# AP Pyschology Accumulative Quiz On ChAPters 1-8

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This quiz will assess your knowledge on psychology material based on AP Psychology chapters 1-8.

Questions and Answers
• 1.

### A researcher was interested in determining whether her students' test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students' scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example of:

• A.

Experimentation

• B.

Survey Research

• C.

Naturalistic Observation

• D.

Correlational Research

• E.

Case Study

Correct Answer
D. Correlational Research
Explanation
Is lokking for the relationship between proximity(sitting up front) to test performance.

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• 2.

### When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:

• A.

The difference is statistically real but of little practical significance.

• B.

The difference is likely due to chance

• C.

The difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.

• D.

The difference is probably the result of sampling variation.

• E.

All of the above are true

Correct Answer
C. The difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.
Explanation
When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," it means that the observed difference is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. In other words, the result is not likely to be a result of random variation or sampling error. This suggests that there is a true difference between the groups being compared, which is not only statistically real but also likely to have practical significance. Therefore, the correct answer is "the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation."

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• 3.

### In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the:

• A.

Random sample

• B.

Test group

• C.

Control group

• D.

Experimental group

• E.

Placebo

Correct Answer
C. Control group
Explanation
Because the gruop in itself s not the placebo.

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• 4.

### Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions we use to express anger and fear are inherited?

• A.

Cognitive

• B.

Behavioral

• C.

Structural

• D.

Social-cultural

• E.

Evolutionary

Correct Answer
E. Evolutionary
Explanation
The evolutionary perspective suggests that the facial expressions we use to express anger and fear are inherited. This perspective emphasizes the role of natural selection in shaping human behavior and traits. According to this perspective, these facial expressions have evolved over time because they have provided adaptive advantages in terms of survival and reproduction. This means that these expressions are not solely learned or culturally influenced, but rather have a biological basis that has been shaped by evolution.

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• 5.

### Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, "Psychology is the science of mental life"?

• A.

Wilhelm Wundt

• B.

B.F. Skinner

• C.

John Watson

• D.

Ivan Pavlov

• E.

Abraham Maslow

Correct Answer
A. Wilhelm Wundt
Explanation
Strong belief in introspection, observation of one's own consciousness.

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• 6.

### The _______________ is the part of the brain that is most responsible for one's heartbeat and breathing.

• A.

Pons

• B.

Medulla

• C.

Cerebellum

• D.

Thalamus

• E.

Cerebrum

Correct Answer
B. Medulla
Explanation
The medulla is the part of the brain that is responsible for regulating vital functions such as heartbeat and breathing. It is located at the base of the brainstem and connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain. The medulla contains important centers that control autonomic functions, including the cardiac center, which regulates heart rate, and the respiratory center, which controls breathing. Damage to the medulla can result in life-threatening disruptions to these essential functions.

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• 7.

### In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered paralysis of his legs. Andrew's injury was located in his:

• A.

Somatic nervous system

• B.

Central nervous system

• C.

Sympathetic nervous system

• D.

Limbic system

• E.

Peripheral nervous system

Correct Answer
B. Central nervous system
Explanation
Andrew's injury was located in his central nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for processing and transmitting information throughout the body. In this case, Andrew's spinal cord was damaged, resulting in paralysis of his legs.

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• 8.

### Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?

• A.

Medulla

• B.

Amygdala

• C.

Cerebellum

• D.

Thalamus

• E.

Hippocampus

Correct Answer
D. Thalamus
Explanation
The thalamus is a brain structure that relays sensory information, including visual information, from the eyes to the visual cortex. It acts as a gateway, receiving signals from the eyes and sending them to the appropriate areas in the visual cortex for further processing. This allows us to perceive and interpret visual stimuli. The other options, such as the medulla, amygdala, cerebellum, and hippocampus, are not directly involved in relaying visual information from the eyes to the visual cortex.

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• 9.

### Epinephrine and norepinephrine are ________ that are released by the ________ gland.

• A.

Neurotransmitters; pituitary

• B.

Hormones; pituitary

• C.

Neurotransmitters; adrenal

• D.

Hormones; adrenal

• E.

Hormones; thyroid

Correct Answer
D. Hormones; adrenal
Explanation
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are hormones that are released by the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland is responsible for producing and releasing various hormones, including epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones play a crucial role in the body's response to stress, regulating blood pressure, and increasing heart rate.

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• 10.

### A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers:

• A.

Higer voltage of neural impulses

• B.

More intense neural impulses

• C.

More frequent neural impulses

• D.

Lower voltage of neural impulses

• E.

Because a slap triggers an immediate neural impulse

Correct Answer
C. More frequent neural impulses
Explanation
A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because it triggers more frequent neural impulses. When someone receives a slap on the back, the force applied to the skin and underlying tissues is greater compared to a pat. This increased force stimulates a larger number of nerve endings, causing a higher frequency of neural impulses to be sent to the brain. These frequent impulses are interpreted by the brain as a more intense and painful sensation, explaining why a slap on the back is more painful than a pat.

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• 11.

### The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called:

• A.

Interposition

• B.

Convergence

• C.

Constancy

• D.

Closure

• E.

Continuity

Correct Answer
D. Closure
Explanation
Closure refers to the perceptual tendency to fill in gaps or missing information in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object. This means that when presented with incomplete or fragmented stimuli, our brain automatically fills in the missing parts to create a complete and meaningful perception. This phenomenon allows us to recognize objects even when they are partially obscured or when only a few of their parts are visible.

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• 12.

### The cornea:

• A.

Focuses the light rays on the retina

• B.

Is where light enters the eyes

• C.

Regulates the amount of light that enters the eye

• D.

Constricts or dialtes to adjust to light intake

• E.

Processes images

Correct Answer
B. Is where light enters the eyes
Explanation
The cornea is the transparent outer layer of the eye that acts as a protective covering. It is responsible for allowing light to enter the eye by bending or refracting the incoming light rays. This refraction helps to focus the light onto the retina, which is located at the back of the eye. Therefore, the cornea is where light enters the eyes.

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• 13.

### Which of these determines the color of vision as seen in the human eye?

• A.

Longitude

• B.

Amplitude

• C.

Intensity

• D.

Purity

• E.

Wavelength

Correct Answer
E. Wavelength
Explanation
The color of vision as seen in the human eye is determined by the wavelength of light. Different wavelengths of light correspond to different colors that we perceive. For example, shorter wavelengths are associated with colors like blue and violet, while longer wavelengths are associated with colors like red and orange. Therefore, the correct answer is wavelength.

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• 14.

### Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?

• A.

Amphetamines

• B.

Barbiturates

• C.

Hallucinogens

• D.

Opiates

• E.

Cannabis

Correct Answer
B. Barbiturates
Explanation
Barbiturates are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers. Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, producing a calming or sedative effect. They are commonly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. Amphetamines, hallucinogens, opiates, and cannabis are not typically prescribed as tranquilizers, as they have different effects on the body and are used for different purposes.

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• 15.

### During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from:

• A.

Sleep Apnea

• B.

Insomnia

• C.

Narcolepsy

• D.

REM rebound

• E.

Sleep deprivation

Correct Answer
C. Narcolepsy
Explanation
Mr. Reid's sudden transition into a state of REM sleep during a heated argument with his daughter suggests that he suffers from narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep. These episodes can occur at inappropriate times and in unusual situations, such as during emotional or stressful events. In this case, the argument may have triggered Mr. Reid's narcoleptic episode, causing him to abruptly enter REM sleep.

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• 16.

### A Skinner box is a(n):

• A.

Soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise

• B.

Aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors

• C.

Special "slot machine" that is used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on gambling behavior

• D.

Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer

• E.

Television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning

Correct Answer
D. Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer
Explanation
A Skinner box is a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer. In a Skinner box, animals are trained to associate a specific behavior, such as pressing a lever or pecking a key, with receiving a reward or reinforcement. This type of conditioning is known as operant conditioning, and the Skinner box is a tool used to study and analyze the effects of reinforcement on behavior.

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• 17.

### You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n) ________.

• A.

CS; CR

• B.

UCS; CR

• C.

CS; UCR

• D.

UCS; UCR

• E.

UCS;UCS

Correct Answer
A. CS; CR
Explanation
In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) is a neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) through repeated pairings. In this scenario, the rattling of the box of dog biscuits is the CS because it is a neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the presentation of the treat (UCS). As a result of this association, the dog's salivation (CR) is a learned response to the conditioned stimulus (CS). Therefore, the correct answer is CS; CR.

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• 18.

### Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their energy costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own energy costs use less energy. This most clearly illustrates that consumer energy usage is influenced by:

• A.

Latent learning

• B.

Spontaneous recovery

• C.

Observational learning

• D.

Classical conditioning

• E.

operant conditioning

Correct Answer
E. operant conditioning
Explanation
This answer is correct because operant conditioning refers to the process of learning through consequences or rewards. In this scenario, apartment dwellers who pay their own energy costs are likely to be more mindful of their energy usage in order to save money. They have a direct consequence (higher energy bills) for using more energy, which influences their behavior. This demonstrates how consumer energy usage is influenced by operant conditioning.

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• 19.

### In a well-known experiment, nursery school children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll, after seeing this event beforehand. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of:

• A.

Operant conditioning

• B.

Observational learning

• C.

Negative reinforcement

• D.

Respondent behavior

• E.

Spontaneous recovery

Correct Answer
B. Observational learning
Explanation
This experiment demonstrates the concept of observational learning. The nursery school children observed the behavior of pounding and kicking the Bobo doll and then imitated it themselves. This shows that they learned through observation and imitation, rather than through direct reinforcement or punishment. The experiment highlights the role of modeling and observational learning in shaping behavior.

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• 20.

### Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:

• A.

Encoding failure

• B.

Motivated forgetting

• C.

Long-term potentiation

• D.

Retroactive interference

• E.

The misinformation effect

Correct Answer
A. Encoding failure
Explanation
Encoding failure refers to the process by which information is not properly stored in memory. When we are about to fall asleep, our attention and focus decrease, making it more difficult for our brain to encode and store new information. This can result in the inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before falling asleep.

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• 21.

### When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being utilized?

• A.

Reconstruction

• B.

Relearning

• C.

Recognition

• D.

Rehearsal

• E.

Recall

Correct Answer
E. Recall
Explanation
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, the test of memory being utilized is recall. Recall refers to the process of retrieving information from memory without any cues or prompts. In this situation, the eyewitness is being asked to remember and describe the details of the accident based on their memory alone, without any additional cues or prompts to assist them.

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• 22.

### The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term storage involves what is known as:

• A.

Implicit memory

• B.

Semantic encoding

• C.

Automatic processing

• D.

Working memory

• E.

Long-term potentiation

Correct Answer
D. Working memory
Explanation
Working memory refers to the cognitive system responsible for temporarily holding and manipulating information in the mind. It involves the integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term storage. This process allows individuals to actively process and use information in real-time, such as when solving problems or making decisions. Working memory is distinct from long-term memory, which involves the storage of information over an extended period. Implicit memory, semantic encoding, automatic processing, and long-term potentiation are not directly related to the integration of new incoming information with long-term knowledge, making them incorrect options.

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• 23.

### Throughout his elementary and high school years, Charlie got away with copying his test answers from classmates. Because the college's test proctors are very observant, Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie's strategy for passing tests illustrates the consequences of:

• A.

mental set

• B.

The availability heuristic

• C.

The framing effect

• D.

Functional fixedness

• E.

Confirmation bias

Correct Answer
A. mental set
Explanation
Charlie's strategy for passing tests illustrates the consequences of mental set. Mental set refers to a tendency to approach problems or situations in a fixed way, based on previous experiences or habits. In this case, Charlie has developed a mental set of relying on cheating to pass tests, which he has successfully done throughout his school years. However, this mental set is not effective in college where test proctors are more observant. Instead of adapting and studying honestly, Charlie continues to devise new ways to cheat, demonstrating the consequences of his fixed mindset.

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• 24.

### The tendency to incorrectly estimate that more people die from accidents and homicides than from strokes and diabetes best illustrates the influence of:

• A.

Confirmation bias

• B.

Fixations

• C.

The availability heuristic

• D.

The framing effect

• E.

Representativeness heuristic

Correct Answer
C. The availability heuristic
Explanation
The availability heuristic refers to the tendency of relying on easily accessible information when making judgments or decisions. In this case, people are more likely to overestimate the number of deaths from accidents and homicides because these events are often more vivid and memorable in the media and personal experiences. On the other hand, deaths from strokes and diabetes may be less salient and less frequently reported, leading to an underestimation of their prevalence. This bias demonstrates how the availability of information can influence our perceptions and judgments.

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• 25.

### People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their ________ of a nurse.

• A.

Heuristic

• B.

Prototype

• C.

Algorithm

• D.

Mental set

• E.

Functional fixedness

Correct Answer
B. Prototype
Explanation
People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their prototype of a nurse. A prototype is a mental representation or image that we have of a typical example or idealized version of a category. In this case, the prototype of a nurse is more commonly associated with women, so when we see a woman, it aligns more closely with our preconceived notion of what a nurse looks like, leading to quicker recognition.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Jan 25, 2010
Quiz Created by
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