D. Atomic number
    Explanation
    The modern periodic table is organized by atomic number because it represents the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. The atomic number determines the element's identity and its position in the periodic table. Elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic number, which allows for a systematic organization of elements with similar properties in the same columns or groups. This arrangement helps scientists to understand and predict the behavior and characteristics of different elements based on their atomic number and position in the periodic table.

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  • 7. 

    Elements in a group have

    • A.

      A wide range of chemical properties

    • B.

      The same atomic radius

    • C.

      Similar chemical properties

    • D.

      The same number of protons

    Correct Answer
    C. Similar chemical properties
    Explanation
    Elements in a group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons are responsible for the chemical behavior of an element, and elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. This similarity in electron configuration leads to similar chemical reactivity and bonding patterns, resulting in similar chemical properties among elements in a group.

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  • 8. 

    Elements in a period have

    • A.

      A wide range of chemical properties

    • B.

      The same atomic radius

    • C.

      Similar chemical properties

    • D.

      The same number of protons

    Correct Answer
    A. A wide range of chemical properties
    Explanation
    Elements in a period have a wide range of chemical properties because they have different numbers of valence electrons, which determine their reactivity and ability to form chemical bonds. Additionally, elements in a period have different electron configurations, resulting in variations in their atomic sizes, ionization energies, and electronegativities. These differences in chemical properties allow elements in a period to exhibit diverse behaviors and reactions with other elements.

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  • 9. 

    From left to right in a period, the size of the atom

    • A.

      Increases

    • B.

      Decreases

    • C.

      Remains the same

    • D.

      Shows no pattern

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreases
    Explanation
    As we move from left to right in a period, the size of the atom decreases. This is because the number of protons and electrons increases, leading to a stronger attraction between the positively charged protons in the nucleus and the negatively charged electrons. This increased attraction causes the electron cloud to be pulled closer to the nucleus, resulting in a smaller atomic size.

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  • 10. 

    The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table are commonly called the

    • A.

      Alkali metals

    • B.

      Transition metals

    • C.

      Alkaline earth metals

    • D.

      Rare earth metals

    Correct Answer
    A. Alkali metals
    Explanation
    The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table are commonly called alkali metals because they have similar chemical properties and react vigorously with water to form alkaline solutions. These metals include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. They are highly reactive and have low melting points and densities.

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  • 11. 

    The isotope nitrogen-13 has a half-life of 10 minutes. If you start with 40 grams of this isotope, how many grams will you have left after twenty minutes?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      15

    • C.

      20

    • D.

      30

    Correct Answer
    A. 10
    Explanation
    The half-life of an isotope refers to the amount of time it takes for half of a sample of that isotope to decay. In this case, the half-life of nitrogen-13 is 10 minutes. This means that after 10 minutes, half of the initial 40 grams (20 grams) will have decayed. After another 10 minutes (20 minutes in total), another half of the remaining 20 grams will decay, leaving 10 grams.

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  • 12. 

    What does the number above the symbol for each element represent?

    • A.

      The number of isotopes

    • B.

      Its atomic number

    • C.

      Its number of neutrons

    • D.

      Its atomic mass

    Correct Answer
    B. Its atomic number
    Explanation
    The number above the symbol for each element represents its atomic number. The atomic number is a unique identifier for each element and represents the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It determines the element's position in the periodic table and provides information about its chemical properties. The atomic number remains constant for each element and is crucial in understanding the structure and behavior of atoms.

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  • 13. 

    The atom of what element is in Period 4, Group 13?

    • A.

      Na

    • B.

      Ga

    • C.

      Al

    • D.

      K

    Correct Answer
    B. Ga
    Explanation
    Ga (Gallium) is the correct answer because it is the only element in Period 4, Group 13. Na (Sodium) is in Group 1, Al (Aluminum) is in Group 13 but in Period 3, and K (Potassium) is in Group 1. Therefore, Ga is the only element that meets the criteria given in the question.

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  • 14. 

    What do the elements on the far right of the table (He, Ne, Ar, and Kr) have in common?

    • A.

      They are liquid in normal conditions

    • B.

      They are metals that rust easily

    • C.

      They are very reactive gases

    • D.

      They do not generally react with other elements

    Correct Answer
    D. They do not generally react with other elements
    Explanation
    The elements on the far right of the periodic table (He, Ne, Ar, and Kr) have full valence electron shells, which makes them stable and less likely to react with other elements. This is because they have achieved a stable electron configuration, either by having a complete outermost energy level (He) or by having a complete octet (Ne, Ar, and Kr). Due to their stable electron configurations, these elements do not generally participate in chemical reactions with other elements.

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  • 15. 

    How many electrons does a neutral chlorine (Cl) atom contain

    • A.

      16

    • B.

      17

    • C.

      18

    • D.

      19

    Correct Answer
    B. 17
    Explanation
    A neutral chlorine (Cl) atom contains 17 electrons. This is because the atomic number of chlorine is 17, which represents the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons, so a chlorine atom has 17 electrons.

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Zohra Sattar Waxali |PhD (Chemistry) |
Chemistry
Dr. Zohra Sattar Waxali earned her doctorate in chemistry and biochemistry from Northwestern University, specializing in the metallomes of cardiac cells and stem cells, and their impact on biological function. Her research encompasses the development of arsenoplatin chemotherapeutics, stapled peptide estrogen receptor inhibitors, and antimicrobial natural products. With her expertise, Dr. Waxali ensures the accuracy and relevance of our chemistry quizzes, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of chemical principles and advancements in the field.

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  • Current Version
  • Feb 20, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Zohra Sattar Waxali
  • Feb 17, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mrmorrow
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