AP Bio Ch 28 Outline Quiz, Classification

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AP Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Every animal on the planet, down to the most microscopic creature you can imagine, can be classified according to Linnaeus's system. In chapter 28 we covered what it involves and how to ensure you name them correctly. Test how well you understood it by taking the quiz below. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The scientific name of the giant swallowtail is Heraclides cresphontes. Therefore,

    • A.

      It belongs to the genus Heraclides.

    • B.

      It belongs to the species cresphontes.

    • C.

      The specific epithet is cresphontes.

    • D.

      All of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are correct.
    Explanation
    All of the above are correct. The scientific name of an organism consists of two parts: the genus and the species. In this case, the genus is Heraclides and the species is cresphontes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the giant swallowtail belongs to the genus Heraclides, it belongs to the species cresphontes, and the specific epithet is cresphontes.

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  • 2. 

    If a phylogeny is based on the natural evolution of organisms, it could

    • A.

      Explain the variations among fossils from rock strata.

    • B.

      Explain why there are similarities and differences among modern living groups.

    • C.

      Reflect patterns of shared and unique sections of DNA among groups of animals.

    • D.

      Help predict where unresearched features will be in common, such as how widely a medicine will be effective among animals.

    • E.

      All of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are correct.
    Explanation
    A phylogeny based on the natural evolution of organisms can explain the variations among fossils from rock strata because it shows the evolutionary relationships between different species over time, allowing us to understand how and why certain species may have changed or gone extinct. It can also explain why there are similarities and differences among modern living groups because it shows their common ancestry and the branching points where they diverged. Additionally, a phylogeny can reflect patterns of shared and unique sections of DNA among groups of animals, as DNA sequences can be used to construct phylogenetic trees. Lastly, it can help predict where unresearched features will be in common, such as the effectiveness of a medicine among animals, by identifying shared characteristics among related species.

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  • 3. 

    Which category is at the top of the classification hierarchy, that is, it includes the rest of the categories given?

    • A.

      Order

    • B.

      Genus

    • C.

      Class

    • D.

      Family

    • E.

      Phylum

    Correct Answer
    E. Phylum
    Explanation
    The phylum is at the top of the classification hierarchy because it includes all the other categories mentioned in the question (order, genus, class, family). In biological classification, the hierarchy starts with the broadest category, which is the kingdom, and then narrows down to phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Therefore, phylum is the correct answer as it encompasses all the other categories listed.

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  • 4. 

    A/an _______ is one that is present in the common ancestor and all members of a group.

    • A.

      Primitive character

    • B.

      Clade

    • C.

      Character trait

    • D.

      Derived character

    • E.

      Analogous structure

    Correct Answer
    A. Primitive character
    Explanation
    A primitive character is one that is present in the common ancestor and all members of a group. This means that the characteristic existed in the ancestor and has been inherited by all the descendants. It is a basic and fundamental trait that has not changed over time in the group.

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  • 5. 

    Parallel evolution involves

    • A.

      Any two organisms with the same trait.

    • B.

      Two organisms sharing the same trait because they have a common ancestor with that trait.

    • C.

      Two lineages acquiring the same trait independently without the trait being present in a common ancestor.

    • D.

      Possession of homologous structures.

    • E.

      All of the above are part of parallel evolution.

    Correct Answer
    C. Two lineages acquiring the same trait independently without the trait being present in a common ancestor.
    Explanation
    Parallel evolution refers to the phenomenon where two different lineages develop the same trait independently, without the trait being present in a common ancestor. This means that the trait evolves separately in each lineage due to similar selective pressures or environmental factors. It is different from convergent evolution, where two unrelated organisms develop similar traits due to similar environmental conditions. The other options mentioned in the question, such as any two organisms with the same trait or two organisms sharing the same trait because of a common ancestor, do not accurately describe parallel evolution.

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  • 6. 

    The use of a molecular clock

    • A.

      Depends on nucleic acid changes being neutral and not tied to adaptation.

    • B.

      Nucleic acid changes occurring at a fairly constant rate.

    • C.

      Still needs to be calibrated with the fossil record.

    • D.

      All of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are correct.
    Explanation
    The use of a molecular clock depends on nucleic acid changes being neutral and not tied to adaptation. This means that the changes in nucleic acids should occur randomly and not be influenced by natural selection. Additionally, nucleic acid changes should occur at a fairly constant rate, allowing scientists to estimate the time of divergence between species. However, in order to accurately use the molecular clock, it still needs to be calibrated with the fossil record, which provides a timeline of evolutionary events. Therefore, all of the statements given are correct in relation to the use of a molecular clock.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following best represents analogous structures?

    • A.

      The arm of a human and the wing of a bat

    • B.

      The arm of a human and the leg of a human

    • C.

      The wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bee

    • D.

      The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly

    Correct Answer
    D. The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
    Explanation
    Analogous structures are structures that have similar functions but are not derived from a common ancestor. The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly are both used for flying, but they have evolved independently and are not closely related. Therefore, they best represent analogous structures. The other options either represent homologous structures (derived from a common ancestor) or structures with different functions.

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  • 8. 

    Which kingdom is characterized by organisms that are saprotrophic?

    • A.

      Animal

    • B.

      Plant

    • C.

      Fungi

    • D.

      Protists

    • E.

      Prokaryotes

    Correct Answer
    C. Fungi
    Explanation
    Fungi is the correct answer because organisms in the kingdom Fungi are characterized by being saprotrophic. Saprotrophic organisms obtain their nutrients by decomposing dead organic matter. Fungi play a crucial role in the ecosystem by breaking down dead organisms and recycling nutrients back into the environment. They secrete enzymes that break down complex organic molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the fungi. This process is essential for nutrient cycling and the overall health of ecosystems.

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  • 9. 

    The evolution of organisms in the five kingdoms is most accurately described by which sequence?

    • A.

      Monera to Protists to Plants, from Plants separately to both Animals and Fungi

    • B.

      Monera to Fungi to Protists to Plants to Animals

    • C.

      Monera to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants and Animals

    • D.

      Protists to Monera to Fungi, from Fungi separately to Plants and Animals

    • E.

      Monera to Protists, separately to Animals and Plants with Fungi a loss of plant photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Monera to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants and Animals
    Explanation
    The correct answer describes the evolution of organisms in the five kingdoms in the most accurate sequence. It states that the evolution starts with Monera, then progresses to Protists. From Protists, it branches out separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals. This sequence aligns with the current understanding of the evolutionary relationships between these kingdoms and their common ancestors.

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  • 10. 

    The fossil record is usually derived from sedimentary rocks laid down millions of years ago.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the fossil record is indeed usually derived from sedimentary rocks that were formed millions of years ago. Sedimentary rocks are formed from layers of sediment that accumulate over time, and fossils are often found within these layers. The process of fossilization takes a long time, and the fossils that are preserved in sedimentary rocks provide valuable evidence of past life forms and the history of the Earth. Therefore, it is true that the fossil record is usually derived from sedimentary rocks laid down millions of years ago.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 10, 2009
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    Rnreda
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