B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner
A valid method of research
The cornerstone of behaviorism
The study of the mind in use
The Gestalt psychologists.
Develop effective methods of psychotherapy.
Describe, predict, understand, and control behavior.
Explain the functioning of the human mind.
Compare, analyze, and control human behavior
The first year of life.
Forces in the personality that are often unconscious.
Needs for love and self-esteem.
the drive for self-actualization
Rejecting determinism in favor of free will.
Cognitive rather than behavioral.
Drawing from many psychological approaches.
Preferring pseudo-psychological approaches
The study of human origins, evolution, and cultures.
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes of any living creature.
A natural science integrating physiology and neurology
The deductive study of forms and functions of human groups
B. F. Skinner
used introspection to analyze conscious experience.
Relied heavily on the concept of natural selection.
Was concerned with experiences as "wholes."
Used dream analysis to reveal the unconscious.
Carefully design controlled situations in which to observe behavior.
Rely on observations of subjects' responses to questionnaires
Observe behavior as it happens outside the laboratory or clinic.
Make records of the behavior of clients treated in therapy.
a high dosage of alcohol.
One-half the dosage given the experimental group.
A driving test before and after drinking alcohol
no alcohol at all
The correlational method
A controlled experiment.
The survey method
The independent variable
A control variable
An extraneous variable
The dependent variable
They are assigned to experimental and control groups from a sample which is representative of the larger population.
They each have an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental or control group.
They are assigned to experimental and control groups so that the groups differ on some critical variable before the experiment begins.
Neither the experimenter nor the subject knows whether the subject is in the experimental or control group
The size of the group.
The material studied.
a negative correlation.
A zero correlation
A positive correlation
A perfect correlation
All subjects get the experimental procedure.
Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is known only to the experimenter
Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is not known to subjects or experimenters.
All subjects get the control procedure.
Counteract the random assignment of subjects.
Counteract the side effects of the drug.
Control for the effects of suggestion and expectation
Keep control subjects from knowing they have been given the drug
Case study method.
Naturalistic observation method.
An experimental variable.
The placebo effect.
An extraneous factor.