A&p Chapter 9 - Joints

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In today’s AP exam prep for Anatomy, we’ll be taking a closer look at one of the most important aspects of the bones; the joints! How much do you know about the points of contact between bones, the menisci, synovial fluid and more? Find out in this quiz on A&P Chapter 9 – Joints!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth is called a(n)                   .

    Explanation
    A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth is referred to as a joint, articulation, or arthrosis. These terms are used interchangeably to describe the location where two or more skeletal elements meet and allow for movement. Joints are crucial for mobility and provide stability to the skeletal system. They can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as synovial joints, cartilaginous joints, or fibrous joints.

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  • 2. 

    The surgical procedure in which a severely damaged join is replaced with an artificial joint is known as                      .

    Explanation
    Arthroplasty is the correct answer because it refers to the surgical procedure of replacing a severely damaged joint with an artificial joint. This procedure is commonly performed to relieve pain and improve mobility in individuals with conditions such as arthritis or joint injuries.

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  • 3. 

    Menisci are fluid-filled sacs located outside of the joint cavity to ease friction between bones and softer tissue.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Menisci are not fluid-filled sacs located outside of the joint cavity. Instead, they are crescent-shaped pieces of cartilage that are located inside the joint cavity. Their main function is to provide stability, cushioning, and support to the joint, rather than easing friction between bones and softer tissue. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 4. 

    Shrugging your shoulders involves flexion and extension.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Shrugging your shoulders involves elevation and depression, not flexion and extension. Flexion and extension refer to movements that occur in the sagittal plane, such as bending and straightening of a joint. Elevation and depression, on the other hand, refer to movements that occur in the frontal plane, such as raising and lowering the shoulders. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 5. 

    Synovial fluid becomes more viscous as a movement at the joint increases.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Synovial fluid does not become more viscous as movement at the joint increases. In fact, the opposite is true. Synovial fluid becomes less viscous when movement occurs at the joint. This decrease in viscosity allows for smoother and easier movement of the joint, reducing friction and providing lubrication.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are structural classifications of joints? 1. amphiarthrosis 2. cartilaginous 3. synovial 4. synarthrosis 5. fibrous.

    • A.

      1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

    • B.

      2 and 5

    • C.

      1 and 4

    • D.

      1, 2, 4, and 5

    • E.

      2, 3, and 5

    Correct Answer
    E. 2, 3, and 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 2, 3, and 5. Structural classifications of joints include cartilaginous, synovial, and fibrous joints. Amphiarthrosis and synarthrosis are functional classifications of joints, not structural classifications.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following joints could be classified functionally as synarthroses?  1. syndesmosis 2. symphysis 3. synovial 4. gomphosis 5. suture

    • A.

      1 and 2

    • B.

      3 and 5

    • C.

      1, 2, and 3

    • D.

      4 and 5

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    D. 4 and 5
  • 8. 

    The most common degenerative joint disease in the elderly, often caused by wear and tear, is

    • A.

      Rheumatoid arthritis

    • B.

      Osteoarthritis

    • C.

      Rheumatism

    • D.

      Gouty arthritis

    • E.

      Ankylosing spondylitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Osteoarthritis
    Explanation
    Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease in the elderly, usually caused by wear and tear. It is characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune disease, osteoarthritis is not caused by an immune system malfunction. Rheumatism is a general term that refers to any disorder of the joints, muscles, or connective tissues, but it is not specific to degenerative joint diseases. Gouty arthritis is caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, and ankylosing spondylitis primarily affects the spine and sacroiliac joints.

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  • 9. 

    Chewing your food involves 1. flexion 2. extension 3. hyperextensions 4. elevations 5. depression

    • A.

      1 and 2

    • B.

      1 and 3

    • C.

      4 and 5

    • D.

      3 and 5

    • E.

      1 and 4

    Correct Answer
    C. 4 and 5
    Explanation
    Chewing your food involves elevations and depression. When you chew, your mandible (jawbone) moves up and down in a motion called elevation. This allows you to close your mouth and crush the food between your teeth. Additionally, your mandible also moves forward and backward in a motion called depression. This allows you to open your mouth and take bites of food. Therefore, options 4 and 5 (elevations and depression) are the correct choices for this question.

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  • 10. 

    Synovial fluid functions to 1. absorb shocks at joints 2. lubricate joints 3. form a blood clot in a joint injury 4. supply oxygen and nutrients to chondrocytes 5. provide phagocytes to remove debris from joints.

    • A.

      1, 2, 4, and 5

    • B.

      1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

    • C.

      1, 2, and 4

    • D.

      3 and 4

    • E.

      2, 4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1, 2, 4, and 5
    Explanation
    Synovial fluid functions to absorb shocks at joints, lubricate joints, supply oxygen and nutrients to chondrocytes, and provide phagocytes to remove debris from joints.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following statements are true concerning a synovial joint?  1. The bones at a synovial joint are covered by a mucous membrane 2. The articular capsule surrounds a synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones. 3. The fibrous membrane of the articular capsule permits considerable movement at a joint.  4. The tensile strength of the fibrous membrane helps prevent bones from disarticulating.  5. All synovial joints contain a fibrous membrane.

    • A.

      1, 2, 3, and 4

    • B.

      2, 3, 4, and 5

    • C.

      2, 3, and 4

    • D.

      1, 2, and 3

    • E.

      2, 4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    C. 2, 3, and 4
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 2, 3, and 4. This is because statement 2 is true, as the articular capsule does surround a synovial joint and encloses the synovial cavity, uniting the articulating bones. Statement 3 is also true, as the fibrous membrane of the articular capsule allows for considerable movement at a joint. Statement 4 is true as well, as the tensile strength of the fibrous membrane helps prevent bones from disarticulating. Statement 1 is false, as the bones at a synovial joint are not covered by a mucous membrane. Statement 5 is also false, as not all synovial joints contain a fibrous membrane.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following keep the articular surfaces of synovial joints in contact and affect range of motion?  1. structure or shape of the articulating bones 2. strength and tension of the joint ligaments 3. arrangement and tension of muscles 4. lack of use 5. contact of soft parts.

    • A.

      1,2,3, and 5

    • B.

      2,3,4, and 5

    • C.

      1,3,4, and 5

    • D.

      1,3, and 5

    • E.

      1,2,3,4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    E. 1,2,3,4, and 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1,2,3,4, and 5. The articular surfaces of synovial joints are kept in contact and their range of motion is affected by multiple factors. The structure or shape of the articulating bones plays a role in maintaining contact between the surfaces. The strength and tension of the joint ligaments also contribute to this. The arrangement and tension of muscles surrounding the joint affect its movement. Lack of use can lead to stiffness and decreased range of motion. Finally, the contact of soft parts such as cartilage and synovial fluid also helps in keeping the surfaces in contact.

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